source: patches/iputils-s20101006-doc-1.patch @ 3eeef443

clfs-1.2clfs-2.1clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since 3eeef443 was ecc1136, checked in by Joe Ciccone <jciccone@…>, 12 years ago

Updated IPutils to s20101006.

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  • iputils-s20101006

    Submitted By: Joe Ciccone <jciccone@gmail.com>
    Date: 2011-01-08
    Initial Package Version: s20100418
    Upstream Status: Unknown
    Origin: Unknown
    Description: Contains Pregenerated Documentation
    
    
    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/arping.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/arping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "ARPING" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8arping \- send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-AbDfhqUV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] \fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Ping \fIdestination\fR on device \fIinterface\fR by ARP packets,
     16using source address \fIsource\fR.
     17.SH "OPTIONS"
     18.TP
     19\fB-A\fR
     20The same as \fB-U\fR, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     21of ARP REQUEST.
     22.TP
     23\fB-b\fR
     24Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally \fBarping\fR starts
     25from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     26.TP
     27\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     28Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ARP REQUEST
     29packets. With
     30\fIdeadline\fR
     31option, \fBarping\fR waits for
     32\fIcount\fR ARP REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     33.TP
     34\fB-D\fR
     35Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     36RFC2131, 4.4.1.
     37Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     38.TP
     39\fB-f\fR
     40Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     41.TP
     42\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
     43Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets. This option
     44is required.
     45.TP
     46\fB-h\fR
     47Print help page and exit.
     48.TP
     49\fB-q\fR
     50Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     51.TP
     52\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR
     53IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     54If this option is absent, source address is:
     55.RS
     56.TP 0.2i
     57\(bu
     58In DAD mode (with option \fB-D\fR) set to 0.0.0.0.
     59.TP 0.2i
     60\(bu
     61In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options \fB-U\fR or \fB-A\fR)
     62set to \fIdestination\fR.
     63.TP 0.2i
     64\(bu
     65Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     66.RE
     67.TP
     68\fB-U\fR
     69Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     70No replies are expected.
     71.TP
     72\fB-V\fR
     73Print version of the program and exit.
     74.TP
     75\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     76Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     77\fBarping\fR
     78exits regardless of how many
     79packets have been sent or received. In this case
     80\fBarping\fR
     81does not stop after
     82\fIcount\fR
     83packet are sent, it waits either for
     84\fIdeadline\fR
     85expire or until
     86\fIcount\fR
     87probes are answered.
     88.SH "SEE ALSO"
     89.PP
     90\fBping\fR(8),
     91\fBclockdiff\fR(8),
     92\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     93.SH "AUTHOR"
     94.PP
     95\fBarping\fR was written by
     96Alexey Kuznetsov
     97<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     98It is now maintained by
     99YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     100<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     101.SH "SECURITY"
     102.PP
     103\fBarping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO capability
     104to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     105because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.
     106.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     107.PP
     108\fBarping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     109and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     110http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/clockdiff.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/clockdiff.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "CLOCKDIFF" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8clockdiff \- measure clock difference between hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBclockdiff\fR [\fB-o\fR] [\fB-o1\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBclockdiff\fR Measures clock difference between us and
     16\fIdestination\fR with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     17[2]
     18packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     19[3]
     20option added to ICMP ECHO.
     21[1]
     22.SH "OPTIONS"
     23.TP
     24\fB-o\fR
     25Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     26messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     27ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris <2.4).
     28.TP
     29\fB-o1\fR
     30Slightly different form of \fB-o\fR, namely it uses three-term
     31IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     32What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     33\fB-o\fR is better for Linux.
     34.SH "WARNINGS"
     35.TP 0.2i
     36\(bu
     37Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     38by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     39.TP 0.2i
     40\(bu
     41Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris>2.4), when
     42run \fBxntpd\fR. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     43which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     44randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     45use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     46.TP 0.2i
     47\(bu
     48\fBclockdiff\fR shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     49.SH "SEE ALSO"
     50.PP
     51\fBping\fR(8),
     52\fBarping\fR(8),
     53\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     54.SH "REFERENCES"
     55.PP
     56[1] ICMP ECHO,
     57RFC0792, page 14.
     58.PP
     59[2] ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     60RFC0792, page 16.
     61.PP
     62[3] IP TIMESTAMP option,
     63RFC0791, 3.1, page 16.
     64.SH "AUTHOR"
     65.PP
     66\fBclockdiff\fR was compiled by
     67Alexey Kuznetsov
     68<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. It was based on code borrowed
     69from BSD \fBtimed\fR daemon.
     70It is now maintained by
     71YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     72<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75\fBclockdiff\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO capability
     76to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     77.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     78.PP
     79\fBclockdiff\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     80and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     81http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/index.html iputils-s20101006/doc/index.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="NEXT"
     10TITLE="ping"
     11HREF="r3.html"></HEAD
     12><BODY
     13CLASS="REFERENCE"
     14BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
     15TEXT="#000000"
     16LINK="#0000FF"
     17VLINK="#840084"
     18ALINK="#0000FF"
     19><DIV
     20CLASS="NAVHEADER"
     21><TABLE
     22SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
     23WIDTH="100%"
     24BORDER="0"
     25CELLPADDING="0"
     26CELLSPACING="0"
     27><TR
     28><TD
     29WIDTH="10%"
     30ALIGN="left"
     31VALIGN="bottom"
     32>&nbsp;</TD
     33><TD
     34WIDTH="80%"
     35ALIGN="center"
     36VALIGN="bottom"
     37></TD
     38><TD
     39WIDTH="10%"
     40ALIGN="right"
     41VALIGN="bottom"
     42><A
     43HREF="r3.html"
     44ACCESSKEY="N"
     45>Next</A
     46></TD
     47></TR
     48></TABLE
     49><HR
     50ALIGN="LEFT"
     51WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     52><DIV
     53CLASS="REFERENCE"
     54><A
     55NAME="INDEX"
     56></A
     57><DIV
     58CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
     59><H1
     60CLASS="TITLE"
     61>I. System Manager's Manual: iputils</H1
     62><DIV
     63CLASS="TOC"
     64><DL
     65><DT
     66><B
     67>Table of Contents</B
     68></DT
     69><DT
     70><A
     71HREF="r3.html"
     72>ping</A
     73>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DT
     74><DT
     75><A
     76HREF="r437.html"
     77>arping</A
     78>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DT
     79><DT
     80><A
     81HREF="r596.html"
     82>clockdiff</A
     83>&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DT
     84><DT
     85><A
     86HREF="r691.html"
     87>rarpd</A
     88>&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DT
     89><DT
     90><A
     91HREF="r790.html"
     92>tracepath</A
     93>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DT
     94><DT
     95><A
     96HREF="r884.html"
     97>traceroute6</A
     98>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DT
     99><DT
     100><A
     101HREF="r949.html"
     102>tftpd</A
     103>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DT
     104><DT
     105><A
     106HREF="r1022.html"
     107>rdisc</A
     108>&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DT
     109><DT
     110><A
     111HREF="r1144.html"
     112>pg3</A
     113>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DT
     114></DL
     115></DIV
     116></DIV
     117></DIV
     118><DIV
     119CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     120><HR
     121ALIGN="LEFT"
     122WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     123SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
     124WIDTH="100%"
     125BORDER="0"
     126CELLPADDING="0"
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     128><TR
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     130WIDTH="33%"
     131ALIGN="left"
     132VALIGN="top"
     133>&nbsp;</TD
     134><TD
     135WIDTH="34%"
     136ALIGN="center"
     137VALIGN="top"
     138>&nbsp;</TD
     139><TD
     140WIDTH="33%"
     141ALIGN="right"
     142VALIGN="top"
     143><A
     144HREF="r3.html"
     145ACCESSKEY="N"
     146>Next</A
     147></TD
     148></TR
     149><TR
     150><TD
     151WIDTH="33%"
     152ALIGN="left"
     153VALIGN="top"
     154>&nbsp;</TD
     155><TD
     156WIDTH="34%"
     157ALIGN="center"
     158VALIGN="top"
     159>&nbsp;</TD
     160><TD
     161WIDTH="33%"
     162ALIGN="right"
     163VALIGN="top"
     164>ping</TD
     165></TR
     166></TABLE
     167></DIV
     168></BODY
     169></HTML
     170>
     171 No newline at end of file
  • doc/iputils.html

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/iputils.html iputils-s20101006/doc/iputils.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>iputils: documentation directory</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"></HEAD
     9><BODY
     10CLASS="ARTICLE"
     11BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
     12TEXT="#000000"
     13LINK="#0000FF"
     14VLINK="#840084"
     15ALINK="#0000FF"
     16><DIV
     17CLASS="ARTICLE"
     18><DIV
     19CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
     20><H1
     21CLASS="TITLE"
     22><A
     23NAME="AEN2"
     24>iputils: documentation directory</A
     25></H1
     26><HR></DIV
     27><DIV
     28CLASS="TOC"
     29><DL
     30><DT
     31><B
     32>Table of Contents</B
     33></DT
     34><DT
     35>1. <A
     36HREF="#AEN4"
     37>Index</A
     38></DT
     39><DT
     40>2. <A
     41HREF="#AEN34"
     42>Historical notes</A
     43></DT
     44><DT
     45>3. <A
     46HREF="#AEN89"
     47>Installation notes</A
     48></DT
     49><DT
     50>4. <A
     51HREF="#AEN109"
     52>Availability</A
     53></DT
     54><DT
     55>5. <A
     56HREF="#AEN114"
     57>Copying</A
     58></DT
     59></DL
     60></DIV
     61><DIV
     62CLASS="SECT1"
     63><H2
     64CLASS="SECT1"
     65><A
     66NAME="AEN4"
     67>1. Index</A
     68></H2
     69><P
     70></P
     71><UL
     72><LI
     73><P
     74>  <A
     75HREF="ping.html"
     76TARGET="_top"
     77>ping, ping6</A
     78>.
     79 </P
     80></LI
     81><LI
     82><P
     83>  <A
     84HREF="arping.html"
     85TARGET="_top"
     86>arping</A
     87>.
     88 </P
     89></LI
     90><LI
     91><P
     92>  <A
     93HREF="clockdiff.html"
     94TARGET="_top"
     95>clockdiff</A
     96>.
     97 </P
     98></LI
     99><LI
     100><P
     101>  <A
     102HREF="rarpd.html"
     103TARGET="_top"
     104>rarpd</A
     105>.
     106 </P
     107></LI
     108><LI
     109><P
     110>  <A
     111HREF="tracepath.html"
     112TARGET="_top"
     113>tracepath, tracepath6</A
     114>.
     115 </P
     116></LI
     117><LI
     118><P
     119>  <A
     120HREF="traceroute6.html"
     121TARGET="_top"
     122>traceroute6</A
     123>.
     124 </P
     125></LI
     126><LI
     127><P
     128>  <A
     129HREF="rdisc.html"
     130TARGET="_top"
     131>rdisc</A
     132>.
     133 </P
     134></LI
     135><LI
     136><P
     137>  <A
     138HREF="tftpd.html"
     139TARGET="_top"
     140>tftpd</A
     141>.
     142 </P
     143></LI
     144><LI
     145><P
     146>  <A
     147HREF="pg3.html"
     148TARGET="_top"
     149>pg3, ipg, pgset</A
     150>.
     151 </P
     152></LI
     153></UL
     154></DIV
     155><DIV
     156CLASS="SECT1"
     157><HR><H2
     158CLASS="SECT1"
     159><A
     160NAME="AEN34"
     161>2. Historical notes</A
     162></H2
     163><P
     164>This package appeared as a desperate attempt to bring some life
     165to state of basic networking applets: <B
     166CLASS="COMMAND"
     167>ping</B
     168>, <B
     169CLASS="COMMAND"
     170>traceroute</B
     171>
     172etc. Though it was known that port of BSD <B
     173CLASS="COMMAND"
     174>ping</B
     175> to Linux
     176was basically broken, neither maintainers of well known (and superb)
     177Linux net-tools package nor maintainers of Linux distributions
     178worried about fixing well known bugs, which were reported in linux-kernel
     179and linux-net mail lists for ages, were identified and nevertheless
     180not repaired. So, one day 1001th resuming of the subject happened
     181to be the last straw to break camel's back, I just parsed my hard disks
     182and collected a set of utilities, which shared the following properties:</P
     183><P
     184></P
     185><UL
     186><LI
     187><P
     188>Small
     189 </P
     190></LI
     191><LI
     192><P
     193>Useful despite of this
     194 </P
     195></LI
     196><LI
     197><P
     198>I never seen it was made right
     199 </P
     200></LI
     201><LI
     202><P
     203>Not quite trivial
     204 </P
     205></LI
     206><LI
     207><P
     208>Demonstrating some important feature of Linux
     209 </P
     210></LI
     211><LI
     212><P
     213>The last but not the least, I use it more or less regularly
     214 </P
     215></LI
     216></UL
     217><P
     218>This utility set was not supposed to be a reference set or something like
     219that. Most of them were cloned from some originals:
     220<DIV
     221CLASS="INFORMALTABLE"
     222><P
     223></P
     224><A
     225NAME="AEN54"
     226></A
     227><TABLE
     228BORDER="1"
     229CLASS="CALSTABLE"
     230><COL><COL><TBODY
     231><TR
     232><TD
     233>ping</TD
     234><TD
     235>cloned of an ancient NetTools-B-xx</TD
     236></TR
     237><TR
     238><TD
     239>ping6</TD
     240><TD
     241>cloned of a very old Pedro's utility set</TD
     242></TR
     243><TR
     244><TD
     245>traceroute6</TD
     246><TD
     247>cloned of NRL Sep 96 distribution</TD
     248></TR
     249><TR
     250><TD
     251>rdisc</TD
     252><TD
     253>cloned of SUN in.rdisc</TD
     254></TR
     255><TR
     256><TD
     257>clockdiff</TD
     258><TD
     259>broken out of some BSD timed</TD
     260></TR
     261><TR
     262><TD
     263>tftpd</TD
     264><TD
     265>it is clone of some ancient NetKit package</TD
     266></TR
     267></TBODY
     268></TABLE
     269><P
     270></P
     271></DIV
     272></P
     273><P
     274>Also I added some utilities written from scratch, namely
     275<B
     276CLASS="COMMAND"
     277>tracepath</B
     278>, <B
     279CLASS="COMMAND"
     280>arping</B
     281> and later <B
     282CLASS="COMMAND"
     283>rarpd</B
     284>
     285(the last one does not satisfy all the criteria, I used it two or three
     286times).</P
     287><P
     288>Hesitated a bit I overcame temptation to add <B
     289CLASS="COMMAND"
     290>traceroute</B
     291>.
