Ticket #1164: iputils-s20161105-build-1.patch

File iputils-s20161105-build-1.patch, 156.3 KB (added by William Harrington, 3 years ago)

Iputils patch to simplify installation

  • iputils-s20161105

    Submitted By: William Harrington <kb0iic at cross-lfs dot org>
    Date: 2017-08-25
    Initial Package Version: s20161105
    Upstream Status: None
    Origin: https://github.com/iputils/iputils
    Description: Edit Makefile USE_ Variables and include man pages.
    
    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/Makefile iputils-s20161105/Makefile
    old new  
    2828# sysfs support (with libsysfs - deprecated) [no|yes|static]
    2929USE_SYSFS=no
    3030# IDN support  [yes|no|static]
    31 USE_IDN=yes
     31USE_IDN=no
    3232
    3333# Do not use getifaddrs [no|yes|static]
    3434WITHOUT_IFADDRS=no
     
    3636ARPING_DEFAULT_DEVICE=
    3737
    3838# nettle library for ipv6 ping [yes|no|static]
    39 USE_NETTLE=yes
     39USE_NETTLE=no
    4040# libgcrypt library for ipv6 ping [no|yes|static]
    4141USE_GCRYPT=no
    4242# Crypto library for ping6 [shared|static|no]
    43 USE_CRYPTO=shared
     43USE_CRYPTO=no
    4444# Resolv library for ping6 [yes|static]
    4545USE_RESOLV=yes
    4646# ping6 source routing (deprecated by RFC5095) [no|yes|RFC3542]
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/arping.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/arping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "ARPING" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8arping \- send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-AbDfhqUV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Ping \fIdestination\fR on device \fIinterface\fR by ARP packets,
     16using source address \fIsource\fR.
     17.SH "OPTIONS"
     18.TP
     19\fB-A\fR
     20The same as \fB-U\fR, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     21of ARP REQUEST.
     22.TP
     23\fB-b\fR
     24Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally \fBarping\fR starts
     25from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     26.TP
     27\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     28Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ARP REQUEST
     29packets. With
     30\fIdeadline\fR
     31option, instead wait for
     32\fIcount\fR ARP REPLY packets, or until the timeout expires.
     33.TP
     34\fB-D\fR
     35Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     36RFC2131, 4.4.1.
     37Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     38.TP
     39\fB-f\fR
     40Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     41.TP
     42\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
     43Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets.
     44.TP
     45\fB-h\fR
     46Print help page and exit.
     47.TP
     48\fB-q\fR
     49Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     50.TP
     51\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR
     52IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     53If this option is absent, source address is:
     54.RS
     55.TP 0.2i
     56\(bu
     57In DAD mode (with option \fB-D\fR) set to 0.0.0.0.
     58.TP 0.2i
     59\(bu
     60In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options \fB-U\fR or \fB-A\fR)
     61set to \fIdestination\fR.
     62.TP 0.2i
     63\(bu
     64Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     65.RE
     66.TP
     67\fB-U\fR
     68Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     69No replies are expected.
     70.TP
     71\fB-V\fR
     72Print version of the program and exit.
     73.TP
     74\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     75Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     76\fBarping\fR
     77exits regardless of how many
     78packets have been sent or received. In this case
     79\fBarping\fR
     80does not stop after
     81\fIcount\fR
     82packet are sent, it waits either for
     83\fIdeadline\fR
     84expire or until
     85\fIcount\fR
     86probes are answered.
     87.SH "SEE ALSO"
     88.PP
     89\fBping\fR(8),
     90\fBclockdiff\fR(8),
     91\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     92.SH "AUTHOR"
     93.PP
     94\fBarping\fR was written by
     95Alexey Kuznetsov
     96<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     97It is now maintained by
     98YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     99<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     100.SH "SECURITY"
     101.PP
     102\fBarping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     103to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     104because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.
     105.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     106.PP
     107\fBarping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     108and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     109http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/clockdiff.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/clockdiff.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "CLOCKDIFF" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8clockdiff \- measure clock difference between hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBclockdiff\fR [\fB-o\fR] [\fB-o1\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBclockdiff\fR Measures clock difference between us and
     16\fIdestination\fR with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     17[2]
     18packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     19[3]
     20option added to ICMP ECHO.
     21[1]
     22.SH "OPTIONS"
     23.TP
     24\fB-o\fR
     25Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     26messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     27ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris <2.4).
     28.TP
     29\fB-o1\fR
     30Slightly different form of \fB-o\fR, namely it uses three-term
     31IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     32What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     33\fB-o\fR is better for Linux.
     34.SH "WARNINGS"
     35.TP 0.2i
     36\(bu
     37Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     38by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     39.TP 0.2i
     40\(bu
     41Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris>2.4), when
     42run \fBxntpd\fR. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     43which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     44randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     45use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     46.TP 0.2i
     47\(bu
     48\fBclockdiff\fR shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     49.SH "SEE ALSO"
     50.PP
     51\fBping\fR(8),
     52\fBarping\fR(8),
     53\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     54.SH "REFERENCES"
     55.PP
     56[1] ICMP ECHO,
     57RFC0792, page 14.
     58.PP
     59[2] ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     60RFC0792, page 16.
     61.PP
     62[3] IP TIMESTAMP option,
     63RFC0791, 3.1, page 16.
     64.SH "AUTHOR"
     65.PP
     66\fBclockdiff\fR was compiled by
     67Alexey Kuznetsov
     68<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. It was based on code borrowed
     69from BSD \fBtimed\fR daemon.
     70It is now maintained by
     71YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     72<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75\fBclockdiff\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     76to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     77.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     78.PP
     79\fBclockdiff\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     80and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     81http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/ninfod.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/ninfod.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "NINFOD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8ninfod \- Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBninfod\fR [\fB-dhv\fR] [\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR] [\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Responds to IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620) from clients.
     16Queries can be sent by various implementations of \fBping6\fR command.
     17.SH "OPTIONS"
     18.TP
     19\fB-a\fR
     20Debug mode.  Do not go background.
     21.TP
     22\fB-h\fR
     23Show help.
     24.TP
     25\fB-v\fR
     26Verbose mode.
     27.TP
     28\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR
     29Run as another user.
     30\fIuser\fR can either be username or user ID.
     31.TP
     32\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR
     33File for process-id storage.
     34\fIuser\fR is required to be able to create the file.
     35.SH "SEE ALSO"
     36.PP
     37\fBping\fR(8).
     38.SH "AUTHOR"
     39.PP
     40\fBninfod\fR was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.
     41.SH "COPYING"
     42.PP
     43
     44.nf
     45Copyright (C) 2012 YOSHIFUJI Hideaki.
     46Copyright (C) 2002 USAGI/WIDE Project.
     47All rights reserved.
     48
     49Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
     50modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
     51are met:
     521. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     53   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
     542. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
     55   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
     56   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
     573. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
     58   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
     59   without specific prior written permission.
     60
     61THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
     62ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
     63IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
     64ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
     65FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
     66DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
     67OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
     68HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
     69LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
     70OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
     71SUCH DAMAGE.
     72.fi
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/pg3.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/pg3.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PG3" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8pg3, ipg, pgset \- send stream of UDP packets
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBsource ipg\fR
     12
     13
     14\fBpg\fR
     15
     16
     17\fBpgset\fR \fB\fICOMMAND\fB\fR
     18
     19.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     20.PP
     21\fBipg\fR is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     22to \fBbash\fR. When sourced it loads module \fIpg3\fR and
     23exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     24are \fBpg\fR to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     25and \fBpgset\fR to setup packet generator.
     26.PP
     27\fBpgset\fR can send the following commands to module \fIpg3\fR:
     28.SH "COMMAND"
     29.TP
     30\fBodev \fIDEVICE\fB\fR
     31Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     32warning below.
     33.TP
     34\fBpkt_size \fIBYTES\fB\fR
     35Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     36MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     37and various paddings.
     38.TP
     39\fBfrags \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     40Each packet will contain \fINUMBER\fR of fragments.
     41Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     42fragmented buffers.
     43.TP
     44\fBcount \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     45Send stream of \fINUMBER\fR of packets and stop after this.
     46.TP
     47\fBipg \fITIME\fB\fR
     48Introduce artificial delay between packets of \fITIME\fR
     49microseconds.
     50.TP
     51\fBdst \fIIP_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     52Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     53Beware, never set this address at random. \fBpg3\fR is not a toy,
     54it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     55.TP
     56\fBdst \fIMAC_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     57Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     58Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     59by any node on LAN.
     60.TP
     61\fBstop\fR
     62Abort packet injection.
     63.SH "WARNING"
     64.PP
     65When output device is set to some random device different
     66of hardware Ethernet device, \fBpg3\fR will crash kernel.
     67.PP
     68Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     69which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.
     70.SH "AUTHOR"
     71.PP
     72\fBpg3\fR was written by Robert Olsson <robert.olsson@its.uu.se>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75This can be used only by superuser.
     76.PP
     77This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     78even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     7960 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     80switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     81Use only in test lab environment.
     82.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     83.PP
     84\fBpg3\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     85and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     86http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/ping.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/ping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PING" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8ping \- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBping\fR [\fB-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV46\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-F \fIflowlabel\fB\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR] [\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_option\fB\fR] [\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR] [\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR] [\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR] [\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR] [\fB\fIhop\fB\fR\fI ...\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBping\fR uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     16datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     17ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     18header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary
     19number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.
     20.PP
     21\fBping\fR works with both IPv4 and IPv6. Using only one of them
     22explicitly can be enforced by specifying \fB-4\fR or \fB-6\fR.
     23.PP
     24\fBping\fR can also send IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
     25Intermediate \fIhop\fRs may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).
     26.SH "OPTIONS"
     27.TP
     28\fB-4\fR
     29Use IPv4 only.
     30.TP
     31\fB-6\fR
     32Use IPv6 only.
     33.TP
     34\fB-a\fR
     35Audible ping.
     36.TP
     37\fB-A\fR
     38Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     39effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
     40is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     41On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     42.TP
     43\fB-b\fR
     44Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     45.TP
     46\fB-B\fR
     47Do not allow \fBping\fR to change source address of probes.
     48The address is bound to one selected when \fBping\fR starts.
     49.TP
     50\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     51Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ECHO_REQUEST
     52packets. With
     53\fIdeadline\fR
     54option, \fBping\fR waits for
     55\fIcount\fR ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     56.TP
     57\fB-d\fR
     58Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
     59Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     60.TP
     61\fB-D\fR
     62Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     63each line.
     64.TP
     65\fB-f\fR
     66Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     67while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     68This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     69If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     70outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     71whichever is more.
     72Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     73.TP
     74\fB-F \fIflow label\fB\fR
     75IPv6 only.
     76Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
     77If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     78.TP
     79\fB-h\fR
     80Show help.
     81.TP
     82\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR
     83Wait \fIinterval\fR seconds between sending each packet.
     84The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     85or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     86to values less than 0.2 seconds.
     87.TP
     88\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
     89\fIinterface\fR is either an address, or an interface name.
     90If \fIinterface\fR is an address, it sets source address
     91to specified interface address.
     92If \fIinterface\fR in an interface name, it sets
     93source interface to specified interface.
     94For IPv6, when doing ping to a link-local scope
     95address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
     96\fIdestination\fR, or by this option) is required.
     97.TP
     98\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR
     99If \fIpreload\fR is specified,
     100\fBping\fR sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     101Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     102.TP
     103\fB-L\fR
     104Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     105destination is a multicast address.
     106.TP
     107\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR
     108use \fImark\fR to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     109for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     110routing to select specific outbound processing.
     111.TP
     112\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_opt\fB\fR
     113Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     114\fIpmtudisc_option\fR may be either \fIdo\fR
     115(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     116\fIwant\fR (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     117is large), or \fIdont\fR (do not set DF flag).
     118.TP
     119\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR
     120IPv6 only.
     121Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     122CAP_NET_RAW capability is required.
     123.RS
     124.TP
     125\fBhelp\fR
     126Show help for NI support.
     127.RE
     128.RS
     129.TP
     130\fBname\fR
     131Queries for Node Names.
     132.RE
     133.RS
     134.TP
     135\fBipv6\fR
     136Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     137.RS
     138.TP
     139\fBipv6-global\fR
     140Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.
     141.RE
     142.RS
     143.TP
     144\fBipv6-sitelocal\fR
     145Request IPv6 site-local addresses.
     146.RE
     147.RS
     148.TP
     149\fBipv6-linklocal\fR
     150Request IPv6 link-local addresses.
     151.RE
     152.RS
     153.TP
     154\fBipv6-all\fR
     155Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.
     156.RE
     157.RE
     158.RS
     159.TP
     160\fBipv4\fR
     161Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     162.RS
     163.TP
     164\fBipv4-all\fR
     165Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.
     166.RE
     167.RE
     168.RS
     169.TP
     170\fBsubject-ipv6=\fIipv6addr\fB\fR
     171IPv6 subject address.
     172.RE
     173.RS
     174.TP
     175\fBsubject-ipv4=\fIipv4addr\fB\fR
     176IPv4 subject address.
     177.RE
     178.RS
     179.TP
     180\fBsubject-name=\fInodename\fB\fR
     181Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     182fully-qualified domain name is assumed.