     292The variant released by LBNL to that time was mostly sane and bugs
     293in it were mostly not specific to Linux, but main reason was that
     294the latest version of LBNL <B
     295CLASS="COMMAND"
     296>traceroute</B
     297> was not
     298<SPAN
     299CLASS="emphasis"
     300><I
     301CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     302>small</I
     303></SPAN
     304>, it consisted of several files,
     305used a wicked (and failing with Linux :-)) autoconfiguration etc.
     306So, instead I assembled to iputils a simplistic <B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>tracepath</B
     309> utility
     310and IPv6 version of traceroute, and published my
     311<A
     312HREF="ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/lbl-tools"
     313TARGET="_top"
     314> patches</A
     315>.
     316to LBNL <B
     317CLASS="COMMAND"
     318>traceroute</B
     319> separately.<A
     320NAME="AEN86"
     321HREF="#FTN.AEN86"
     322><SPAN
     323CLASS="footnote"
     324>[1]</SPAN
     325></A
     326></P
     327></DIV
     328><DIV
     329CLASS="SECT1"
     330><HR><H2
     331CLASS="SECT1"
     332><A
     333NAME="AEN89"
     334>3. Installation notes</A
     335></H2
     336><P
     337><KBD
     338CLASS="USERINPUT"
     339>make</KBD
     340> to compile utilities. <KBD
     341CLASS="USERINPUT"
     342>make html</KBD
     343> to prepare
     344html documentation, <KBD
     345CLASS="USERINPUT"
     346>make man</KBD
     347> if you prefer man pages.
     348Nothing fancy, provided you have DocBook package installed.</P
     349><P
     350><KBD
     351CLASS="USERINPUT"
     352>make install</KBD
     353> installs <SPAN
     354CLASS="emphasis"
     355><I
     356CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     357>only</I
     358></SPAN
     359> HTML documentation
     360to <TT
     361CLASS="FILENAME"
     362>/usr/doc/iputils</TT
     363>. It even does not try
     364to install binaries and man pages. If you read historical
     365notes above, the reason should be evident. Most of utilities
     366intersect with utilities distributed in another packages, and
     367making such target rewriting existing installation would be a crime
     368from my side. The decision what variant of <B
     369CLASS="COMMAND"
     370>ping</B
     371> is preferred,
     372how to resolve the conflicts etc. is left to you or to person who
     373assembled an rpm. I vote for variant from <B
     374CLASS="COMMAND"
     375>iputils</B
     376> of course.</P
     377><P
     378>Anyway, select utilities which you like and install them to the places
     379which you prefer together with their man pages.</P
     380><P
     381>It is possible that compilation will fail, if you use some
     382funny Linux distribution mangling header files in some unexpected ways
     383(expected ones are the ways of redhat of course :-)).
     384I validate iputils against <A
     385HREF="http://www.asplinux.ru"
     386TARGET="_top"
     387>asplinux</A
     388>
     389distribution, which is inevitably followed by validity with respect
     390to <A
     391HREF="http://www.redhat.com"
     392TARGET="_top"
     393>redhat</A
     394>.
     395If your distribution is one of widely known ones, suse or debian,
     396it also will compile provided snapshot is elder than month or so and
     397someone reported all the problems, if they took place at all.</P
     398><P
     399><SPAN
     400CLASS="emphasis"
     401><I
     402CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     403>Anyway, please, do not abuse me complaining about some compilation problems
     404in any distribution different of asplinux or redhat.
     405If you have a fix, please, send it to
     406<A
     407HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     408TARGET="_top"
     409>me</A
     410>,
     411I will check that it does not break distributions mentioned above
     412and apply it. But I am not going to undertake any investigations,
     413bare reports are deemed to be routed to <TT
     414CLASS="FILENAME"
     415>/dev/null</TT
     416>.</I
     417></SPAN
     418></P
     419></DIV
     420><DIV
     421CLASS="SECT1"
     422><HR><H2
     423CLASS="SECT1"
     424><A
     425NAME="AEN109"
     426>4. Availability</A
     427></H2
     428><P
     429>The collection of documents is part of <TT
     430CLASS="FILENAME"
     431>iputils</TT
     432> package
     433and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     434<A
     435HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     436TARGET="_top"
     437>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     438>.</P
     439></DIV
     440><DIV
     441CLASS="SECT1"
     442><HR><H2
     443CLASS="SECT1"
     444><A
     445NAME="AEN114"
     446>5. Copying</A
     447></H2
     448><P
     449>Different files are copyrighted by different persons and organizations
     450and distributed under different licenses. For details look into corresponding
     451source files.</P
     452></DIV
     453></DIV
     454><H3
     455CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
     456>Notes</H3
     457><TABLE
     458BORDER="0"
     459CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
     460WIDTH="100%"
     461><TR
     462><TD
     463ALIGN="LEFT"
     464VALIGN="TOP"
     465WIDTH="5%"
     466><A
     467NAME="FTN.AEN86"
     468HREF="#AEN86"
     469><SPAN
     470CLASS="footnote"
     471>[1]</SPAN
     472></A
     473></TD
     474><TD
     475ALIGN="LEFT"
     476VALIGN="TOP"
     477WIDTH="95%"
     478><P
     479>This was mistake.
     480Due to this <B
     481CLASS="COMMAND"
     482>traceroute</B
     483> was in a sad state until recently.
     484Good news, redhat-7.2 seems to add these patches to their traceroute
     485rpm eventually. So, I think I will refrain of suicide for awhile.</P
     486></TD
     487></TR
     488></TABLE
     489></BODY
     490></HTML
     491>
     492 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/pg3.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/pg3.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PG3" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8pg3, ipg, pgset \- send stream of UDP packets
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBsource ipg\fR
     12
     13
     14\fBpg\fR
     15
     16
     17\fBpgset\fR \fB\fICOMMAND\fB\fR
     18
     19.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     20.PP
     21\fBipg\fR is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     22to \fBbash\fR. When sourced it loads module \fIpg3\fR and
     23exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     24are \fBpg\fR to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     25and \fBpgset\fR to setup packet generator.
     26.PP
     27\fBpgset\fR can send the following commands to module \fIpg3\fR:
     28.SH "COMMAND"
     29.TP
     30\fBodev \fIDEVICE\fB\fR
     31Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     32warning below.
     33.TP
     34\fBpkt_size \fIBYTES\fB\fR
     35Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     36MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     37and various paddings.
     38.TP
     39\fBfrags \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     40Each packet will contain \fINUMBER\fR of fragments.
     41Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     42fragmented buffers.
     43.TP
     44\fBcount \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     45Send stream of \fINUMBER\fR of packets and stop after this.
     46.TP
     47\fBipg \fITIME\fB\fR
     48Introduce artificial delay between packets of \fITIME\fR
     49microseconds.
     50.TP
     51\fBdst \fIIP_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     52Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     53Beware, never set this address at random. \fBpg3\fR is not a toy,
     54it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     55.TP
     56\fBdst \fIMAC_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     57Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     58Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     59by any node on LAN.
     60.TP
     61\fBstop\fR
     62Abort packet injection.
     63.SH "WARNING"
     64.PP
     65When output device is set to some random device different
     66of hardware Ethernet device, \fBpg3\fR will crash kernel.
     67.PP
     68Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     69which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.
     70.SH "AUTHOR"
     71.PP
     72\fBpg3\fR was written by Robert Olsson <robert.olsson@its.uu.se>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75This can be used only by superuser.
     76.PP
     77This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     78even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     7960 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     80switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     81Use only in test lab environment.
     82.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     83.PP
     84\fBpg3\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     85and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     86http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/ping.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/ping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PING" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8ping, ping6 \- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBping\fR [\fB-LRUbdfnqrvVaAB\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR] [\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR] [\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-F \fIflowlabel\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-M \fIhint\fB\fR] [\fB-N \fInioption\fB\fR] [\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR] [\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR] [\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR] [\fB\fIhop\fB\fR\fI ...\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBping\fR uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     16datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     17ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     18header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary
     19number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.
     20.PP
     21\fBping6\fR can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
     22.SH "OPTIONS"
     23.TP
     24\fB-a\fR
     25Audible ping.
     26.TP
     27\fB-A\fR
     28Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     29effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probes
     30present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     31On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     32.TP
     33\fB-b\fR
     34Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     35.TP
     36\fB-B\fR
     37Do not allow \fBping\fR to change source address of probes.
     38The address is bound to one selected when \fBping\fR starts.
     39.TP
     40\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR
     41use \fImark\fR to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     42for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     43routing to select specific outbound processing.
     44.TP
     45\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     46Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ECHO_REQUEST
     47packets. With
     48\fIdeadline\fR
     49option, \fBping\fR waits for
     50\fIcount\fR ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     51.TP
     52\fB-d\fR
     53Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
     54Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     55.TP
     56\fB-F \fIflow label\fB\fR
     57Allocate and set 20 bit flow label on echo request packets.
     58(Only \fBping6\fR). If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     59.TP
     60\fB-f\fR
     61Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     62while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     63This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     64If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     65outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     66whichever is more.
     67Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     68.TP
     69\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR
     70Wait \fIinterval\fR seconds between sending each packet.
     71The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     72or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     73to values less 0.2 seconds.
     74.TP
     75\fB-I \fIinterface address\fB\fR
     76Set source address to specified interface address. Argument
     77may be numeric IP address or name of device. When pinging IPv6
     78link-local address this option is required.
     79.TP
     80\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR
     81If \fIpreload\fR is specified,
     82\fBping\fR sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     83Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     84.TP
     85\fB-L\fR
     86Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     87destination is a multicast address.
     88.TP
     89\fB-N \fInioption\fB\fR
     90Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     91.RS
     92.TP
     93\fBname\fR
     94Queries for Node Names.
     95.RE
     96.RS
     97.TP
     98\fBipv6\fR
     99Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     100.RS
     101.TP
     102\fBipv6-global\fR
     103Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.
     104.RE
     105.RS
     106.TP
     107\fBipv6-sitelocal\fR
     108Request IPv6 site-local addresses.
     109.RE
     110.RS
     111.TP
     112\fBipv6-linklocal\fR
     113Request IPv6 link-local addresses.
     114.RE
     115.RS
     116.TP
     117\fBipv6-all\fR
     118Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.
     119.RE
     120.RE
     121.RS
     122.TP
     123\fBipv4\fR
     124Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     125.RS
     126.TP
     127\fBipv4-all\fR
     128Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.
     129.RE
     130.RE
     131.RS
     132.TP
     133\fBsubject-ipv6=\fIipv6addr\fB\fR
     134IPv6 subject address.
     135.RE
     136.RS
     137.TP
     138\fBsubject-ipv4=\fIipv4addr\fB\fR
     139IPv4 subject address.
     140.RE
     141.RS
     142.TP
     143\fBsubject-name=\fInodename\fB\fR
     144Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     145fully-qualified domain name is assumed.
     146.RE
     147.RS
     148.TP
     149\fBsubject-fqdn=\fInodename\fB\fR
     150Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     151always assumed.
     152.RE
     153.TP
     154\fB-n\fR
     155Numeric output only.
     156No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     157.TP
     158\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR
     159You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     160This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     161For example, \fB-p ff\fR will cause the sent packet
     162to be filled with all ones.
     163.TP
     164\fB-D\fR
     165Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     166each line.
     167.TP
     168\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR
     169Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams. 
     170\fItos\fR can be either decimal or hex number.
     171Traditionally (RFC1349), these have been interpreted as: 0 for reserved
     172(currently being redefined as congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service
     173and 5-7 for Precedence.
     174Possible settings for Type of Service are: minimal cost: 0x02,
     175reliability: 0x04, throughput: 0x08, low delay: 0x10.  Multiple TOS bits
     176should not be set simultaneously.  Possible settings for
     177special Precedence range from priority (0x20) to net control (0xe0).  You
     178must be root (CAP_NET_ADMIN capability) to use Critical or
     179higher precedence value.  You cannot set
     180bit 0x01 (reserved) unless ECN has been enabled in the kernel.
     181In RFC2474, these fields has been redefined as 8-bit Differentiated
     182Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 of separate data (ECN will be used,
     183here), and bits 2-7 of Differentiated Services Codepoint (DSCP).
     184.TP
     185\fB-q\fR
     186Quiet output.
     187Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     188when finished.
     189.TP
     190\fB-R\fR
     191Record route.
     192Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     193packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     194Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     195Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     196.TP
     197\fB-r\fR
     198Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     199interface.
     200If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     201This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     202that has no route through it provided the option \fB-I\fR is also
     203used.
     204.TP
     205\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR
     206Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     207The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     208data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     209.TP
     210\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR
     211Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     212not more than one packet.
     213.TP
     214\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR
     215Set the IP Time to Live.
     216.TP
     217\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR
     218Set special IP timestamp options.
     219\fItimestamp option\fR may be either
     220\fItsonly\fR (only timestamps),
     221\fItsandaddr\fR (timestamps and addresses) or
     222\fItsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]\fR
     223(timestamp prespecified hops).
     224.TP
     225\fB-M \fIhint\fB\fR
     226Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     227\fIhint\fR may be either \fIdo\fR
     228(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     229\fIwant\fR (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     230is large), or \fIdont\fR (do not set DF flag).
     231.TP
     232\fB-U\fR
     233Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     234\fBping\fR
     235prints network round trip time, which can be different
     236f.e. due to DNS failures.
     237.TP
     238\fB-v\fR
     239Verbose output.
     240.TP
     241\fB-V\fR
     242Show version and exit.
     243.TP
     244\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     245Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     246\fBping\fR
     247exits regardless of how many
     248packets have been sent or received. In this case
     249\fBping\fR
     250does not stop after
     251\fIcount\fR
     252packet are sent, it waits either for
     253\fIdeadline\fR
     254expire or until
     255\fIcount\fR
     256probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     257.TP
     258\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR
     259Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     260in absense of any responses, otherwise \fBping\fR waits for two RTTs.
     261.PP
     262When using \fBping\fR for fault isolation, it should first be run
     263on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     264and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     265``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     266If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     267loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     268in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     269When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     270if the program is terminated with a
     271SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     272can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     273SIGQUIT.
     274.PP
     275If \fBping\fR does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     276exit with code 1. If a packet
     277\fIcount\fR
     278and
     279\fIdeadline\fR
     280are both specified, and fewer than
     281\fIcount\fR
     282packets are received by the time the
     283\fIdeadline\fR
     284has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     285On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     286makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     287not.