     183.RE
     184.RS
     185.TP
     186\fBsubject-fqdn=\fInodename\fB\fR
     187Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     188always assumed.
     189.RE
     190.TP
     191\fB-n\fR
     192Numeric output only.
     193No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     194.TP
     195\fB-O\fR
     196Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
     197This is useful together with the timestamp \fB-D\fR to
     198log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
     199.TP
     200\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR
     201You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     202This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     203For example, \fB-p ff\fR will cause the sent packet
     204to be filled with all ones.
     205.TP
     206\fB-q\fR
     207Quiet output.
     208Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     209when finished.
     210.TP
     211\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR
     212Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
     213\fItos\fR can be decimal (\fBping\fR only) or hex number.
     214
     215In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
     216Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
     217data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
     218Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
     219
     220Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
     221as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
     222congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
     223(highest bits) for Precedence.
     224.TP
     225\fB-r\fR
     226Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     227interface.
     228If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     229This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     230that has no route through it provided the option \fB-I\fR is also
     231used.
     232.TP
     233\fB-R\fR
     234\fBping\fR only.
     235Record route.
     236Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     237packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     238Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     239Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     240.TP
     241\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR
     242Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     243The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     244data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     245.TP
     246\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR
     247Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     248not more than one packet.
     249.TP
     250\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR
     251\fBping\fR only.
     252Set the IP Time to Live.
     253.TP
     254\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR
     255Set special IP timestamp options.
     256\fItimestamp option\fR may be either
     257\fItsonly\fR (only timestamps),
     258\fItsandaddr\fR (timestamps and addresses) or
     259\fItsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]\fR
     260(timestamp prespecified hops).
     261.TP
     262\fB-U\fR
     263Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     264\fBping\fR
     265prints network round trip time, which can be different
     266f.e. due to DNS failures.
     267.TP
     268\fB-v\fR
     269Verbose output.
     270.TP
     271\fB-V\fR
     272Show version and exit.
     273.TP
     274\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     275Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     276\fBping\fR
     277exits regardless of how many
     278packets have been sent or received. In this case
     279\fBping\fR
     280does not stop after
     281\fIcount\fR
     282packet are sent, it waits either for
     283\fIdeadline\fR
     284expire or until
     285\fIcount\fR
     286probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     287.TP
     288\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR
     289Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     290in absence of any responses, otherwise \fBping\fR waits for two RTTs.
     291.PP
     292When using \fBping\fR for fault isolation, it should first be run
     293on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     294and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     295``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     296If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     297loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     298in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     299When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     300if the program is terminated with a
     301SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     302can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     303SIGQUIT.
     304.PP
     305If \fBping\fR does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     306exit with code 1. If a packet
     307\fIcount\fR
     308and
     309\fIdeadline\fR
     310are both specified, and fewer than
     311\fIcount\fR
     312packets are received by the time the
     313\fIdeadline\fR
     314has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     315On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     316makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     317not.
     318.PP
     319This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     320management.
     321Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     322\fBping\fR during normal operations or from automated scripts.
     323.SH "ICMP PACKET DETAILS"
     324.PP
     325An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     326An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     327of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     328When a \fIpacketsize\fR is given, this indicated the size of this
     329extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     330inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     331more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).
     332.PP
     333If the data space is at least of size of struct timeval
     334\fBping\fR uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     335a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     336If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.
     337.SH "DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS"
     338.PP
     339\fBping\fR will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     340Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     341inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     342Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     343good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     344always be cause for alarm.
     345.PP
     346Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     347indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     348\fBping\fR packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).
     349.SH "TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS"
     350.PP
     351The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     352on the data contained in the data portion.
     353Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     354networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     355In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     356that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     357zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     358It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     359example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     360at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     361what the controllers transmit can be complicated.
     362.PP
     363This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     364have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     365If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     366across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     367similar length files.
     368You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     369using the \fB-p\fR option of \fBping\fR.
     370.SH "TTL DETAILS"
     371.PP
     372The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     373that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     374In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     375the TTL field by exactly one.
     376.PP
     377The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     378packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     379(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).
     380.PP
     381The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     382the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     383This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     384with
     385\fBtelnet\fR(1)
     386or
     387\fBftp\fR(1).
     388.PP
     389In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
     390When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     391with the TTL field in its response:
     392.TP 0.2i
     393\(bu
     394Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     3954.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     396will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     397.TP 0.2i
     398\(bu
     399Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     400In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     401number of routers in the path \fBfrom\fR
     402the remote system \fBto\fR the \fBping\fRing host.
     403.TP 0.2i
     404\(bu
     405Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     406ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     407Others may use completely wild values.
     408.SH "BUGS"
     409.TP 0.2i
     410\(bu
     411Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     412.TP 0.2i
     413\(bu
     414The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     415RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     416There's not much that can be done about this, however.
     417.TP 0.2i
     418\(bu
     419Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     420broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     421.SH "SEE ALSO"
     422.PP
     423\fBnetstat\fR(1),
     424\fBifconfig\fR(8).
     425.SH "HISTORY"
     426.PP
     427The \fBping\fR command appeared in 4.3BSD.
     428.PP
     429The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.
     430.PP
     431As of version s20150815, the \fBping6\fR binary doesn't exist anymore.
     432It has been merged into \fBping\fR. Creating a symlink named
     433\fBping6\fR pointing to \fBping\fR will result in the same
     434funcionality as before.
     435.SH "SECURITY"
     436.PP
     437\fBping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     438to be executed 1) if the program is used for non-echo queries
     439(See \fB-N\fR option), or 2) if kernel does not
     440support non-raw ICMP sockets, or 3) if the user is not allowed
     441to create an ICMP echo socket.  The program may be used as
     442set-uid root.
     443.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     444.PP
     445\fBping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     446and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     447http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
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     59><H1
     60CLASS="TITLE"
     61>I. System Manager's Manual: iputils</H1
     62><DIV
     63CLASS="TOC"
     64><DL
     65><DT
     66><B
     67>Table of Contents</B
     68></DT
     69><DT
     70><A
     71HREF="r3.html"
     72>ping</A
     73>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DT
     74><DT
     75><A
     76HREF="r483.html"
     77>arping</A
     78>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DT
     79><DT
     80><A
     81HREF="r641.html"
     82>clockdiff</A
     83>&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DT
     84><DT
     85><A
     86HREF="r736.html"
     87>rarpd</A
     88>&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DT
     89><DT
     90><A
     91HREF="r835.html"
     92>tracepath</A
     93>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DT
     94><DT
     95><A
     96HREF="r942.html"
     97>traceroute6</A
     98>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DT
     99><DT
     100><A
     101HREF="r1007.html"
     102>tftpd</A
     103>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DT
     104><DT
     105><A
     106HREF="r1080.html"
     107>ninfod</A
     108>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DT
     109><DT
     110><A
     111HREF="r1149.html"
     112>rdisc</A
     113>&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DT
     114><DT
     115><A
     116HREF="r1293.html"
     117>pg3</A
     118>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DT
     119></DL
     120></DIV
     121></DIV
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     164>&nbsp;</TD
     165><TD
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     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="r942.html"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TFTPD"
     71></A
     72>tftpd</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1012"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tftpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1015"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tftpd</B
     92> {<TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>directory</I
     96></TT
     97>}</P
     98></DIV
     99><DIV
     100CLASS="REFSECT1"
     101><A
     102NAME="AEN1020"
     103></A
     104><H2
     105>DESCRIPTION</H2
     106><P
     107><B
     108CLASS="COMMAND"
     109>tftpd</B
     110> is a server which supports the DARPA
     111Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     112(<A
     113HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1350.txt"
     114TARGET="_top"
     115>RFC1350</A
     116>).
     117The TFTP server is started
     118by <SPAN
     119CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     120><SPAN
     121CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     122>inetd</SPAN
     123>(8)</SPAN
     124>.</P
     125><P
     126><TT
     127CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     128><I
     129>directory</I
     130></TT
     131> is required argument; if it is not given
     132<B
     133CLASS="COMMAND"
     134>tftpd</B
     135> aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     136via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting <B
     137CLASS="COMMAND"
     138>tftpd</B
     139> to this directory.
     140File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     141administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.</P
     142><P
     143>It is in difference of variants of <B
     144CLASS="COMMAND"
     145>tftpd</B
     146> usually distributed
     147with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     148file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     149default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     150behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     151to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     152And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     153it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients. </P
     154><P
     155>In the case when <B
     156CLASS="COMMAND"
     157>tftpd</B
     158> is used together with
     159<A
     160HREF="r736.html"
     161><SPAN
     162CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     163><SPAN
     164CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     165>rarpd</SPAN
     166>(8)</SPAN
     167></A
     168>,
     169tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     170that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     171its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     172conventions. See
     173<A
     174HREF="r736.html"
     175><SPAN
     176CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     177><SPAN
     178CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     179>rarpd</SPAN
     180>(8)</SPAN
     181></A
     182>
     183for more details.</P
     184></DIV
     185><DIV
     186CLASS="REFSECT1"
     187><A
     188NAME="AEN1044"
     189></A
     190><H2
     191>SECURITY</H2
     192><P
     193>TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     194Due to this capital flaw <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>tftpd</B
     197> is not able to restrict
     198access to files and will allow only publically readable
     199files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     200exist and are publically writable.</P
     201><P
     202>Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP <I
     203CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     204>must not</I
     205>
     206contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     207to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     208such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     209publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     210<I
     211CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     212>unencrypted</I
     213> passwords and may contain some information
     214about the network, which you were not going to make public.</P
     215><P
     216>The <B
     217CLASS="COMMAND"
     218>tftpd</B
     219> server should be executed by <B
     220CLASS="COMMAND"
     221>inetd</B
     222>
     223with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     224access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     225as superuser occasionally, <B
     226CLASS="COMMAND"
     227>tftpd</B
     228> drops its UID and GID
     229to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     230However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     231for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.</P
     232></DIV
     233><DIV
     234CLASS="REFSECT1"
     235><A
     236NAME="AEN1055"
     237></A
     238><H2
     239>SEE ALSO</H2
     240><P
     241><A
     242HREF="r736.html"
     243><SPAN
     244CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     245><SPAN
     246CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     247>rarpd</SPAN
     248>(8)</SPAN
     249></A
     250>,
     251<SPAN
     252CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     253><SPAN
     254CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     255>tftp</SPAN
     256>(1)</SPAN
     257>,
     258<SPAN
     259CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     260><SPAN
     261CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     262>inetd</SPAN
     263>(8)</SPAN
     264>.</P
     265></DIV
     266><DIV
     267CLASS="REFSECT1"
     268><A
     269NAME="AEN1068"
     270></A
     271><H2
     272>HISTORY</H2
     273><P
     274>The <B
     275CLASS="COMMAND"
     276>tftpd</B
     277> command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     278is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).</P
     279><P
     280>It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     281(<CODE
     282CLASS="CONSTANT"
     283>MSG_CONFIRM</CODE
     284>) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     285not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     286However, this is full functional and can be used in production.</P
     287></DIV
     288><DIV
     289CLASS="REFSECT1"
     290><A
     291NAME="AEN1074"
     292></A
     293><H2
     294>AVAILABILITY</H2
     295><P
     296><B
     297CLASS="COMMAND"
     298>tftpd</B
     299> is part of <TT
     300CLASS="FILENAME"
     301>iputils</TT
     302> package
     303and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     304<A
     305HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     306TARGET="_top"
     307>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     308>.</P
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     354>traceroute6</TD
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     357ALIGN="center"
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     359>&nbsp;</TD
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="NINFOD"
     71></A
     72>ninfod</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1085"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>ninfod&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1088"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>ninfod</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-dhv</CODE
     95>] [-p <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>pidfile</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-u <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>user</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN1097"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115>Responds to <A
     116HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4620.txt"
     117TARGET="_top"
     118>IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620)</A
     119> from clients.
     120Queries can be sent by various implementations of <B
     121CLASS="COMMAND"
     122>ping6</B
     123> command.</P
     124></DIV
     125><DIV
     126CLASS="REFSECT1"
     127><A
     128NAME="AEN1102"
     129></A
     130><H2
     131>OPTIONS</H2
     132><P
     133></P
     134><DIV
     135CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     136><DL
     137><DT
     138><CODE
     139CLASS="OPTION"
     140>-a</CODE
     141></DT
     142><DD
     143><P
     144>Debug mode.  Do not go background.
     145  </P
     146></DD
     147><DT
     148><CODE
     149CLASS="OPTION"
     150>-h</CODE
     151></DT
     152><DD
     153><P
     154>Show help.
     155  </P
     156></DD
     157><DT
     158><CODE
     159CLASS="OPTION"
     160>-v</CODE
     161></DT
     162><DD
     163><P
     164>Verbose mode.
     165  </P
     166></DD
     167><DT
     168><CODE
     169CLASS="OPTION"
     170>-u <TT
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     172><I
     173>user</I
     174></TT
     175></CODE
     176></DT
     177><DD
     178><P
     179>Run as another user.
     180<TT
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     182><I
     183>user</I
     184></TT
     185> can either be username or user ID.