     288.PP
     289This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     290management.
     291Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     292\fBping\fR during normal operations or from automated scripts.
     293.SH "ICMP PACKET DETAILS"
     294.PP
     295An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     296An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     297of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     298When a \fIpacketsize\fR is given, this indicated the size of this
     299extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     300inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     301more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).
     302.PP
     303If the data space is at least of size of struct timeval
     304\fBping\fR uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     305a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     306If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.
     307.SH "DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS"
     308.PP
     309\fBping\fR will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     310Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     311inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     312Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     313good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     314always be cause for alarm.
     315.PP
     316Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     317indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     318\fBping\fR packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).
     319.SH "TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS"
     320.PP
     321The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     322on the data contained in the data portion.
     323Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     324networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     325In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     326that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     327zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     328It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     329example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     330at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     331what the controllers transmit can be complicated.
     332.PP
     333This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     334have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     335If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     336across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     337similar length files.
     338You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     339using the \fB-p\fR option of \fBping\fR.
     340.SH "TTL DETAILS"
     341.PP
     342The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     343that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     344In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     345the TTL field by exactly one.
     346.PP
     347The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     348packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     349(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).
     350.PP
     351The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     352the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     353This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     354with
     355\fBtelnet\fR(1)
     356or
     357\fBftp\fR(1).
     358.PP
     359In normal operation ping prints the ttl value from the packet it receives.
     360When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     361with the TTL field in its response:
     362.TP 0.2i
     363\(bu
     364Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     3654.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     366will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     367.TP 0.2i
     368\(bu
     369Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     370In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     371number of routers in the path \fBfrom\fR
     372the remote system \fBto\fR the \fBping\fRing host.
     373.TP 0.2i
     374\(bu
     375Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     376ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     377Others may use completely wild values.
     378.SH "BUGS"
     379.TP 0.2i
     380\(bu
     381Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     382.TP 0.2i
     383\(bu
     384The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     385RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     386There's not much that that can be done about this, however.
     387.TP 0.2i
     388\(bu
     389Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     390broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     391.SH "SEE ALSO"
     392.PP
     393\fBnetstat\fR(1),
     394\fBifconfig\fR(8).
     395.SH "HISTORY"
     396.PP
     397The \fBping\fR command appeared in 4.3BSD.
     398.PP
     399The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.
     400.SH "SECURITY"
     401.PP
     402\fBping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO capability
     403to be executed. It may be used as set-uid root.
     404.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     405.PP
     406\fBping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     407and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     408http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/r1022.html iputils-s20101006/doc/r1022.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>rdisc</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
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     28SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
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     33><TR
     34><TH
     35COLSPAN="3"
     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="r949.html"
     46ACCESSKEY="P"
     47>Prev</A
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     50WIDTH="80%"
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     61>Next</A
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     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="RDISC"
     71></A
     72>rdisc</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1027"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rdisc&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1030"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>rdisc</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-abdfstvV</CODE
     95>] [<TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>send_address</I
     99></TT
     100>] [<TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>receive_address</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN1039"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115><B
     116CLASS="COMMAND"
     117>rdisc</B
     118> implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     119<B
     120CLASS="COMMAND"
     121>rdisc</B
     122> is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     123routing tables with default routes. </P
     124><P
     125><B
     126CLASS="COMMAND"
     127>rdisc</B
     128> listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     129(or <TT
     130CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     131><I
     132>receive_address</I
     133></TT
     134> provided it is given)
     135for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     136messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     137with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     138the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     139and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     140for each one of them.</P
     141><P
     142>Optionally, <B
     143CLASS="COMMAND"
     144>rdisc</B
     145> can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     146themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     147to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     148(or <TT
     149CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     150><I
     151>send_address</I
     152></TT
     153> provided it is given)
     154when it is started.</P
     155><P
     156>A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     157no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     158timer expires before a new
     159<SPAN
     160CLASS="emphasis"
     161><I
     162CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     163>advertise</I
     164></SPAN
     165> message is received from the router.
     166The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     167<SPAN
     168CLASS="emphasis"
     169><I
     170CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     171>advertise</I
     172></SPAN
     173>
     174message with the preference being maximally negative.</P
     175><P
     176>Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     177and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e <B
     178CLASS="COMMAND"
     179>gated</B
     180>.</P
     181></DIV
     182><DIV
     183CLASS="REFSECT1"
     184><A
     185NAME="AEN1055"
     186></A
     187><H2
     188>OPTIONS</H2
     189><P
     190></P
     191><DIV
     192CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     193><DL
     194><DT
     195><CODE
     196CLASS="OPTION"
     197>-a</CODE
     198></DT
     199><DD
     200><P
     201>Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     202<SPAN
     203CLASS="emphasis"
     204><I
     205CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     206>advertise</I
     207></SPAN
     208> messages.
     209Normally <B
     210CLASS="COMMAND"
     211>rdisc</B
     212> only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     213tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     214  </P
     215></DD
     216><DT
     217><CODE
     218CLASS="OPTION"
     219>-b</CODE
     220></DT
     221><DD
     222><P
     223>Opposite to <CODE
     224CLASS="OPTION"
     225>-a</CODE
     226>, i.e. install only router with the best
     227preference value. It is default behaviour.
     228  </P
     229></DD
     230><DT
     231><CODE
     232CLASS="OPTION"
     233>-d</CODE
     234></DT
     235><DD
     236><P
     237>Send debugging messages to syslog.
     238  </P
     239></DD
     240><DT
     241><CODE
     242CLASS="OPTION"
     243>-f</CODE
     244></DT
     245><DD
     246><P
     247>Run <B
     248CLASS="COMMAND"
     249>rdisc</B
     250> forever even if no routers are found.
     251Normally <B
     252CLASS="COMMAND"
     253>rdisc</B
     254> gives up if it has not received any
     255<SPAN
     256CLASS="emphasis"
     257><I
     258CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     259>advertise</I
     260></SPAN
     261> message after after soliciting three times,
     262in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     263If <CODE
     264CLASS="OPTION"
     265>-f</CODE
     266> is not specified in the first form then
     267<CODE
     268CLASS="OPTION"
     269>-s</CODE
     270> must be specified.
     271  </P
     272></DD
     273><DT
     274><CODE
     275CLASS="OPTION"
     276>-s</CODE
     277></DT
     278><DD
     279><P
     280>Send three <SPAN
     281CLASS="emphasis"
     282><I
     283CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     284>solicitation</I
     285></SPAN
     286> messages initially to quickly discover
     287the routers when the system is booted.
     288When <CODE
     289CLASS="OPTION"
     290>-s</CODE
     291> is specified <B
     292CLASS="COMMAND"
     293>rdisc</B
     294>
     295exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     296This can be overridden with the <CODE
     297CLASS="OPTION"
     298>-f</CODE
     299> option.
     300  </P
     301></DD
     302><DT
     303><CODE
     304CLASS="OPTION"
     305>-t</CODE
     306></DT
     307><DD
     308><P
     309>Test mode. Do not go to background.
     310  </P
     311></DD
     312><DT
     313><CODE
     314CLASS="OPTION"
     315>-v</CODE
     316></DT
     317><DD
     318><P
     319>Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     320  </P
     321></DD
     322><DT
     323><CODE
     324CLASS="OPTION"
     325>-V</CODE
     326></DT
     327><DD
     328><P
     329>Print version and exit.
     330  </P
     331></DD
     332></DL
     333></DIV
     334></DIV
     335><DIV
     336CLASS="REFSECT1"
     337><A
     338NAME="AEN1110"
     339></A
     340><H2
     341>HISTORY</H2
     342><P
     343>This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     344notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     345<A
     346HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     347TARGET="_top"
     348>Alexey Kuznetsov
     349&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     350>.
     351It is now maintained by
     352<A
     353HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     354TARGET="_top"
     355>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     356&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     357>.</P
     358></DIV
     359><DIV
     360CLASS="REFSECT1"
     361><A
     362NAME="AEN1115"
     363></A
     364><H2
     365>SEE ALSO</H2
     366><P
     367><SPAN
     368CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     369><SPAN
     370CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     371>icmp</SPAN
     372>(7)</SPAN
     373>,
     374<SPAN
     375CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     376><SPAN
     377CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     378>inet</SPAN
     379>(7)</SPAN
     380>,
     381<A
     382HREF="r3.html"
     383><SPAN
     384CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     385><SPAN
     386CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     387>ping</SPAN
     388>(8)</SPAN
     389></A
     390>.</P
     391></DIV
     392><DIV
     393CLASS="REFSECT1"
     394><A
     395NAME="AEN1128"
     396></A
     397><H2
     398>REFERENCES</H2
     399><P
     400>Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     401<A
     402HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1256.txt"
     403TARGET="_top"
     404>RFC1256</A
     405>, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     406Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.</P
     407></DIV
     408><DIV
     409CLASS="REFSECT1"
     410><A
     411NAME="AEN1132"
     412></A
     413><H2
     414>SECURITY</H2
     415><P
     416><B
     417CLASS="COMMAND"
     418>rdisc</B
     419> requires <CODE
     420CLASS="CONSTANT"
     421>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     422> to listen
     423and send ICMP messages and capability <CODE
     424CLASS="CONSTANT"
     425>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     426>
     427to update routing tables. </P
     428></DIV
     429><DIV
     430CLASS="REFSECT1"
     431><A
     432NAME="AEN1138"
     433></A
     434><H2
     435>AVAILABILITY</H2
     436><P
     437><B
     438CLASS="COMMAND"
     439>rdisc</B
     440> is part of <TT
     441CLASS="FILENAME"
     442>iputils</TT
     443> package
     444and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     445<A
     446HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     447TARGET="_top"
     448>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     449>.</P
     450></DIV
     451><DIV
     452CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     453><HR
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     456SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     477ACCESSKEY="H"
     478>Home</A
     479></TD
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     481WIDTH="33%"
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     488></TD
     489></TR
     490><TR
     491><TD
     492WIDTH="33%"
     493ALIGN="left"
     494VALIGN="top"
     495>tftpd</TD
     496><TD
     497WIDTH="34%"
     498ALIGN="center"
     499VALIGN="top"
     500>&nbsp;</TD
     501><TD
     502WIDTH="33%"
     503ALIGN="right"
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     505>pg3</TD
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     511>
     512 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/r1144.html iputils-s20101006/doc/r1144.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>pg3</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="HOME"
     10TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
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     31><TH
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     33ALIGN="center"
     34>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     35></TR
     36><TR
     37><TD
     38WIDTH="10%"
     39ALIGN="left"
     40VALIGN="bottom"
     41><A
     42HREF="r1022.html"
     43ACCESSKEY="P"
     44>Prev</A
     45></TD
     46><TD
     47WIDTH="80%"
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     52WIDTH="10%"
     53ALIGN="right"
     54VALIGN="bottom"
     55>&nbsp;</TD
     56></TR
     57></TABLE
     58><HR
     59ALIGN="LEFT"
     60WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     61><H1
     62><A
     63NAME="PG3"
     64></A
     65>pg3</H1
     66><DIV
     67CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     68><A
     69NAME="AEN1149"
     70></A
     71><H2
     72>Name</H2
     73>pg3, ipg, pgset&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DIV
     74><DIV
     75CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     76><A
     77NAME="AEN1152"
     78></A
     79><H2
     80>Synopsis</H2
     81><P
     82><B
     83CLASS="COMMAND"
     84>source ipg</B
     85> </P
     86><P
     87><B
     88CLASS="COMMAND"
     89>pg</B
     90> </P
     91><P
     92><B
     93CLASS="COMMAND"
     94>pgset</B
     95>  {<TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>COMMAND</I
     99></TT
     100>}</P
     101></DIV
     102><DIV
     103CLASS="REFSECT1"
     104><A
     105NAME="AEN1161"
     106></A
     107><H2
     108>DESCRIPTION</H2
     109><P
     110><B
     111CLASS="COMMAND"
     112>ipg</B
     113> is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     114to <B
     115CLASS="COMMAND"
     116>bash</B
     117>. When sourced it loads module <TT
     118CLASS="FILENAME"
     119>pg3</TT
     120> and
     121exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     122are <B
     123CLASS="COMMAND"
     124>pg</B
     125> to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     126and <B
     127CLASS="COMMAND"
     128>pgset</B
     129> to setup packet generator.</P
     130><P
     131><B
     132CLASS="COMMAND"
     133>pgset</B
     134> can send the following commands to module <TT
     135CLASS="FILENAME"
     136>pg3</TT
     137>:</P
     138></DIV
     139><DIV
     140CLASS="REFSECT1"
     141><A
     142NAME="AEN1172"
     143></A
     144><H2
     145>COMMAND</H2
     146><P
     147></P
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     150><DL
     151><DT
     152><CODE
     153CLASS="OPTION"
     154>odev <TT
     155CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     156><I
     157>DEVICE</I
     158></TT
     159></CODE
     160></DT
     161><DD
     162><P
     163>Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     164<A
     165HREF="r1144.html#PG3.WARNING"
     166>warning</A
     167> below.
     168  </P
     169></DD
     170><DT
     171><CODE
     172CLASS="OPTION"
     173>pkt_size <TT
     174CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     175><I
     176>BYTES</I
     177></TT
     178></CODE
     179></DT
     180><DD
     181><P
     182>Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     183MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     184and various paddings.
     185  </P
     186></DD
     187><DT
     188><CODE
     189CLASS="OPTION"
     190>frags <TT
     191CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     192><I
     193>NUMBER</I
     194></TT
     195></CODE
     196></DT
     197><DD
     198><P
     199>Each packet will contain <TT
     200CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     201><I
     202>NUMBER</I
     203></TT
     204> of fragments.
     205Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     206fragmented buffers.
     207  </P
     208></DD
     209><DT
     210><CODE
     211CLASS="OPTION"
     212>count <TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>NUMBER</I
     216></TT
     217></CODE
     218></DT
     219><DD
     220><P
     221>Send stream of <TT
     222CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     223><I
     224>NUMBER</I
     225></TT
     226> of packets and stop after this.
     227  </P
     228></DD
     229><DT
     230><CODE
     231CLASS="OPTION"
     232>ipg <TT
     233CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     234><I
     235>TIME</I
     236></TT
     237></CODE
     238></DT
     239><DD
     240><P
     241>Introduce artificial delay between packets of <TT
     242CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     243><I
     244>TIME</I
     245></TT
     246>
     247microseconds.