     186  </P
     187></DD
     188><DT
     189><CODE
     190CLASS="OPTION"
     191>-p <TT
     192CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     193><I
     194>pidfile</I
     195></TT
     196></CODE
     197></DT
     198><DD
     199><P
     200>File for process-id storage.
     201<TT
     202CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     203><I
     204>user</I
     205></TT
     206> is required to be able to create the file.
     207  </P
     208></DD
     209></DL
     210></DIV
     211></DIV
     212><DIV
     213CLASS="REFSECT1"
     214><A
     215NAME="AEN1134"
     216></A
     217><H2
     218>SEE ALSO</H2
     219><P
     220><A
     221HREF="r3.html"
     222><SPAN
     223CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     224><SPAN
     225CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     226>ping</SPAN
     227>(8)</SPAN
     228></A
     229>.</P
     230></DIV
     231><DIV
     232CLASS="REFSECT1"
     233><A
     234NAME="AEN1141"
     235></A
     236><H2
     237>AUTHOR</H2
     238><P
     239><B
     240CLASS="COMMAND"
     241>ninfod</B
     242> was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.</P
     243></DIV
     244><DIV
     245CLASS="REFSECT1"
     246><A
     247NAME="AEN1145"
     248></A
     249><H2
     250>COPYING</H2
     251><P
     252><P
     253CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
     254>Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2012&nbsp;YOSHIFUJI&nbsp;Hideaki.<br>
     255Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2002&nbsp;USAGI/WIDE&nbsp;Project.<br>
     256All&nbsp;rights&nbsp;reserved.<br>
     257<br>
     258Redistribution&nbsp;and&nbsp;use&nbsp;in&nbsp;source&nbsp;and&nbsp;binary&nbsp;forms,&nbsp;with&nbsp;or&nbsp;without<br>
     259modification,&nbsp;are&nbsp;permitted&nbsp;provided&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;conditions<br>
     260are&nbsp;met:<br>
     2611.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;of&nbsp;source&nbsp;code&nbsp;must&nbsp;retain&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
     262&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer.<br>
     2632.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;in&nbsp;binary&nbsp;form&nbsp;must&nbsp;reproduce&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
     264&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer&nbsp;in&nbsp;the<br>
     265&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;documentation&nbsp;and/or&nbsp;other&nbsp;materials&nbsp;provided&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;distribution.<br>
     2663.&nbsp;Neither&nbsp;the&nbsp;name&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;project&nbsp;nor&nbsp;the&nbsp;names&nbsp;of&nbsp;its&nbsp;contributors<br>
     267&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;may&nbsp;be&nbsp;used&nbsp;to&nbsp;endorse&nbsp;or&nbsp;promote&nbsp;products&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;this&nbsp;software<br>
     268&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;without&nbsp;specific&nbsp;prior&nbsp;written&nbsp;permission.<br>
     269<br>
     270THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE&nbsp;IS&nbsp;PROVIDED&nbsp;BY&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;AND&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;``AS&nbsp;IS''&nbsp;AND<br>
     271ANY&nbsp;EXPRESS&nbsp;OR&nbsp;IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES,&nbsp;INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;THE<br>
     272IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES&nbsp;OF&nbsp;MERCHANTABILITY&nbsp;AND&nbsp;FITNESS&nbsp;FOR&nbsp;A&nbsp;PARTICULAR&nbsp;PURPOSE<br>
     273ARE&nbsp;DISCLAIMED.&nbsp;&nbsp;IN&nbsp;NO&nbsp;EVENT&nbsp;SHALL&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;BE&nbsp;LIABLE<br>
     274FOR&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;DIRECT,&nbsp;INDIRECT,&nbsp;INCIDENTAL,&nbsp;SPECIAL,&nbsp;EXEMPLARY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONSEQUENTIAL<br>
     275DAMAGES&nbsp;(INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;PROCUREMENT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;SUBSTITUTE&nbsp;GOODS<br>
     276OR&nbsp;SERVICES;&nbsp;LOSS&nbsp;OF&nbsp;USE,&nbsp;DATA,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;PROFITS;&nbsp;OR&nbsp;BUSINESS&nbsp;INTERRUPTION)<br>
     277HOWEVER&nbsp;CAUSED&nbsp;AND&nbsp;ON&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;THEORY&nbsp;OF&nbsp;LIABILITY,&nbsp;WHETHER&nbsp;IN&nbsp;CONTRACT,&nbsp;STRICT<br>
     278LIABILITY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;TORT&nbsp;(INCLUDING&nbsp;NEGLIGENCE&nbsp;OR&nbsp;OTHERWISE)&nbsp;ARISING&nbsp;IN&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;WAY<br>
     279OUT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;USE&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE,&nbsp;EVEN&nbsp;IF&nbsp;ADVISED&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;POSSIBILITY&nbsp;OF<br>
     280SUCH&nbsp;DAMAGE.</P
     281></P
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     72>rdisc</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1154"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rdisc&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1157"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>rdisc</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-abdfrstvV</CODE
     95>] [-p <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>preference</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-T <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>max_interval</I
     104></TT
     105>] [<TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>send_address</I
     109></TT
     110>] [<TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>receive_address</I
     114></TT
     115>]</P
     116></DIV
     117><DIV
     118CLASS="REFSECT1"
     119><A
     120NAME="AEN1170"
     121></A
     122><H2
     123>DESCRIPTION</H2
     124><P
     125><B
     126CLASS="COMMAND"
     127>rdisc</B
     128> implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     129<B
     130CLASS="COMMAND"
     131>rdisc</B
     132> is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     133routing tables with default routes. </P
     134><P
     135><B
     136CLASS="COMMAND"
     137>rdisc</B
     138> listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     139(or <TT
     140CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     141><I
     142>receive_address</I
     143></TT
     144> provided it is given)
     145for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     146messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     147with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     148the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     149and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     150for each one of them.</P
     151><P
     152>Optionally, <B
     153CLASS="COMMAND"
     154>rdisc</B
     155> can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     156themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     157to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     158(or <TT
     159CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     160><I
     161>send_address</I
     162></TT
     163> provided it is given)
     164when it is started.</P
     165><P
     166>A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     167no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     168timer expires before a new
     169<I
     170CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     171>advertise</I
     172> message is received from the router.
     173The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     174<I
     175CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     176>advertise</I
     177>
     178message with the preference being maximally negative.</P
     179><P
     180>Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     181and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e <B
     182CLASS="COMMAND"
     183>gated</B
     184>.
     185Or, <B
     186CLASS="COMMAND"
     187>rdisc</B
     188> can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.</P
     189></DIV
     190><DIV
     191CLASS="REFSECT1"
     192><A
     193NAME="AEN1187"
     194></A
     195><H2
     196>OPTIONS</H2
     197><P
     198></P
     199><DIV
     200CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     201><DL
     202><DT
     203><CODE
     204CLASS="OPTION"
     205>-a</CODE
     206></DT
     207><DD
     208><P
     209>Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     210<I
     211CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     212>advertise</I
     213> messages.
     214Normally <B
     215CLASS="COMMAND"
     216>rdisc</B
     217> only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     218tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     219  </P
     220></DD
     221><DT
     222><CODE
     223CLASS="OPTION"
     224>-b</CODE
     225></DT
     226><DD
     227><P
     228>Opposite to <CODE
     229CLASS="OPTION"
     230>-a</CODE
     231>, i.e. install only router with the best
     232preference value. It is default behaviour.
     233  </P
     234></DD
     235><DT
     236><CODE
     237CLASS="OPTION"
     238>-d</CODE
     239></DT
     240><DD
     241><P
     242>Send debugging messages to syslog.
     243  </P
     244></DD
     245><DT
     246><CODE
     247CLASS="OPTION"
     248>-f</CODE
     249></DT
     250><DD
     251><P
     252>Run <B
     253CLASS="COMMAND"
     254>rdisc</B
     255> forever even if no routers are found.
     256Normally <B
     257CLASS="COMMAND"
     258>rdisc</B
     259> gives up if it has not received any
     260<I
     261CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     262>advertise</I
     263> message after after soliciting three times,
     264in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     265If <CODE
     266CLASS="OPTION"
     267>-f</CODE
     268> is not specified in the first form then
     269<CODE
     270CLASS="OPTION"
     271>-s</CODE
     272> must be specified.
     273  </P
     274></DD
     275><DT
     276><CODE
     277CLASS="OPTION"
     278>-r</CODE
     279></DT
     280><DD
     281><P
     282>Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     283  </P
     284></DD
     285><DT
     286><CODE
     287CLASS="OPTION"
     288>-s</CODE
     289></DT
     290><DD
     291><P
     292>Send three <I
     293CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     294>solicitation</I
     295> messages initially to quickly discover
     296the routers when the system is booted.
     297When <CODE
     298CLASS="OPTION"
     299>-s</CODE
     300> is specified <B
     301CLASS="COMMAND"
     302>rdisc</B
     303>
     304exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     305This can be overridden with the <CODE
     306CLASS="OPTION"
     307>-f</CODE
     308> option.
     309  </P
     310></DD
     311><DT
     312><CODE
     313CLASS="OPTION"
     314>-p <TT
     315CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     316><I
     317>preference</I
     318></TT
     319></CODE
     320></DT
     321><DD
     322><P
     323>Set preference in advertisement.
     324Available only with -r option.
     325  </P
     326></DD
     327><DT
     328><CODE
     329CLASS="OPTION"
     330>-T <TT
     331CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     332><I
     333>max_interval</I
     334></TT
     335></CODE
     336></DT
     337><DD
     338><P
     339>Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs.
     340Available only with -r option.
     341  </P
     342></DD
     343><DT
     344><CODE
     345CLASS="OPTION"
     346>-t</CODE
     347></DT
     348><DD
     349><P
     350>Test mode. Do not go to background.
     351  </P
     352></DD
     353><DT
     354><CODE
     355CLASS="OPTION"
     356>-v</CODE
     357></DT
     358><DD
     359><P
     360>Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     361  </P
     362></DD
     363><DT
     364><CODE
     365CLASS="OPTION"
     366>-V</CODE
     367></DT
     368><DD
     369><P
     370>Print version and exit.
     371  </P
     372></DD
     373></DL
     374></DIV
     375></DIV
     376><DIV
     377CLASS="REFSECT1"
     378><A
     379NAME="AEN1259"
     380></A
     381><H2
     382>HISTORY</H2
     383><P
     384>This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     385notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     386<A
     387HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     388TARGET="_top"
     389>Alexey Kuznetsov
     390&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     391>.
     392It is now maintained by
     393<A
     394HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     395TARGET="_top"
     396>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     397&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A
     398>.</P
     399></DIV
     400><DIV
     401CLASS="REFSECT1"
     402><A
     403NAME="AEN1264"
     404></A
     405><H2
     406>SEE ALSO</H2
     407><P
     408><SPAN
     409CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     410><SPAN
     411CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     412>icmp</SPAN
     413>(7)</SPAN
     414>,
     415<SPAN
     416CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     417><SPAN
     418CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     419>inet</SPAN
     420>(7)</SPAN
     421>,
     422<A
     423HREF="r3.html"
     424><SPAN
     425CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     426><SPAN
     427CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     428>ping</SPAN
     429>(8)</SPAN
     430></A
     431>.</P
     432></DIV
     433><DIV
     434CLASS="REFSECT1"
     435><A
     436NAME="AEN1277"
     437></A
     438><H2
     439>REFERENCES</H2
     440><P
     441>Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     442<A
     443HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1256.txt"
     444TARGET="_top"
     445>RFC1256</A
     446>, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     447Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.</P
     448></DIV
     449><DIV
     450CLASS="REFSECT1"
     451><A
     452NAME="AEN1281"
     453></A
     454><H2
     455>SECURITY</H2
     456><P
     457><B
     458CLASS="COMMAND"
     459>rdisc</B
     460> requires <CODE
     461CLASS="CONSTANT"
     462>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     463> to listen
     464and send ICMP messages and capability <CODE
     465CLASS="CONSTANT"
     466>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     467>
     468to update routing tables. </P
     469></DIV
     470><DIV
     471CLASS="REFSECT1"
     472><A
     473NAME="AEN1287"
     474></A
     475><H2
     476>AVAILABILITY</H2
     477><P
     478><B
     479CLASS="COMMAND"
     480>rdisc</B
     481> is part of <TT
     482CLASS="FILENAME"
     483>iputils</TT
     484> package
     485and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     486<A
     487HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     488TARGET="_top"
     489>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     490>.</P
     491></DIV
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     493CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
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     497SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     536>ninfod</TD
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     541>&nbsp;</TD
     542><TD
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     546>pg3</TD
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     553 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r1293.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r1293.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>pg3</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="HOME"
     10TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
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     22><DIV
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     26WIDTH="100%"
     27BORDER="0"
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     30><TR
     31><TH
     32COLSPAN="3"
     33ALIGN="center"
     34>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     35></TR
     36><TR
     37><TD
     38WIDTH="10%"
     39ALIGN="left"
     40VALIGN="bottom"
     41><A
     42HREF="r1149.html"
     43ACCESSKEY="P"
     44>&#60;&#60;&#60; Previous</A
     45></TD
     46><TD
     47WIDTH="80%"
     48ALIGN="center"
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     52WIDTH="10%"
     53ALIGN="right"
     54VALIGN="bottom"
     55>&nbsp;</TD
     56></TR
     57></TABLE
     58><HR
     59ALIGN="LEFT"
     60WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     61><H1
     62><A
     63NAME="PG3"
     64></A
     65>pg3</H1
     66><DIV
     67CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     68><A
     69NAME="AEN1298"