     248  </P
     249></DD
     250><DT
     251><CODE
     252CLASS="OPTION"
     253>dst <TT
     254CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     255><I
     256>IP_ADDRESS</I
     257></TT
     258></CODE
     259></DT
     260><DD
     261><P
     262>Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     263Beware, never set this address at random. <B
     264CLASS="COMMAND"
     265>pg3</B
     266> is not a toy,
     267it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     268  </P
     269></DD
     270><DT
     271><CODE
     272CLASS="OPTION"
     273>dst <TT
     274CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     275><I
     276>MAC_ADDRESS</I
     277></TT
     278></CODE
     279></DT
     280><DD
     281><P
     282>Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     283Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     284by any node on LAN.
     285  </P
     286></DD
     287><DT
     288><CODE
     289CLASS="OPTION"
     290>stop</CODE
     291></DT
     292><DD
     293><P
     294>Abort packet injection.
     295  </P
     296></DD
     297></DL
     298></DIV
     299></DIV
     300><DIV
     301CLASS="REFSECT1"
     302><A
     303NAME="PG3.WARNING"
     304></A
     305><H2
     306>WARNING</H2
     307><P
     308>When output device is set to some random device different
     309of hardware Ethernet device, <B
     310CLASS="COMMAND"
     311>pg3</B
     312> will crash kernel.</P
     313><P
     314>Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     315which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.</P
     316></DIV
     317><DIV
     318CLASS="REFSECT1"
     319><A
     320NAME="AEN1232"
     321></A
     322><H2
     323>AUTHOR</H2
     324><P
     325><B
     326CLASS="COMMAND"
     327>pg3</B
     328> was written by <A
     329HREF="mailto:robert.olsson@its.uu.se"
     330TARGET="_top"
     331>Robert Olsson &lt;robert.olsson@its.uu.se&gt;</A
     332>.</P
     333></DIV
     334><DIV
     335CLASS="REFSECT1"
     336><A
     337NAME="AEN1237"
     338></A
     339><H2
     340>SECURITY</H2
     341><P
     342>This can be used only by superuser.</P
     343><P
     344>This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     345even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     34660 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     347switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     348Use only in test lab environment.</P
     349></DIV
     350><DIV
     351CLASS="REFSECT1"
     352><A
     353NAME="AEN1241"
     354></A
     355><H2
     356>AVAILABILITY</H2
     357><P
     358><B
     359CLASS="COMMAND"
     360>pg3</B
     361> is part of <TT
     362CLASS="FILENAME"
     363>iputils</TT
     364> package
     365and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     366<A
     367HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     368TARGET="_top"
     369>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     370>.</P
     371></DIV
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     373CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     374><HR
     375ALIGN="LEFT"
     376WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     377SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/r3.html iputils-s20101006/doc/r3.html
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     5>ping</TITLE
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     34><TH
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     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="index.html"
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     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="PING"
     71></A
     72>ping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN8"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>ping, ping6&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN11"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>ping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-LRUbdfnqrvVaAB</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-m <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>mark</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-i <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>interval</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-l <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>preload</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-p <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>pattern</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-s <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>packetsize</I
     124></TT
     125>] [-t <TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>ttl</I
     129></TT
     130>] [-w <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>deadline</I
     134></TT
     135>] [-F <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>flowlabel</I
     139></TT
     140>] [-I <TT
     141CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     142><I
     143>interface</I
     144></TT
     145>] [-M <TT
     146CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     147><I
     148>hint</I
     149></TT
     150>] [-N <TT
     151CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     152><I
     153>nioption</I
     154></TT
     155>] [-Q <TT
     156CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     157><I
     158>tos</I
     159></TT
     160>] [-S <TT
     161CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     162><I
     163>sndbuf</I
     164></TT
     165>] [-T <TT
     166CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     167><I
     168>timestamp option</I
     169></TT
     170>] [-W <TT
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     172><I
     173>timeout</I
     174></TT
     175>] [<TT
     176CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     177><I
     178>hop</I
     179></TT
     180>...] {<TT
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     182><I
     183>destination</I
     184></TT
     185>}</P
     186></DIV
     187><DIV
     188CLASS="REFSECT1"
     189><A
     190NAME="AEN52"
     191></A
     192><H2
     193>DESCRIPTION</H2
     194><P
     195><B
     196CLASS="COMMAND"
     197>ping</B
     198> uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     199datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     200ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     201header, followed by a <CODE
     202CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     203>struct timeval</CODE
     204> and then an arbitrary
     205number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.</P
     206><P
     207><B
     208CLASS="COMMAND"
     209>ping6</B
     210> can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).</P
     211></DIV
     212><DIV
     213CLASS="REFSECT1"
     214><A
     215NAME="AEN59"
     216></A
     217><H2
     218>OPTIONS</H2
     219><P
     220></P
     221><DIV
     222CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     223><DL
     224><DT
     225><CODE
     226CLASS="OPTION"
     227>-a</CODE
     228></DT
     229><DD
     230><P
     231>Audible ping.
     232  </P
     233></DD
     234><DT
     235><CODE
     236CLASS="OPTION"
     237>-A</CODE
     238></DT
     239><DD
     240><P
     241>Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     242effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probes
     243present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     244On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     245  </P
     246></DD
     247><DT
     248><CODE
     249CLASS="OPTION"
     250>-b</CODE
     251></DT
     252><DD
     253><P
     254>Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     255  </P
     256></DD
     257><DT
     258><CODE
     259CLASS="OPTION"
     260>-B</CODE
     261></DT
     262><DD
     263><P
     264>Do not allow <B
     265CLASS="COMMAND"
     266>ping</B
     267> to change source address of probes.
     268The address is bound to one selected when <B
     269CLASS="COMMAND"
     270>ping</B
     271> starts.
     272  </P
     273></DD
     274><DT
     275><CODE
     276CLASS="OPTION"
     277>-m <TT
     278CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     279><I
     280>mark</I
     281></TT
     282></CODE
     283></DT
     284><DD
     285><P
     286>use <TT
     287CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     288><I
     289>mark</I
     290></TT
     291> to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     292for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     293routing to select specific outbound processing.
     294  </P
     295></DD
     296><DT
     297><CODE
     298CLASS="OPTION"
     299><A
     300NAME="PING.COUNT"
     301></A
     302>-c <TT
     303CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     304><I
     305>count</I
     306></TT
     307></CODE
     308></DT
     309><DD
     310><P
     311>Stop after sending <TT
     312CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     313><I
     314>count</I
     315></TT
     316> ECHO_REQUEST
     317packets. With
     318<A
     319HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     320><TT
     321CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     322><I
     323>deadline</I
     324></TT
     325></A
     326>
     327option, <B
     328CLASS="COMMAND"
     329>ping</B
     330> waits for
     331<TT
     332CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     333><I
     334>count</I
     335></TT
     336> ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     337  </P
     338></DD
     339><DT
     340><CODE
     341CLASS="OPTION"
     342>-d</CODE
     343></DT
     344><DD
     345><P
     346>Set the <CODE
     347CLASS="CONSTANT"
     348>SO_DEBUG</CODE
     349> option on the socket being used.
     350Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     351  </P
     352></DD
     353><DT
     354><CODE
     355CLASS="OPTION"
     356>-F <TT
     357CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     358><I
     359>flow label</I
     360></TT
     361></CODE
     362></DT
     363><DD
     364><P
     365>Allocate and set 20 bit flow label on echo request packets.
     366(Only <B
     367CLASS="COMMAND"
     368>ping6</B
     369>). If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     370  </P
     371></DD
     372><DT
     373><CODE
     374CLASS="OPTION"
     375>-f</CODE
     376></DT
     377><DD
     378><P
     379>Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     380while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     381This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     382If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     383outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     384whichever is more.
     385Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     386  </P
     387></DD
     388><DT
     389><CODE
     390CLASS="OPTION"
     391>-i <TT
     392CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     393><I
     394>interval</I
     395></TT
     396></CODE
     397></DT
     398><DD
     399><P
     400>Wait <TT
     401CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     402><I
     403>interval</I
     404></TT
     405> seconds between sending each packet.
     406The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     407or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     408to values less 0.2 seconds.
     409  </P
     410></DD
     411><DT
     412><CODE
     413CLASS="OPTION"
     414>-I <TT
     415CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     416><I
     417>interface address</I
     418></TT
     419></CODE
     420></DT
     421><DD
     422><P
     423>Set source address to specified interface address. Argument
     424may be numeric IP address or name of device. When pinging IPv6
     425link-local address this option is required.
     426  </P
     427></DD
     428><DT
     429><CODE
     430CLASS="OPTION"
     431>-l <TT
     432CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     433><I
     434>preload</I
     435></TT
     436></CODE
     437></DT
     438><DD
     439><P
     440>If <TT
     441CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     442><I
     443>preload</I
     444></TT
     445> is specified,
     446<B
     447CLASS="COMMAND"
     448>ping</B
     449> sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     450Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     451  </P
     452></DD
     453><DT
     454><CODE
     455CLASS="OPTION"
     456>-L</CODE
     457></DT
     458><DD
     459><P
     460>Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     461destination is a multicast address.
     462  </P
     463></DD
     464><DT
     465><CODE
     466CLASS="OPTION"
     467>-N <TT
     468CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     469><I
     470>nioption</I
     471></TT
     472></CODE
     473></DT
     474><DD
     475><P
     476>Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     477   <P
     478></P
     479><DIV
     480CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     481><DL
     482><DT
     483><CODE
     484CLASS="OPTION"
     485>name</CODE
     486></DT
     487><DD
     488><P
     489>Queries for Node Names.</P
     490></DD
     491></DL
     492></DIV
     493>
     494   <P
     495></P
     496><DIV
     497CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     498><DL
     499><DT
     500><CODE
     501CLASS="OPTION"
     502>ipv6</CODE
     503></DT
     504><DD
     505><P
     506>Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     507      <P
     508></P
     509><DIV
     510CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     511><DL
     512><DT
     513><CODE
     514CLASS="OPTION"
     515>ipv6-global</CODE
     516></DT
     517><DD
     518><P
     519>Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.</P
     520></DD
     521></DL
     522></DIV
     523>
     524      <P
     525></P
     526><DIV
     527CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     528><DL
     529><DT
     530><CODE
     531CLASS="OPTION"
     532>ipv6-sitelocal</CODE
     533></DT
     534><DD
     535><P
     536>Request IPv6 site-local addresses.</P
     537></DD
     538></DL
     539></DIV
     540>
     541      <P
     542></P
     543><DIV
     544CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     545><DL
     546><DT
     547><CODE
     548CLASS="OPTION"
     549>ipv6-linklocal</CODE
     550></DT
     551><DD
     552><P
     553>Request IPv6 link-local addresses.</P
     554></DD
     555></DL
     556></DIV
     557>
     558      <P
     559></P
     560><DIV
     561CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     562><DL
     563><DT
     564><CODE
     565CLASS="OPTION"
     566>ipv6-all</CODE
     567></DT
     568><DD
     569><P
     570>Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     571></DD
     572></DL
     573></DIV
     574>
     575     </P
     576></DD
     577></DL
     578></DIV
     579>
     580   <P
     581></P
     582><DIV
     583CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     584><DL
     585><DT
     586><CODE
     587CLASS="OPTION"
     588>ipv4</CODE
     589></DT
     590><DD
     591><P
     592>Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     593      <P
     594></P
     595><DIV
     596CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     597><DL
     598><DT
     599><CODE
     600CLASS="OPTION"
     601>ipv4-all</CODE
     602></DT
     603><DD
     604><P
     605>Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     606></DD
     607></DL
     608></DIV
     609>
     610     </P
     611></DD
     612></DL
     613></DIV
     614>
     615   <P
     616></P
     617><DIV
     618CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     619><DL
     620><DT
     621><CODE
     622CLASS="OPTION"
     623>subject-ipv6=<TT
     624CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     625><I
     626>ipv6addr</I
     627></TT
     628></CODE
     629></DT
     630><DD
     631><P
     632>IPv6 subject address.</P
     633></DD
     634></DL
     635></DIV
     636>
     637   <P
     638></P
     639><DIV
     640CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     641><DL
     642><DT
     643><CODE
     644CLASS="OPTION"
     645>subject-ipv4=<TT
     646CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     647><I
     648>ipv4addr</I
     649></TT
     650></CODE
     651></DT
     652><DD
     653><P
     654>IPv4 subject address.</P
     655></DD
     656></DL
     657></DIV
     658>
     659   <P
     660></P
     661><DIV
     662CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     663><DL
     664><DT
     665><CODE
     666CLASS="OPTION"
     667>subject-name=<TT
     668CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     669><I
     670>nodename</I
     671></TT
     672></CODE
     673></DT
     674><DD
     675><P
     676>Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     677        fully-qualified domain name is assumed.</P
     678></DD
     679></DL
     680></DIV
     681>
     682   <P
     683></P
     684><DIV
     685CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     686><DL
     687><DT
     688><CODE
     689CLASS="OPTION"
     690>subject-fqdn=<TT
     691CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     692><I
     693>nodename</I
     694></TT
     695></CODE
     696></DT
     697><DD
     698><P
     699>Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     700        always assumed.</P
     701></DD
     702></DL
     703></DIV
     704>
     705  </P
     706></DD
     707><DT
     708><CODE
     709CLASS="OPTION"
     710>-n</CODE
     711></DT
     712><DD
     713><P
     714>Numeric output only.
     715No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     716  </P
     717></DD
     718><DT
     719><CODE
     720CLASS="OPTION"
     721>-p <TT
     722CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     723><I
     724>pattern</I
     725></TT
     726></CODE
     727></DT
     728><DD
     729><P
     730>You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     731This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     732For example, <CODE
     733CLASS="OPTION"
     734>-p ff</CODE
     735> will cause the sent packet
     736to be filled with all ones.
     737  </P
     738></DD
     739><DT
     740><CODE
     741CLASS="OPTION"
     742>-D</CODE
     743></DT
     744><DD
     745><P
     746>Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     747each line.
     748  </P
     749></DD
     750><DT
     751><CODE
     752CLASS="OPTION"
     753>-Q <TT
     754CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     755><I
     756>tos</I
     757></TT
     758></CODE
     759></DT
     760><DD
     761><P
     762>Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams. 
     763<TT
     764CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     765><I
     766>tos</I
     767></TT
     768> can be either decimal or hex number.
     769Traditionally (RFC1349), these have been interpreted as: 0 for reserved
     770(currently being redefined as congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service
     771and 5-7 for Precedence.
     772Possible settings for Type of Service are: minimal cost: 0x02,
     773reliability: 0x04, throughput: 0x08, low delay: 0x10.  Multiple TOS bits
     774should not be set simultaneously.  Possible settings for
     775special Precedence range from priority (0x20) to net control (0xe0).  You
     776must be root (<CODE
     777CLASS="CONSTANT"
     778>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     779> capability) to use Critical or
     780higher precedence value.  You cannot set
     781bit 0x01 (reserved) unless ECN has been enabled in the kernel.
     782In RFC2474, these fields has been redefined as 8-bit Differentiated
     783Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 of separate data (ECN will be used,
     784here), and bits 2-7 of Differentiated Services Codepoint (DSCP).
     785  </P
     786></DD
     787><DT
     788><CODE
     789CLASS="OPTION"
     790>-q</CODE
     791></DT
     792><DD
     793><P
     794>Quiet output.
     795Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     796when finished.
     797  </P
     798></DD
     799><DT
     800><CODE
     801CLASS="OPTION"
     802>-R</CODE
     803></DT
     804><DD
     805><P
     806>Record route.
     807Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     808packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     809Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     810Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     811  </P
     812></DD
     813><DT
     814><CODE
     815CLASS="OPTION"
     816>-r</CODE
     817></DT
     818><DD
     819><P
     820>Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     821interface.
     822If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     823This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     824that has no route through it provided the option <CODE
     825CLASS="OPTION"
     826>-I</CODE
     827> is also
     828used.
     829  </P
     830></DD
     831><DT
     832><CODE
     833CLASS="OPTION"
     834>-s <TT
     835CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     836><I
     837>packetsize</I
     838></TT
     839></CODE
     840></DT
     841><DD
     842><P
     843>Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     844The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     845data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     846  </P
     847></DD
     848><DT
     849><CODE
     850CLASS="OPTION"
     851>-S <TT
     852CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     853><I
     854>sndbuf</I
     855></TT
     856></CODE
     857></DT
     858><DD
     859><P
     860>Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     861not more than one packet.
     862  </P
     863></DD
     864><DT
     865><CODE
     866CLASS="OPTION"
     867>-t <TT
     868CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     869><I
     870>ttl</I
     871></TT
     872></CODE
     873></DT
     874><DD
     875><P
     876>Set the IP Time to Live.
     877  </P
     878></DD
     879><DT
     880><CODE
     881CLASS="OPTION"
     882>-T <TT
     883CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     884><I
     885>timestamp option</I
     886></TT
     887></CODE
     888></DT
     889><DD
     890><P
     891>Set special IP timestamp options.
     892<TT
     893CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     894><I
     895>timestamp option</I
     896></TT
     897> may be either
     898<TT
     899CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     900><I
     901>tsonly</I
     902></TT
     903> (only timestamps),
     904<TT
     905CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     906><I
     907>tsandaddr</I
     908></TT
     909> (timestamps and addresses) or
     910<TT
     911CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     912><I
     913>tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]</I
     914></TT
     915>
     916(timestamp prespecified hops).
     917  </P
     918></DD
     919><DT
     920><CODE
     921CLASS="OPTION"
     922>-M <TT
     923CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     924><I
     925>hint</I
     926></TT
     927></CODE
     928></DT
     929><DD
     930><P
     931>Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     932<TT
     933CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     934><I
     935>hint</I
     936></TT
     937> may be either <TT
     938CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     939><I
     940>do</I
     941></TT
     942>
     943(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     944<TT
     945CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     946><I
     947>want</I
     948></TT
     949> (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     950is large), or <TT
     951CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     952><I
     953>dont</I
     954></TT
     955> (do not set DF flag).
     956  </P
     957></DD
     958><DT
     959><CODE
     960CLASS="OPTION"
     961>-U</CODE
     962></DT
     963><DD
     964><P
     965>Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     966<B
     967CLASS="COMMAND"
     968>ping</B
     969>
     970prints network round trip time, which can be different
     971f.e. due to DNS failures.
     972  </P
     973></DD
     974><DT
     975><CODE
     976CLASS="OPTION"
     977>-v</CODE
     978></DT
     979><DD
     980><P
     981>Verbose output.
     982  </P
     983></DD
     984><DT
     985><CODE
     986CLASS="OPTION"
     987>-V</CODE
     988></DT
     989><DD
     990><P
     991>Show version and exit.
     992  </P
     993></DD
     994><DT
     995><CODE
     996CLASS="OPTION"
     997><A
     998NAME="PING.DEADLINE"
     999></A
     1000>-w <TT
     1001CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1002><I
     1003>deadline</I
     1004></TT
     1005></CODE
     1006></DT
     1007><DD
     1008><P
     1009>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     1010<B
     1011CLASS="COMMAND"
     1012>ping</B
     1013>
     1014exits regardless of how many
     1015packets have been sent or received. In this case
     1016<B
     1017CLASS="COMMAND"
     1018>ping</B
     1019>
     1020does not stop after
     1021<A
     1022HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1023><TT
     1024CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1025><I
     1026>count</I
     1027></TT
     1028></A
     1029>
     1030packet are sent, it waits either for
     1031<A
     1032HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1033><TT
     1034CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1035><I
     1036>deadline</I
     1037></TT
     1038></A
     1039>
     1040expire or until
     1041<A
     1042HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1043><TT
     1044CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1045><I
     1046>count</I
     1047></TT
     1048></A
     1049>
     1050probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     1051  </P
     1052></DD
     1053><DT
     1054><CODE
     1055CLASS="OPTION"
     1056>-W <TT
     1057CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1058><I
     1059>timeout</I
     1060></TT
     1061></CODE
     1062></DT
     1063><DD
     1064><P
     1065>Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     1066in absense of any responses, otherwise <B
     1067CLASS="COMMAND"
     1068>ping</B
     1069> waits for two RTTs.
     1070  </P
     1071></DD
     1072></DL
     1073></DIV
     1074><P
     1075>When using <B
     1076CLASS="COMMAND"
     1077>ping</B
     1078> for fault isolation, it should first be run
     1079on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     1080and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     1081``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     1082If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     1083loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     1084in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     1085When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     1086if the program is terminated with a
     1087<CODE
     1088CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1089>SIGINT</CODE
     1090>, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     1091can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     1092<CODE
     1093CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1094>SIGQUIT</CODE
     1095>.</P
     1096><P
     1097>If <B
     1098CLASS="COMMAND"
     1099>ping</B
     1100> does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     1101exit with code 1. If a packet
     1102<A
     1103HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1104><TT
     1105CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1106><I
     1107>count</I
     1108></TT
     1109></A
     1110>
     1111and
     1112<A
     1113HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1114><TT
     1115CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1116><I
     1117>deadline</I
     1118></TT
     1119></A
     1120>
     1121are both specified, and fewer than
     1122<A
     1123HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1124><TT
     1125CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1126><I
     1127>count</I
     1128></TT
     1129></A
     1130>
     1131packets are received by the time the
     1132<A
     1133HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1134><TT
     1135CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1136><I
     1137>deadline</I
     1138></TT
     1139></A
     1140>
     1141has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     1142On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     1143makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     1144not.</P
     1145><P
     1146>This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     1147management.
     1148Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     1149<B
     1150CLASS="COMMAND"
     1151>ping</B
     1152> during normal operations or from automated scripts.</P
     1153></DIV
     1154><DIV
     1155CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1156><A
     1157NAME="AEN362"
     1158></A
     1159><H2
     1160>ICMP PACKET DETAILS</H2
     1161><P
     1162>An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     1163An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     1164of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     1165When a <TT
     1166CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1167><I
     1168>packetsize</I
     1169></TT
     1170> is given, this indicated the size of this
     1171extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     1172inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     1173more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).</P
     1174><P
     1175>If the data space is at least of size of <CODE
     1176CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     1177>struct timeval</CODE
     1178>
     1179<B
     1180CLASS="COMMAND"
     1181>ping</B
     1182> uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     1183a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     1184If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.</P
     1185></DIV
     1186><DIV
     1187CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1188><A
     1189NAME="AEN369"
     1190></A
     1191><H2
     1192>DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS</H2
     1193><P
     1194><B
     1195CLASS="COMMAND"
     1196>ping</B
     1197> will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     1198Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     1199inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     1200Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     1201good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     1202always be cause for alarm.</P
     1203><P
     1204>Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     1205indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     1206<B
     1207CLASS="COMMAND"
     1208>ping</B
     1209> packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).</P
     1210></DIV
     1211><DIV
     1212CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1213><A
     1214NAME="AEN375"
     1215></A
     1216><H2
     1217>TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS</H2
     1218><P
     1219>The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     1220on the data contained in the data portion.
     1221Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     1222networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     1223In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     1224that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     1225zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     1226It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     1227example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     1228at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     1229what the controllers transmit can be complicated.</P
     1230><P
     1231>This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     1232have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     1233If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     1234across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     1235similar length files.
     1236You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     1237using the <CODE
     1238CLASS="OPTION"
     1239>-p</CODE
     1240> option of <B
     1241CLASS="COMMAND"
     1242>ping</B
     1243>.</P
     1244></DIV
     1245><DIV
     1246CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1247><A
     1248NAME="AEN381"
     1249></A
     1250><H2
     1251>TTL DETAILS</H2
     1252><P
     1253>The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     1254that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     1255In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     1256the TTL field by exactly one.</P
     1257><P
     1258>The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     1259packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     1260(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).</P
     1261><P
     1262>The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     1263the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     1264This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     1265with
     1266<SPAN
     1267CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1268><SPAN
     1269CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1270>telnet</SPAN
     1271>(1)</SPAN
     1272>
     1273or
     1274<SPAN
     1275CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1276><SPAN
     1277CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1278>ftp</SPAN
     1279>(1)</SPAN
     1280>.</P
     1281><P
     1282>In normal operation ping prints the ttl value from the packet it receives.
     1283When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     1284with the TTL field in its response:</P
     1285><P
     1286></P
     1287><UL
     1288><LI
     1289><P
     1290>Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     12914.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     1292will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     1293 </P
     1294></LI
     1295><LI
     1296><P
     1297>Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     1298In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     1299number of routers in the path <SPAN
     1300CLASS="emphasis"
     1301><I
     1302CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1303>from</I
     1304></SPAN
     1305>
     1306the remote system <SPAN
     1307CLASS="emphasis"
     1308><I
     1309CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1310>to</I
     1311></SPAN
     1312> the <B
     1313CLASS="COMMAND"
     1314>ping</B
     1315>ing host.
     1316 </P
     1317></LI
     1318><LI
     1319><P
     1320>Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     1321ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     1322Others may use completely wild values.
     1323 </P
     1324></LI
     1325></UL
     1326></DIV
     1327><DIV
     1328CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1329><A
     1330NAME="AEN403"
     1331></A
     1332><H2
     1333>BUGS</H2
     1334><P
     1335></P
     1336><UL
     1337><LI
     1338><P
     1339>Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     1340 </P
     1341></LI
     1342><LI
     1343><P
     1344>The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     1345RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     1346There's not much that that can be done about this, however.
     1347 </P
     1348></LI
     1349><LI
     1350><P
     1351>Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     1352broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     1353 </P
     1354></LI
     1355></UL
     1356></DIV
     1357><DIV
     1358CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1359><A
     1360NAME="AEN412"
     1361></A
     1362><H2
     1363>SEE ALSO</H2
     1364><P
     1365><SPAN
     1366CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1367><SPAN
     1368CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1369>netstat</SPAN
     1370>(1)</SPAN
     1371>,
     1372<SPAN
     1373CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1374><SPAN
     1375CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1376>ifconfig</SPAN
     1377>(8)</SPAN
     1378>.</P
     1379></DIV
     1380><DIV
     1381CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1382><A
     1383NAME="AEN421"
     1384></A
     1385><H2
     1386>HISTORY</H2
     1387><P
     1388>The <B
     1389CLASS="COMMAND"
     1390>ping</B
     1391> command appeared in 4.3BSD.</P
     1392><P
     1393>The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.</P
     1394></DIV
     1395><DIV
     1396CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1397><A
     1398NAME="AEN426"
     1399></A
     1400><H2
     1401>SECURITY</H2
     1402><P
     1403><B
     1404CLASS="COMMAND"
     1405>ping</B
     1406> requires <CODE
     1407CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1408>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     1409> capability
     1410to be executed. It may be used as set-uid root.</P
     1411></DIV
     1412><DIV
     1413CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1414><A
     1415NAME="AEN431"
     1416></A
     1417><H2
     1418>AVAILABILITY</H2
     1419><P
     1420><B
     1421CLASS="COMMAND"
     1422>ping</B
     1423> is part of <TT
     1424CLASS="FILENAME"
     1425>iputils</TT
     1426> package
     1427and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     1428<A
     1429HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     1430TARGET="_top"
     1431>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     1432>.</P
     1433></DIV
     1434><DIV
     1435CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     1436><HR
     1437ALIGN="LEFT"
     1438WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     1439SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     1452>Prev</A
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     1474><TD
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     1478>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TD
     1479><TD
     1480WIDTH="34%"
     1481ALIGN="center"
     1482VALIGN="top"
     1483>&nbsp;</TD
     1484><TD
     1485WIDTH="33%"
     1486ALIGN="right"
     1487VALIGN="top"
     1488>arping</TD
     1489></TR
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     1492></BODY
     1493></HTML
     1494>
     1495 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/r437.html iputils-s20101006/doc/r437.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>arping</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="HOME"
     10TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     11HREF="index.html"><LINK
     12REL="PREVIOUS"
     13TITLE="ping"
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     19CLASS="REFENTRY"
     20BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
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     33><TR
     34><TH
     35COLSPAN="3"
     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="r3.html"
     46ACCESSKEY="P"
     47>Prev</A
     48></TD
     49><TD
     50WIDTH="80%"
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     59HREF="r596.html"
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     62></TD
     63></TR
     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="ARPING"
     71></A
     72>arping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN442"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>arping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN445"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-AbDfhqUV</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-w <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>deadline</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-s <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>source</I
     109></TT
     110>] {-I <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>interface</I
     114></TT
     115>} {<TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>destination</I
     119></TT
     120>}</P
     121></DIV
     122><DIV
     123CLASS="REFSECT1"
     124><A
     125NAME="AEN460"
     126></A
     127><H2
     128>DESCRIPTION</H2
     129><P
     130>Ping <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>destination</I
     134></TT
     135> on device <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>interface</I
     139></TT
     140> by ARP packets,
     141using source address <TT
     142CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     143><I
     144>source</I
     145></TT
     146>.</P
     147></DIV
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="REFSECT1"
     150><A
     151NAME="AEN466"
     152></A
     153><H2
     154>OPTIONS</H2
     155><P
     156></P
     157><DIV
     158CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     159><DL
     160><DT
     161><CODE
     162CLASS="OPTION"
     163>-A</CODE
     164></DT
     165><DD
     166><P
     167>The same as <CODE
     168CLASS="OPTION"
     169>-U</CODE
     170>, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     171of ARP REQUEST.