     70></A
     71><H2
     72>Name</H2
     73>pg3, ipg, pgset&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DIV
     74><DIV
     75CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     76><A
     77NAME="AEN1301"
     78></A
     79><H2
     80>Synopsis</H2
     81><P
     82><B
     83CLASS="COMMAND"
     84>source ipg</B
     85></P
     86><P
     87><B
     88CLASS="COMMAND"
     89>pg</B
     90></P
     91><P
     92><B
     93CLASS="COMMAND"
     94>pgset</B
     95> {<TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>COMMAND</I
     99></TT
     100>}</P
     101></DIV
     102><DIV
     103CLASS="REFSECT1"
     104><A
     105NAME="AEN1310"
     106></A
     107><H2
     108>DESCRIPTION</H2
     109><P
     110><B
     111CLASS="COMMAND"
     112>ipg</B
     113> is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     114to <B
     115CLASS="COMMAND"
     116>bash</B
     117>. When sourced it loads module <TT
     118CLASS="FILENAME"
     119>pg3</TT
     120> and
     121exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     122are <B
     123CLASS="COMMAND"
     124>pg</B
     125> to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     126and <B
     127CLASS="COMMAND"
     128>pgset</B
     129> to setup packet generator.</P
     130><P
     131><B
     132CLASS="COMMAND"
     133>pgset</B
     134> can send the following commands to module <TT
     135CLASS="FILENAME"
     136>pg3</TT
     137>:</P
     138></DIV
     139><DIV
     140CLASS="REFSECT1"
     141><A
     142NAME="AEN1321"
     143></A
     144><H2
     145>COMMAND</H2
     146><P
     147></P
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     150><DL
     151><DT
     152><CODE
     153CLASS="OPTION"
     154>odev <TT
     155CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     156><I
     157>DEVICE</I
     158></TT
     159></CODE
     160></DT
     161><DD
     162><P
     163>Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     164<A
     165HREF="r1293.html#PG3.WARNING"
     166>warning</A
     167> below.
     168  </P
     169></DD
     170><DT
     171><CODE
     172CLASS="OPTION"
     173>pkt_size <TT
     174CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     175><I
     176>BYTES</I
     177></TT
     178></CODE
     179></DT
     180><DD
     181><P
     182>Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     183MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     184and various paddings.
     185  </P
     186></DD
     187><DT
     188><CODE
     189CLASS="OPTION"
     190>frags <TT
     191CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     192><I
     193>NUMBER</I
     194></TT
     195></CODE
     196></DT
     197><DD
     198><P
     199>Each packet will contain <TT
     200CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     201><I
     202>NUMBER</I
     203></TT
     204> of fragments.
     205Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     206fragmented buffers.
     207  </P
     208></DD
     209><DT
     210><CODE
     211CLASS="OPTION"
     212>count <TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>NUMBER</I
     216></TT
     217></CODE
     218></DT
     219><DD
     220><P
     221>Send stream of <TT
     222CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     223><I
     224>NUMBER</I
     225></TT
     226> of packets and stop after this.
     227  </P
     228></DD
     229><DT
     230><CODE
     231CLASS="OPTION"
     232>ipg <TT
     233CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     234><I
     235>TIME</I
     236></TT
     237></CODE
     238></DT
     239><DD
     240><P
     241>Introduce artificial delay between packets of <TT
     242CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     243><I
     244>TIME</I
     245></TT
     246>
     247microseconds.
     248  </P
     249></DD
     250><DT
     251><CODE
     252CLASS="OPTION"
     253>dst <TT
     254CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     255><I
     256>IP_ADDRESS</I
     257></TT
     258></CODE
     259></DT
     260><DD
     261><P
     262>Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     263Beware, never set this address at random. <B
     264CLASS="COMMAND"
     265>pg3</B
     266> is not a toy,
     267it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     268  </P
     269></DD
     270><DT
     271><CODE
     272CLASS="OPTION"
     273>dst <TT
     274CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     275><I
     276>MAC_ADDRESS</I
     277></TT
     278></CODE
     279></DT
     280><DD
     281><P
     282>Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     283Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     284by any node on LAN.
     285  </P
     286></DD
     287><DT
     288><CODE
     289CLASS="OPTION"
     290>stop</CODE
     291></DT
     292><DD
     293><P
     294>Abort packet injection.
     295  </P
     296></DD
     297></DL
     298></DIV
     299></DIV
     300><DIV
     301CLASS="REFSECT1"
     302><A
     303NAME="PG3.WARNING"
     304></A
     305><H2
     306>WARNING</H2
     307><P
     308>When output device is set to some random device different
     309of hardware Ethernet device, <B
     310CLASS="COMMAND"
     311>pg3</B
     312> will crash kernel.</P
     313><P
     314>Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     315which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.</P
     316></DIV
     317><DIV
     318CLASS="REFSECT1"
     319><A
     320NAME="AEN1381"
     321></A
     322><H2
     323>AUTHOR</H2
     324><P
     325><B
     326CLASS="COMMAND"
     327>pg3</B
     328> was written by <A
     329HREF="mailto:robert.olsson@its.uu.se"
     330TARGET="_top"
     331>Robert Olsson &#60;robert.olsson@its.uu.se&#62;</A
     332>.</P
     333></DIV
     334><DIV
     335CLASS="REFSECT1"
     336><A
     337NAME="AEN1386"
     338></A
     339><H2
     340>SECURITY</H2
     341><P
     342>This can be used only by superuser.</P
     343><P
     344>This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     345even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     34660 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     347switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     348Use only in test lab environment.</P
     349></DIV
     350><DIV
     351CLASS="REFSECT1"
     352><A
     353NAME="AEN1390"
     354></A
     355><H2
     356>AVAILABILITY</H2
     357><P
     358><B
     359CLASS="COMMAND"
     360>pg3</B
     361> is part of <TT
     362CLASS="FILENAME"
     363>iputils</TT
     364> package
     365and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     366<A
     367HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     368TARGET="_top"
     369>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     370>.</P
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
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     45HREF="r1.html"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="PING"
     71></A
     72>ping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN8"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>ping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN11"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>ping</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV46</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-F <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>flowlabel</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-i <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>interval</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-I <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>interface</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-l <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>preload</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-m <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>mark</I
     124></TT
     125>] [-M <TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>pmtudisc_option</I
     129></TT
     130>] [-N <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>nodeinfo_option</I
     134></TT
     135>] [-w <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>deadline</I
     139></TT
     140>] [-W <TT
     141CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     142><I
     143>timeout</I
     144></TT
     145>] [-p <TT