     172  </P
     173></DD
     174><DT
     175><CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-b</CODE
     178></DT
     179><DD
     180><P
     181>Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally <B
     182CLASS="COMMAND"
     183>arping</B
     184> starts
     185from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     186  </P
     187></DD
     188><DT
     189><CODE
     190CLASS="OPTION"
     191><A
     192NAME="ARPING.COUNT"
     193></A
     194>-c <TT
     195CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     196><I
     197>count</I
     198></TT
     199></CODE
     200></DT
     201><DD
     202><P
     203>Stop after sending <TT
     204CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     205><I
     206>count</I
     207></TT
     208> ARP REQUEST
     209packets. With
     210<A
     211HREF="r437.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     212><TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>deadline</I
     216></TT
     217></A
     218>
     219option, <B
     220CLASS="COMMAND"
     221>arping</B
     222> waits for
     223<TT
     224CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     225><I
     226>count</I
     227></TT
     228> ARP REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     229  </P
     230></DD
     231><DT
     232><CODE
     233CLASS="OPTION"
     234>-D</CODE
     235></DT
     236><DD
     237><P
     238>Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     239<A
     240HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2131.txt"
     241TARGET="_top"
     242>RFC2131, 4.4.1</A
     243>.
     244Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     245  </P
     246></DD
     247><DT
     248><CODE
     249CLASS="OPTION"
     250>-f</CODE
     251></DT
     252><DD
     253><P
     254>Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     255  </P
     256></DD
     257><DT
     258><CODE
     259CLASS="OPTION"
     260><A
     261NAME="OPT.INTERFACE"
     262></A
     263>-I <TT
     264CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     265><I
     266>interface</I
     267></TT
     268></CODE
     269></DT
     270><DD
     271><P
     272>Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets. This option
     273is required.
     274  </P
     275></DD
     276><DT
     277><CODE
     278CLASS="OPTION"
     279>-h</CODE
     280></DT
     281><DD
     282><P
     283>Print help page and exit.
     284  </P
     285></DD
     286><DT
     287><CODE
     288CLASS="OPTION"
     289>-q</CODE
     290></DT
     291><DD
     292><P
     293>Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     294  </P
     295></DD
     296><DT
     297><CODE
     298CLASS="OPTION"
     299><A
     300NAME="OPT.SOURCE"
     301></A
     302>-s <TT
     303CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     304><I
     305>source</I
     306></TT
     307></CODE
     308></DT
     309><DD
     310><P
     311>IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     312If this option is absent, source address is:
     313   <P
     314></P
     315><UL
     316><LI
     317><P
     318>In DAD mode (with option <CODE
     319CLASS="OPTION"
     320>-D</CODE
     321>) set to 0.0.0.0.
     322    </P
     323></LI
     324><LI
     325><P
     326>In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options <CODE
     327CLASS="OPTION"
     328>-U</CODE
     329> or <CODE
     330CLASS="OPTION"
     331>-A</CODE
     332>)
     333set to <TT
     334CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     335><I
     336>destination</I
     337></TT
     338>.
     339    </P
     340></LI
     341><LI
     342><P
     343>Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     344    </P
     345></LI
     346></UL
     347>
     348  </P
     349></DD
     350><DT
     351><CODE
     352CLASS="OPTION"
     353>-U</CODE
     354></DT
     355><DD
     356><P
     357>Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     358No replies are expected.
     359  </P
     360></DD
     361><DT
     362><CODE
     363CLASS="OPTION"
     364>-V</CODE
     365></DT
     366><DD
     367><P
     368>Print version of the program and exit.
     369  </P
     370></DD
     371><DT
     372><CODE
     373CLASS="OPTION"
     374><A
     375NAME="ARPING.DEADLINE"
     376></A
     377>-w <TT
     378CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     379><I
     380>deadline</I
     381></TT
     382></CODE
     383></DT
     384><DD
     385><P
     386>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     387<B
     388CLASS="COMMAND"
     389>arping</B
     390>
     391exits regardless of how many
     392packets have been sent or received. In this case
     393<B
     394CLASS="COMMAND"
     395>arping</B
     396>
     397does not stop after
     398<A
     399HREF="r437.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     400><TT
     401CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     402><I
     403>count</I
     404></TT
     405></A
     406>
     407packet are sent, it waits either for
     408<A
     409HREF="r437.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     410><TT
     411CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     412><I
     413>deadline</I
     414></TT
     415></A
     416>
     417expire or until
     418<A
     419HREF="r437.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     420><TT
     421CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     422><I
     423>count</I
     424></TT
     425></A
     426>
     427probes are answered.
     428  </P
     429></DD
     430></DL
     431></DIV
     432></DIV
     433><DIV
     434CLASS="REFSECT1"
     435><A
     436NAME="AEN564"
     437></A
     438><H2
     439>SEE ALSO</H2
     440><P
     441><A
     442HREF="r3.html"
     443><SPAN
     444CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     445><SPAN
     446CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     447>ping</SPAN
     448>(8)</SPAN
     449></A
     450>,
     451<A
     452HREF="r596.html"
     453><SPAN
     454CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     455><SPAN
     456CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     457>clockdiff</SPAN
     458>(8)</SPAN
     459></A
     460>,
     461<A
     462HREF="r790.html"
     463><SPAN
     464CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     465><SPAN
     466CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     467>tracepath</SPAN
     468>(8)</SPAN
     469></A
     470>.</P
     471></DIV
     472><DIV
     473CLASS="REFSECT1"
     474><A
     475NAME="AEN579"
     476></A
     477><H2
     478>AUTHOR</H2
     479><P
     480><B
     481CLASS="COMMAND"
     482>arping</B
     483> was written by
     484<A
     485HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     486TARGET="_top"
     487>Alexey Kuznetsov
     488&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     489>.
     490It is now maintained by
     491<A
     492HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     493TARGET="_top"
     494>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     495&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     496>.</P
     497></DIV
     498><DIV
     499CLASS="REFSECT1"
     500><A
     501NAME="AEN585"
     502></A
     503><H2
     504>SECURITY</H2
     505><P
     506><B
     507CLASS="COMMAND"
     508>arping</B
     509> requires <CODE
     510CLASS="CONSTANT"
     511>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     512> capability
     513to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     514because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.</P
     515></DIV
     516><DIV
     517CLASS="REFSECT1"
     518><A
     519NAME="AEN590"
     520></A
     521><H2
     522>AVAILABILITY</H2
     523><P
     524><B
     525CLASS="COMMAND"
     526>arping</B
     527> is part of <TT
     528CLASS="FILENAME"
     529>iputils</TT
     530> package
     531and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     532<A
     533HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     534TARGET="_top"
     535>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     536>.</P
     537></DIV
     538><DIV
     539CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     540><HR
     541ALIGN="LEFT"
     542WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     543SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     556>Prev</A
     557></TD
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     559WIDTH="34%"
     560ALIGN="center"
     561VALIGN="top"
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     563HREF="index.html"
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     565>Home</A
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     568WIDTH="33%"
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     575></TD
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     577><TR
     578><TD
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     582>ping</TD
     583><TD
     584WIDTH="34%"
     585ALIGN="center"
     586VALIGN="top"
     587>&nbsp;</TD
     588><TD
     589WIDTH="33%"
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     592>clockdiff</TD
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     598>
     599 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/r596.html iputils-s20101006/doc/r596.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
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     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>clockdiff</TITLE
     6><META
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
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     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="CLOCKDIFF"
     71></A
     72>clockdiff</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN601"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>clockdiff&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN604"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>clockdiff</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-o</CODE
     95>] [<CODE
     96CLASS="OPTION"
     97>-o1</CODE
     98>] {<TT
     99CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     100><I
     101>destination</I
     102></TT
     103>}</P
     104></DIV
     105><DIV
     106CLASS="REFSECT1"
     107><A
     108NAME="AEN613"
     109></A
     110><H2
     111>DESCRIPTION</H2
     112><P
     113><B
     114CLASS="COMMAND"
     115>clockdiff</B
     116> Measures clock difference between us and
     117<TT
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     119><I
     120>destination</I
     121></TT
     122> with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     123<A
     124HREF="r596.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     125>[2]</A
     126>
     127packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     128<A
     129HREF="r596.html#CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     130>[3]</A
     131>
     132option added to ICMP ECHO.
     133<A
     134HREF="r596.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     135>[1]</A
     136></P
     137></DIV
     138><DIV
     139CLASS="REFSECT1"
     140><A
     141NAME="AEN621"
     142></A
     143><H2
     144>OPTIONS</H2
     145><P
     146></P
     147><DIV
     148CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     149><DL
     150><DT
     151><CODE
     152CLASS="OPTION"
     153>-o</CODE
     154></DT
     155><DD
     156><P
     157>Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     158messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     159ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris &lt;2.4).
     160  </P
     161></DD
     162><DT
     163><CODE
     164CLASS="OPTION"
     165>-o1</CODE
     166></DT
     167><DD
     168><P
     169>Slightly different form of <CODE
     170CLASS="OPTION"
     171>-o</CODE
     172>, namely it uses three-term
     173IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     174What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     175<CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-o</CODE
     178> is better for Linux.
     179  </P
     180></DD
     181></DL
     182></DIV
     183></DIV
     184><DIV
     185CLASS="REFSECT1"
     186><A
     187NAME="AEN636"
     188></A
     189><H2
     190>WARNINGS</H2
     191><P
     192></P
     193><UL
     194><LI
     195><P
     196>Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     197by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     198 </P
     199></LI
     200><LI
     201><P
     202>Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris&gt;2.4), when
     203run <B
     204CLASS="COMMAND"
     205>xntpd</B
     206>. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     207which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     208randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     209use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     210 </P
     211></LI
     212><LI
     213><P
     214><B
     215CLASS="COMMAND"
     216>clockdiff</B
     217> shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     218 </P
     219></LI
     220></UL
     221></DIV
     222><DIV
     223CLASS="REFSECT1"
     224><A
     225NAME="AEN647"
     226></A
     227><H2
     228>SEE ALSO</H2
     229><P
     230><A
     231HREF="r3.html"
     232><SPAN
     233CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     234><SPAN
     235CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     236>ping</SPAN
     237>(8)</SPAN
     238></A
     239>,
     240<A
     241HREF="r437.html"
     242><SPAN
     243CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     244><SPAN
     245CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     246>arping</SPAN
     247>(8)</SPAN
     248></A
     249>,
     250<A
     251HREF="r790.html"
     252><SPAN
     253CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     254><SPAN
     255CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     256>tracepath</SPAN
     257>(8)</SPAN
     258></A
     259>.</P
     260></DIV
     261><DIV
     262CLASS="REFSECT1"
     263><A
     264NAME="AEN662"
     265></A
     266><H2
     267>REFERENCES</H2
     268><P
     269>[1] <A
     270NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     271></A
     272>ICMP ECHO,
     273<A
     274HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc792.txt"
     275TARGET="_top"
     276>RFC0792, page 14</A
     277>.</P
     278><P
     279>[2] <A
     280NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     281></A
     282>ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     283<A
     284HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc792.txt"
     285TARGET="_top"
     286>RFC0792, page 16</A
     287>.</P
     288><P
     289>[3] <A
     290NAME="CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     291></A
     292>IP TIMESTAMP option,
     293<A
     294HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc791.txt"
     295TARGET="_top"
     296>RFC0791, 3.1, page 16</A
     297>.</P
     298></DIV
     299><DIV
     300CLASS="REFSECT1"
     301><A
     302NAME="AEN673"
     303></A
     304><H2
     305>AUTHOR</H2
     306><P
     307><B
     308CLASS="COMMAND"
     309>clockdiff</B
     310> was compiled by
     311<A
     312HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     313TARGET="_top"
     314>Alexey Kuznetsov
     315&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     316>. It was based on code borrowed
     317from BSD <B
     318CLASS="COMMAND"
     319>timed</B
     320> daemon.
     321It is now maintained by
     322<A
     323HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     324TARGET="_top"
     325>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     326&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     327>.</P
     328></DIV
     329><DIV
     330CLASS="REFSECT1"
     331><A
     332NAME="AEN680"
     333></A
     334><H2
     335>SECURITY</H2
     336><P
     337><B
     338CLASS="COMMAND"
     339>clockdiff</B
     340> requires <CODE
     341CLASS="CONSTANT"
     342>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     343> capability
     344to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     345></DIV
     346><DIV
     347CLASS="REFSECT1"
     348><A
     349NAME="AEN685"
     350></A
     351><H2
     352>AVAILABILITY</H2
     353><P
     354><B
     355CLASS="COMMAND"
     356>clockdiff</B
     357> is part of <TT
     358CLASS="FILENAME"
     359>iputils</TT
     360> package
     361and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     362<A
     363HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     364TARGET="_top"
     365>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     366>.</P
     367></DIV
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     369CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
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     417>&nbsp;</TD
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  • iputils-s20101006

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     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="RARPD"
     71></A
     72>rarpd</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN696"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rarpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN699"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-aAvde</CODE
     95>] [-b <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>bootdir</I
     99></TT
     100>] [<TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>interface</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN708"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115>Listens
     116<A
     117HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc903.txt"
     118TARGET="_top"
     119>RARP</A
     120>
     121requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     122is found in <TT
     123CLASS="FILENAME"
     124>/etc/ethers</TT
     125> database and
     126obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     127for attached network, <B
     128CLASS="COMMAND"
     129>rarpd</B
     130> answers to client with RARPD
     131reply carrying an IP address.</P
     132><P
     133>To allow multiple boot servers on the network <B
     134CLASS="COMMAND"
     135>rarpd</B
     136>
     137optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     138It should have form <KBD
     139CLASS="USERINPUT"
     140>Hexadecimal_IP.ARCH</KBD
     141>, f.e. to load
     142sparc 193.233.7.98 <TT
     143CLASS="FILENAME"
     144>C1E90762.SUN4M</TT
     145> is linked to
     146an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory <TT
     147CLASS="FILENAME"
     148>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     149>.</P
     150></DIV
     151><DIV
     152CLASS="REFSECT1"
     153><A
     154NAME="AEN719"
     155></A
     156><H2
     157>WARNING</H2
     158><P
     159>This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     160<A
     161HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc951.txt"
     162TARGET="_top"
     163>BOOTP</A
     164>
     165and later
     166<A
     167HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2131.txt"
     168TARGET="_top"
     169>DHCP</A
     170> protocols.
     171However, some clients really still need this to boot.</P
     172></DIV
     173><DIV
     174CLASS="REFSECT1"
     175><A
     176NAME="AEN724"
     177></A
     178><H2
     179>OPTIONS</H2
     180><P
     181></P
     182><DIV
     183CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     184><DL
     185><DT
     186><CODE
     187CLASS="OPTION"
     188>-a</CODE
     189></DT
     190><DD
     191><P
     192>Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     193option, its function is overridden with <TT
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     195><I
     196>interface</I
     197></TT
     198>
     199argument. It should not be used.
     200  </P
     201></DD
     202><DT
     203><CODE
     204CLASS="OPTION"
     205>-A</CODE
     206></DT
     207><DD
     208><P
     209>Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     210use ARP by some unknown reason.
     211  </P
     212></DD
     213><DT
     214><CODE
     215CLASS="OPTION"
     216>-v</CODE
     217></DT
     218><DD
     219><P
     220>Be verbose.
     221  </P
     222></DD
     223><DT
     224><CODE
     225CLASS="OPTION"
     226>-d</CODE
     227></DT
     228><DD
     229><P
     230>Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     231  </P
     232></DD
     233><DT
     234><CODE
     235CLASS="OPTION"
     236>-e</CODE
     237></DT
     238><DD
     239><P
     240>Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     241resolves to a valid IP address using <TT
     242CLASS="FILENAME"
     243>/etc/ethers</TT
     244>
     245database and DNS.
     246  </P
     247></DD
     248><DT
     249><CODE
     250CLASS="OPTION"
     251>-b <TT
     252CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     253><I
     254>bootdir</I
     255></TT
     256></CODE
     257></DT
     258><DD
     259><P
     260>TFTP boot directory. Default is <TT
     261CLASS="FILENAME"
     262>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     263>
     264  </P
     265></DD
     266></DL
     267></DIV
     268></DIV
     269><DIV
     270CLASS="REFSECT1"
     271><A
     272NAME="AEN761"
     273></A
     274><H2
     275>SEE ALSO</H2
     276><P
     277><A
     278HREF="r437.html"
     279><SPAN
     280CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     281><SPAN
     282CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     283>arping</SPAN
     284>(8)</SPAN
     285></A
     286>,
     287<A
     288HREF="r949.html"
     289><SPAN
     290CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     291><SPAN
     292CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     293>tftpd</SPAN
     294>(8)</SPAN
     295></A
     296>.</P
     297></DIV
     298><DIV
     299CLASS="REFSECT1"
     300><A
     301NAME="AEN772"
     302></A
     303><H2
     304>AUTHOR</H2
     305><P
     306><B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>rarpd</B
     309> was written by
     310<A
     311HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     312TARGET="_top"
     313>Alexey Kuznetsov
     314&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     315>.
     316It is now maintained by
     317<A
     318HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     319TARGET="_top"
     320>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     321&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     322>.</P
     323></DIV
     324><DIV
     325CLASS="REFSECT1"
     326><A
     327NAME="AEN778"
     328></A
     329><H2
     330>SECURITY</H2
     331><P
     332><B
     333CLASS="COMMAND"
     334>rarpd</B
     335> requires <CODE
     336CLASS="CONSTANT"
     337>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     338> capability
     339to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs <CODE
     340CLASS="CONSTANT"
     341>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     342>
     343to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     344but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     345are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     346not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     347are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.</P
     348></DIV
     349><DIV
     350CLASS="REFSECT1"
     351><A
     352NAME="AEN784"
     353></A
     354><H2
     355>AVAILABILITY</H2
     356><P
     357><B
     358CLASS="COMMAND"
     359>rarpd</B
     360> is part of <TT
     361CLASS="FILENAME"
     362>iputils</TT
     363> package
     364and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     365<A
     366HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     367TARGET="_top"
     368>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     369>.</P
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TRACEPATH"
     71></A
     72>tracepath</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN795"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tracepath, tracepath6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN798"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tracepath</B
     92>  [-n] [-b] [-l <TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>pktlen</I
     96></TT
     97>] {<TT
     98CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     99><I
     100>destination</I
     101></TT
     102>} [<TT
     103CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     104><I
     105>port</I
     106></TT
     107>]</P
     108></DIV
     109><DIV
     110CLASS="REFSECT1"
     111><A
     112NAME="AEN809"
     113></A
     114><H2
     115>DESCRIPTION</H2
     116><P
     117>It traces path to <TT
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     119><I
     120>destination</I
     121></TT
     122> discovering MTU along this path.
     123It uses UDP port <TT
     124CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     125><I
     126>port</I
     127></TT
     128> or some random port.
     129It is similar to <B
     130CLASS="COMMAND"
     131>traceroute</B
     132>, only does not require superuser
     133privileges and has no fancy options.</P
     134><P
     135><B
     136CLASS="COMMAND"
     137>tracepath6</B
     138> is good replacement for <B
     139CLASS="COMMAND"
     140>traceroute6</B
     141>
     142and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     143The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     144IP routers do not return enough information in icmp error messages.
     145Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     146For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     147of UDP ports to maintain trace history.</P
     148></DIV
     149><DIV
     150CLASS="REFSECT1"
     151><A
     152NAME="AEN818"
     153></A
     154><H2
     155>OPTIONS</H2
     156><P
     157></P
     158><DIV
     159CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     160><DL
     161><DT
     162><CODE
     163CLASS="OPTION"
     164>-n</CODE
     165></DT
     166><DD
     167><P
     168>Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     169  </P
     170></DD
     171><DT
     172><CODE
     173CLASS="OPTION"
     174>-b</CODE
     175></DT
     176><DD
     177><P
     178>Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     179  </P
     180></DD
     181><DT
     182><CODE
     183CLASS="OPTION"
     184>-l</CODE
     185></DT
     186><DD
     187><P
     188>Sets the initial packet length to <TT
     189CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     190><I
     191>pktlen</I
     192></TT
     193> instead of
     19465536 for <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>tracepath</B
     197> or 128000 for <B
     198CLASS="COMMAND"
     199>tracepath6</B
     200>.
     201  </P
     202></DD
     203></DL
     204></DIV
     205></DIV
     206><DIV
     207CLASS="REFSECT1"
     208><A
     209NAME="AEN839"
     210></A
     211><H2
     212>OUTPUT</H2
     213><P
     214><P
     215CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
     216>root@mops:~&nbsp;#&nbsp;tracepath6&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2<br>
     217&nbsp;1?:&nbsp;[LOCALHOST]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1500<br>
     218&nbsp;1:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.411ms<br>
     219&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;asymm&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.390ms&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480<br>
     220&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;463.514ms&nbsp;reached<br>
     221&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Resume:&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480&nbsp;hops&nbsp;2&nbsp;back&nbsp;2</P
     222></P
     223><P
     224>The first column shows <TT
     225CLASS="LITERAL"
     226>TTL</TT
     227> of the probe, followed by colon.
     228Usually value of <TT
     229CLASS="LITERAL"
     230>TTL</TT
     231> is obtained from reply from network,
     232but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     233we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.</P
     234><P
     235>The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     236It is either address of router or word <TT
     237CLASS="LITERAL"
     238>[LOCALHOST]</TT
     239>, if
     240the probe was not sent to the network.</P
     241><P
     242>The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     243the correspinding hetwork hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     244Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     245If the path is asymmetric
     246or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     247between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     248following keyword <TT
     249CLASS="LITERAL"
     250>async</TT
     251>. This information is not reliable.
     252F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     253with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.</P
     254><P
     255>The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     256it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     257guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     258different when the path is asymmetric.</P
     259></DIV
     260><DIV
     261CLASS="REFSECT1"
     262><A
     263NAME="AEN851"
     264></A
     265><H2
     266>SEE ALSO</H2
     267><P
     268><SPAN
     269CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     270><SPAN
     271CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     272>traceroute</SPAN
     273>(8)</SPAN
     274>,
     275<A
     276HREF="r884.html"
     277><SPAN
     278CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     279><SPAN
     280CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     281>traceroute6</SPAN
     282>(8)</SPAN
     283></A
     284>,
     285<A
     286HREF="r3.html"
     287><SPAN
     288CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     289><SPAN
     290CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     291>ping</SPAN
     292>(8)</SPAN
     293></A
     294>.</P
     295></DIV
     296><DIV
     297CLASS="REFSECT1"
     298><A
     299NAME="AEN865"
     300></A
     301><H2
     302>AUTHOR</H2
     303><P
     304><B
     305CLASS="COMMAND"
     306>tracepath</B
     307> was written by
     308<A
     309HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     310TARGET="_top"
     311>Alexey Kuznetsov
     312&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     313>.</P
     314></DIV
     315><DIV
     316CLASS="REFSECT1"
     317><A
     318NAME="AEN870"
     319></A
     320><H2
     321>SECURITY</H2
     322><P
     323>No security issues.</P
     324><P
     325>This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     326<B
     327CLASS="COMMAND"
     328>tracepath</B
     329> is not a privileged program, unlike
     330<B
     331CLASS="COMMAND"
     332>traceroute</B
     333>, <B
     334CLASS="COMMAND"
     335>ping</B
     336> and other beasts of this kind.
     337<B
     338CLASS="COMMAND"
     339>tracepath</B
     340> may be executed by everyone who has some access
     341to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     342using given port.</P
     343></DIV
     344><DIV
     345CLASS="REFSECT1"
     346><A
     347NAME="AEN878"
     348></A
     349><H2
     350>AVAILABILITY</H2
     351><P
     352><B
     353CLASS="COMMAND"
     354>tracepath</B
     355> is part of <TT
     356CLASS="FILENAME"
     357>iputils</TT
     358> package
     359and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     360<A
     361HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     362TARGET="_top"
     363>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     364>.</P
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     415>&nbsp;</TD
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  • iputils-s20101006

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     70NAME="TRACEROUTE6"
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     72>traceroute6</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN889"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>traceroute6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN892"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>traceroute6</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-dnrvV</CODE
     95>] [-i <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>interface</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-m <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>max_ttl</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-p <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>port</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-q <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>max_probes</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-s <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>source</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-w <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>wait time</I
     124></TT
     125>] {<TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>destination</I
     129></TT
     130>} [<TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>size</I
     134></TT
     135>]</P
     136></DIV
     137><DIV
     138CLASS="REFSECT1"
     139><A
     140NAME="AEN913"
     141></A
     142><H2
     143>DESCRIPTION</H2
     144><P
     145>Description can be found in
     146<SPAN
     147CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     148><SPAN
     149CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     150>traceroute</SPAN
     151>(8)</SPAN
     152>,
     153all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     154the description from there.</P
     155></DIV
     156><DIV
     157CLASS="REFSECT1"
     158><A
     159NAME="AEN919"
     160></A
     161><H2
     162>SEE ALSO</H2
     163><P
     164><SPAN
     165CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     166><SPAN
     167CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     168>traceroute</SPAN
     169>(8)</SPAN
     170>,
     171<SPAN
     172CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     173><SPAN
     174CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     175>tracepath</SPAN
     176>(8)</SPAN
     177>,
     178<SPAN
     179CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     180><SPAN
     181CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     182>ping</SPAN
     183>(8)</SPAN
     184>.</P
     185></DIV
     186><DIV
     187CLASS="REFSECT1"
     188><A
     189NAME="AEN931"
     190></A
     191><H2
     192>HISTORY</H2
     193><P
     194>This program has long history. Author of <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>traceroute</B
     197>
     198is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     199based on a port of <B
     200CLASS="COMMAND"
     201>traceroute</B
     202> to IPv6 published
     203in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     204to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     205<A
     206HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     207TARGET="_top"
     208>Alexey Kuznetsov
     209&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     210>. And eventually entered
     211<B
     212CLASS="COMMAND"
     213>iputils</B
     214> package.</P
     215></DIV
     216><DIV
     217CLASS="REFSECT1"
     218><A
     219NAME="AEN938"
     220></A
     221><H2
     222>SECURITY</H2
     223><P
     224><B
     225CLASS="COMMAND"
     226>tracepath6</B
     227> requires <CODE
     228CLASS="CONSTANT"
     229>CAP_NET_RAWIO</CODE
     230> capability
     231to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     232></DIV
     233><DIV
     234CLASS="REFSECT1"
     235><A
     236NAME="AEN943"
     237></A
     238><H2
     239>AVAILABILITY</H2
     240><P
     241><B
     242CLASS="COMMAND"
     243>traceroute6</B
     244> is part of <TT
     245CLASS="FILENAME"
     246>iputils</TT
     247> package
     248and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     249<A
     250HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     251TARGET="_top"
     252>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     253>.</P
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     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN954"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tftpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN957"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tftpd</B
     92>  {<TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>directory</I
     96></TT
     97>}</P
     98></DIV
     99><DIV
     100CLASS="REFSECT1"
     101><A
     102NAME="AEN962"
     103></A
     104><H2
     105>DESCRIPTION</H2
     106><P
     107><B
     108CLASS="COMMAND"
     109>tftpd</B
     110> is a server which supports the DARPA
     111Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     112(<A
     113HREF="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1350.txt"
     114TARGET="_top"
     115>RFC1350</A
     116>).
     117The TFTP server is started
     118by <SPAN
     119CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     120><SPAN
     121CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     122>inetd</SPAN
     123>(8)</SPAN
     124>.</P
     125><P
     126><TT
     127CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     128><I
     129>directory</I
     130></TT
     131> is required argument; if it is not given
     132<B
     133CLASS="COMMAND"
     134>tftpd</B
     135> aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     136via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting <B
     137CLASS="COMMAND"
     138>tftpd</B
     139> to this directory.
     140File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     141administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.</P
     142><P
     143>It is in difference of variants of <B
     144CLASS="COMMAND"
     145>tftpd</B
     146> usually distributed
     147with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     148file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     149default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     150behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     151to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     152And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     153it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients. </P
     154><P
     155>In the case when <B
     156CLASS="COMMAND"
     157>tftpd</B
     158> is used together with
     159<A
     160HREF="r691.html"
     161><SPAN
     162CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     163><SPAN
     164CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     165>rarpd</SPAN
     166>(8)</SPAN
     167></A
     168>,
     169tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     170that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     171its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     172conventions. See
     173<A
     174HREF="r691.html"
     175><SPAN
     176CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     177><SPAN
     178CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     179>rarpd</SPAN
     180>(8)</SPAN
     181></A
     182>
     183for more details.</P
     184></DIV
     185><DIV
     186CLASS="REFSECT1"
     187><A
     188NAME="AEN986"
     189></A
     190><H2
     191>SECURITY</H2
     192><P
     193>TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     194Due to this capital flaw <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>tftpd</B
     197> is not able to restrict
     198access to files and will allow only publically readable
     199files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     200exist and are publically writable.</P
     201><P
     202>Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP <SPAN
     203CLASS="emphasis"
     204><I
     205CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     206>must not</I
     207></SPAN
     208>
     209contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     210to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     211such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     212publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     213<SPAN
     214CLASS="emphasis"
     215><I
     216CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     217>unencrypted</I
     218></SPAN
     219> passwords and may contain some information
     220about the network, which you were not going to make public.</P
     221><P
     222>The <B
     223CLASS="COMMAND"
     224>tftpd</B
     225> server should be executed by <B
     226CLASS="COMMAND"
     227>inetd</B
     228>
     229with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     230access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     231as superuser occasionally, <B
     232CLASS="COMMAND"
     233>tftpd</B
     234> drops its UID and GID
     235to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     236However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     237for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.</P
     238></DIV
     239><DIV
     240CLASS="REFSECT1"
     241><A
     242NAME="AEN997"
     243></A
     244><H2
     245>SEE ALSO</H2
     246><P
     247><A
     248HREF="r691.html"
     249><SPAN
     250CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     251><SPAN
     252CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     253>rarpd</SPAN
     254>(8)</SPAN
     255></A
     256>,
     257<SPAN
     258CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     259><SPAN
     260CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     261>tftp</SPAN
     262>(1)</SPAN
     263>,
     264<SPAN
     265CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     266><SPAN
     267CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     268>inetd</SPAN
     269>(8)</SPAN
     270>.</P
     271></DIV
     272><DIV
     273CLASS="REFSECT1"
     274><A
     275NAME="AEN1010"
     276></A
     277><H2
     278>HISTORY</H2
     279><P
     280>The <B
     281CLASS="COMMAND"
     282>tftpd</B
     283> command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     284is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).</P
     285><P
     286>It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     287(<CODE
     288CLASS="CONSTANT"
     289>MSG_CONFIRM</CODE
     290>) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     291not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     292However, this is full functional and can be used in production.</P
     293></DIV
     294><DIV
     295CLASS="REFSECT1"
     296><A
     297NAME="AEN1016"
     298></A
     299><H2
     300>AVAILABILITY</H2
     301><P
     302><B
     303CLASS="COMMAND"
     304>tftpd</B
     305> is part of <TT
     306CLASS="FILENAME"
     307>iputils</TT
     308> package
     309and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     310<A
     311HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     312TARGET="_top"
     313>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     314>.</P
     315></DIV
     316><DIV
     317CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     318><HR
     319ALIGN="LEFT"
     320WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     321SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     323BORDER="0"
     324CELLPADDING="0"
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     327><TD
     328WIDTH="33%"
     329ALIGN="left"
     330VALIGN="top"
     331><A
     332HREF="r884.html"
     333ACCESSKEY="P"
     334>Prev</A
     335></TD
     336><TD
     337WIDTH="34%"
     338ALIGN="center"
     339VALIGN="top"
     340><A
     341HREF="index.html"
     342ACCESSKEY="H"
     343>Home</A
     344></TD
     345><TD
     346WIDTH="33%"
     347ALIGN="right"
     348VALIGN="top"
     349><A
     350HREF="r1022.html"
     351ACCESSKEY="N"
     352>Next</A
     353></TD
     354></TR
     355><TR
     356><TD
     357WIDTH="33%"
     358ALIGN="left"
     359VALIGN="top"
     360>traceroute6</TD
     361><TD
     362WIDTH="34%"
     363ALIGN="center"
     364VALIGN="top"
     365>&nbsp;</TD
     366><TD
     367WIDTH="33%"
     368ALIGN="right"
     369VALIGN="top"
     370>rdisc</TD
     371></TR
     372></TABLE
     373></DIV
     374></BODY
     375></HTML
     376>
     377 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/rarpd.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/rarpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RARPD" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rarpd \- answer RARP REQUESTs
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-aAvde\fR] [\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR] [\fB\fIinterface\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Listens
     16RARP
     17requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     18is found in \fI/etc/ethers\fR database and
     19obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     20for attached network, \fBrarpd\fR answers to client with RARPD
     21reply carrying an IP address.
     22.PP
     23To allow multiple boot servers on the network \fBrarpd\fR
     24optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     25It should have form \fBHexadecimal_IP.ARCH\fR, f.e. to load
     26sparc 193.233.7.98 \fIC1E90762.SUN4M\fR is linked to
     27an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR.
     28.SH "WARNING"
     29.PP
     30This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     31BOOTP
     32and later
     33DHCP protocols.
     34However, some clients really still need this to boot.
     35.SH "OPTIONS"
     36.TP
     37\fB-a\fR
     38Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     39option, its function is overridden with \fIinterface\fR
     40argument. It should not be used.
     41.TP
     42\fB-A\fR
     43Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     44use ARP by some unknown reason.
     45.TP
     46\fB-v\fR
     47Be verbose.
     48.TP
     49\fB-d\fR
     50Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     51.TP
     52\fB-e\fR
     53Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     54resolves to a valid IP address using \fI/etc/ethers\fR
     55database and DNS.
     56.TP
     57\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR
     58TFTP boot directory. Default is \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR
     59.SH "SEE ALSO"
     60.PP
     61\fBarping\fR(8),
     62\fBtftpd\fR(8).
     63.SH "AUTHOR"
     64.PP
     65\fBrarpd\fR was written by
     66Alexey Kuznetsov
     67<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     68It is now maintained by
     69YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     70<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     71.SH "SECURITY"
     72.PP
     73\fBrarpd\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO capability
     74to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs CAP_NET_ADMIN
     75to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     76but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     77are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     78not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     79are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.
     80.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     81.PP
     82\fBrarpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     83and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     84http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/rdisc.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/rdisc.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RDISC" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rdisc \- network router discovery daemon
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBrdisc\fR [\fB-abdfstvV\fR] [\fB\fIsend_address\fB\fR] [\fB\fIreceive_address\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBrdisc\fR implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     16\fBrdisc\fR is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     17routing tables with default routes.
     18.PP
     19\fBrdisc\fR listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     20(or \fIreceive_address\fR provided it is given)
     21for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     22messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     23with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     24the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     25and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     26for each one of them.
     27.PP
     28Optionally, \fBrdisc\fR can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     29themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     30to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     31(or \fIsend_address\fR provided it is given)
     32when it is started.
     33.PP
     34A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     35no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     36timer expires before a new
     37\fBadvertise\fR message is received from the router.
     38The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     39\fBadvertise\fR
     40message with the preference being maximally negative.
     41.PP
     42Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     43and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e \fBgated\fR.
     44.SH "OPTIONS"
     45.TP
     46\fB-a\fR
     47Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     48\fBadvertise\fR messages.
     49Normally \fBrdisc\fR only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     50tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     51.TP
     52\fB-b\fR
     53Opposite to \fB-a\fR, i.e. install only router with the best
     54preference value. It is default behaviour.
     55.TP
     56\fB-d\fR
     57Send debugging messages to syslog.
     58.TP
     59\fB-f\fR
     60Run \fBrdisc\fR forever even if no routers are found.
     61Normally \fBrdisc\fR gives up if it has not received any
     62\fBadvertise\fR message after after soliciting three times,
     63in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     64If \fB-f\fR is not specified in the first form then
     65\fB-s\fR must be specified.
     66.TP
     67\fB-s\fR
     68Send three \fBsolicitation\fR messages initially to quickly discover
     69the routers when the system is booted.
     70When \fB-s\fR is specified \fBrdisc\fR
     71exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     72This can be overridden with the \fB-f\fR option.
     73.TP
     74\fB-t\fR
     75Test mode. Do not go to background.
     76.TP
     77\fB-v\fR
     78Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     79.TP
     80\fB-V\fR
     81Print version and exit.
     82.SH "HISTORY"
     83.PP
     84This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     85notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     86Alexey Kuznetsov
     87<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     88It is now maintained by
     89YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     90<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     91.SH "SEE ALSO"
     92.PP
     93\fBicmp\fR(7),
     94\fBinet\fR(7),
     95\fBping\fR(8).
     96.SH "REFERENCES"
     97.PP
     98Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     99RFC1256, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     100Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.
     101.SH "SECURITY"
     102.PP
     103\fBrdisc\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO to listen
     104and send ICMP messages and capability CAP_NET_ADMIN
     105to update routing tables.
     106.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     107.PP
     108\fBrdisc\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     109and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     110http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/tftpd.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/tftpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TFTPD" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tftpd \- Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtftpd\fR \fB\fIdirectory\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBtftpd\fR is a server which supports the DARPA
     16Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     17(RFC1350).
     18The TFTP server is started
     19by \fBinetd\fR(8).
     20.PP
     21\fIdirectory\fR is required argument; if it is not given
     22\fBtftpd\fR aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     23via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting \fBtftpd\fR to this directory.
     24File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     25administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.
     26.PP
     27It is in difference of variants of \fBtftpd\fR usually distributed
     28with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     29file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     30default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     31behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     32to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     33And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     34it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients.
     35.PP
     36In the case when \fBtftpd\fR is used together with
     37\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     38tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     39that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     40its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     41conventions. See
     42\fBrarpd\fR(8)
     43for more details.
     44.SH "SECURITY"
     45.PP
     46TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     47Due to this capital flaw \fBtftpd\fR is not able to restrict
     48access to files and will allow only publically readable
     49files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     50exist and are publically writable.
     51.PP
     52Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP \fBmust not\fR
     53contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     54to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     55such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     56publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     57\fBunencrypted\fR passwords and may contain some information
     58about the network, which you were not going to make public.
     59.PP
     60The \fBtftpd\fR server should be executed by \fBinetd\fR
     61with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     62access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     63as superuser occasionally, \fBtftpd\fR drops its UID and GID
     64to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     65However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     66for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.
     67.SH "SEE ALSO"
     68.PP
     69\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     70\fBtftp\fR(1),
     71\fBinetd\fR(8).
     72.SH "HISTORY"
     73.PP
     74The \fBtftpd\fR command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     75is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).
     76.PP
     77It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     78(MSG_CONFIRM) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     79not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     80However, this is full functional and can be used in production.
     81.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     82.PP
     83\fBtftpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     84and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     85http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20101006

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/tracepath.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/tracepath.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEPATH" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tracepath, tracepath6 \- traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtracepath\fR [\fB-n\fR] [\fB-b\fR] [\fB-l \fIpktlen\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR [\fB\fIport\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15It traces path to \fIdestination\fR discovering MTU along this path.
     16It uses UDP port \fIport\fR or some random port.
     17It is similar to \fBtraceroute\fR, only does not require superuser
     18privileges and has no fancy options.
     19.PP
     20\fBtracepath6\fR is good replacement for \fBtraceroute6\fR
     21and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     22The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     23IP routers do not return enough information in icmp error messages.
     24Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     25For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     26of UDP ports to maintain trace history.
     27.SH "OPTIONS"
     28.TP
     29\fB-n\fR
     30Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     31.TP
     32\fB-b\fR
     33Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     34.TP
     35\fB-l\fR
     36Sets the initial packet length to \fIpktlen\fR instead of
     3765536 for \fBtracepath\fR or 128000 for \fBtracepath6\fR.
     38.SH "OUTPUT"
     39.PP
     40
     41.nf
     42root@mops:~ # tracepath6 3ffe:2400:0:109::2
     43 1?: [LOCALHOST]                              pmtu 1500
     44 1:  dust.inr.ac.ru                   0.411ms
     45 2:  dust.inr.ac.ru        asymm  1   0.390ms pmtu 1480
     46 2:  3ffe:2400:0:109::2               463.514ms reached
     47     Resume: pmtu 1480 hops 2 back 2
     48.fi
     49.PP
     50The first column shows TTL of the probe, followed by colon.
     51Usually value of TTL is obtained from reply from network,
     52but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     53we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.
     54.PP
     55The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     56It is either address of router or word [LOCALHOST], if
     57the probe was not sent to the network.
     58.PP
     59The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     60the correspinding hetwork hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     61Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     62If the path is asymmetric
     63or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     64between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     65following keyword async. This information is not reliable.
     66F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     67with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.
     68.PP
     69The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     70it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     71guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     72different when the path is asymmetric.
     73.SH "SEE ALSO"
     74.PP
     75\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     76\fBtraceroute6\fR(8),
     77\fBping\fR(8).
     78.SH "AUTHOR"
     79.PP
     80\fBtracepath\fR was written by
     81Alexey Kuznetsov
     82<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     83.SH "SECURITY"
     84.PP
     85No security issues.
     86.PP
     87This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     88\fBtracepath\fR is not a privileged program, unlike
     89\fBtraceroute\fR, \fBping\fR and other beasts of this kind.
     90\fBtracepath\fR may be executed by everyone who has some access
     91to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     92using given port.
     93.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     94.PP
     95\fBtracepath\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     96and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     97http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • doc/traceroute6.8

    diff -Naur iputils-s20101006.orig/doc/traceroute6.8 iputils-s20101006/doc/traceroute6.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEROUTE6" "8" "08 January 2011" "iputils-101006" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8traceroute6 \- traces path to a network host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtraceroute6\fR [\fB-dnrvV\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_ttl\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] [\fB-q \fImax_probes\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIwait time\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR [\fB\fIsize\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Description can be found in
     16\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     17all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     18the description from there.
     19.SH "SEE ALSO"
     20.PP
     21\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     22\fBtracepath\fR(8),
     23\fBping\fR(8).
     24.SH "HISTORY"
     25.PP
     26This program has long history. Author of \fBtraceroute\fR
     27is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     28based on a port of \fBtraceroute\fR to IPv6 published
     29in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     30to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     31Alexey Kuznetsov
     32<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. And eventually entered
     33\fBiputils\fR package.
     34.SH "SECURITY"
     35.PP
     36\fBtracepath6\fR requires CAP_NET_RAWIO capability
     37to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     38.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     39.PP
     40\fBtraceroute6\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     41and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     42http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
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