     146CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     147><I
     148>pattern</I
     149></TT
     150>] [-Q <TT
     151CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     152><I
     153>tos</I
     154></TT
     155>] [-s <TT
     156CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     157><I
     158>packetsize</I
     159></TT
     160>] [-S <TT
     161CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     162><I
     163>sndbuf</I
     164></TT
     165>] [-t <TT
     166CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     167><I
     168>ttl</I
     169></TT
     170>] [-T <TT
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     172><I
     173>timestamp option</I
     174></TT
     175>] [<TT
     176CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     177><I
     178>hop</I
     179></TT
     180>...] {<TT
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     182><I
     183>destination</I
     184></TT
     185>}</P
     186></DIV
     187><DIV
     188CLASS="REFSECT1"
     189><A
     190NAME="AEN52"
     191></A
     192><H2
     193>DESCRIPTION</H2
     194><P
     195><B
     196CLASS="COMMAND"
     197>ping</B
     198> uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     199datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     200ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     201header, followed by a <CODE
     202CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     203>struct timeval</CODE
     204> and then an arbitrary
     205number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.</P
     206><P
     207><B
     208CLASS="COMMAND"
     209>ping</B
     210> works with both IPv4 and IPv6. Using only one of them
     211explicitly can be enforced by specifying <CODE
     212CLASS="OPTION"
     213>-4</CODE
     214> or <CODE
     215CLASS="OPTION"
     216>-6</CODE
     217>.</P
     218><P
     219><B
     220CLASS="COMMAND"
     221>ping</B
     222> can also send IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
     223Intermediate <TT
     224CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     225><I
     226>hop</I
     227></TT
     228>s may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).</P
     229></DIV
     230><DIV
     231CLASS="REFSECT1"
     232><A
     233NAME="AEN64"
     234></A
     235><H2
     236>OPTIONS</H2
     237><P
     238></P
     239><DIV
     240CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     241><DL
     242><DT
     243><CODE
     244CLASS="OPTION"
     245>-4</CODE
     246></DT
     247><DD
     248><P
     249>Use IPv4 only.
     250  </P
     251></DD
     252><DT
     253><CODE
     254CLASS="OPTION"
     255>-6</CODE
     256></DT
     257><DD
     258><P
     259>Use IPv6 only.
     260  </P
     261></DD
     262><DT
     263><CODE
     264CLASS="OPTION"
     265>-a</CODE
     266></DT
     267><DD
     268><P
     269>Audible ping.
     270  </P
     271></DD
     272><DT
     273><CODE
     274CLASS="OPTION"
     275>-A</CODE
     276></DT
     277><DD
     278><P
     279>Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     280effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
     281is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     282On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     283  </P
     284></DD
     285><DT
     286><CODE
     287CLASS="OPTION"
     288>-b</CODE
     289></DT
     290><DD
     291><P
     292>Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     293  </P
     294></DD
     295><DT
     296><CODE
     297CLASS="OPTION"
     298>-B</CODE
     299></DT
     300><DD
     301><P
     302>Do not allow <B
     303CLASS="COMMAND"
     304>ping</B
     305> to change source address of probes.
     306The address is bound to one selected when <B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>ping</B
     309> starts.
     310  </P
     311></DD
     312><DT
     313><CODE
     314CLASS="OPTION"
     315><A
     316NAME="PING.COUNT"
     317></A
     318>-c <TT
     319CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     320><I
     321>count</I
     322></TT
     323></CODE
     324></DT
     325><DD
     326><P
     327>Stop after sending <TT
     328CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     329><I
     330>count</I
     331></TT
     332> ECHO_REQUEST
     333packets. With
     334<A
     335HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     336><TT
     337CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     338><I
     339>deadline</I
     340></TT
     341></A
     342>
     343option, <B
     344CLASS="COMMAND"
     345>ping</B
     346> waits for
     347<TT
     348CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     349><I
     350>count</I
     351></TT
     352> ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     353  </P
     354></DD
     355><DT
     356><CODE
     357CLASS="OPTION"
     358>-d</CODE
     359></DT
     360><DD
     361><P
     362>Set the <CODE
     363CLASS="CONSTANT"
     364>SO_DEBUG</CODE
     365> option on the socket being used.
     366Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     367  </P
     368></DD
     369><DT
     370><CODE
     371CLASS="OPTION"
     372>-D</CODE
     373></DT
     374><DD
     375><P
     376>Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     377each line.
     378  </P
     379></DD
     380><DT
     381><CODE
     382CLASS="OPTION"
     383>-f</CODE
     384></DT
     385><DD
     386><P
     387>Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     388while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     389This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     390If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     391outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     392whichever is more.
     393Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     394  </P
     395></DD
     396><DT
     397><CODE
     398CLASS="OPTION"
     399>-F <TT
     400CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     401><I
     402>flow label</I
     403></TT
     404></CODE
     405></DT
     406><DD
     407><P
     408>IPv6 only.
     409Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
     410If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     411  </P
     412></DD
     413><DT
     414><CODE
     415CLASS="OPTION"
     416>-h</CODE
     417></DT
     418><DD
     419><P
     420>Show help.
     421  </P
     422></DD
     423><DT
     424><CODE
     425CLASS="OPTION"
     426>-i <TT
     427CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     428><I
     429>interval</I
     430></TT
     431></CODE
     432></DT
     433><DD
     434><P
     435>Wait <TT
     436CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     437><I
     438>interval</I
     439></TT
     440> seconds between sending each packet.
     441The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     442or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     443to values less than 0.2 seconds.
     444  </P
     445></DD
     446><DT
     447><CODE
     448CLASS="OPTION"
     449>-I <TT
     450CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     451><I
     452>interface</I
     453></TT
     454></CODE
     455></DT
     456><DD
     457><P
     458><TT
     459CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     460><I
     461>interface</I
     462></TT
     463> is either an address, or an interface name.
     464If <TT
     465CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     466><I
     467>interface</I
     468></TT
     469> is an address, it sets source address
     470to specified interface address.
     471If <TT
     472CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     473><I
     474>interface</I
     475></TT
     476> in an interface name, it sets
     477source interface to specified interface.
     478For IPv6, when doing ping to a link-local scope
     479address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
     480<TT
     481CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     482><I
     483>destination</I
     484></TT
     485>, or by this option) is required.
     486  </P
     487></DD
     488><DT
     489><CODE
     490CLASS="OPTION"
     491>-l <TT
     492CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     493><I
     494>preload</I
     495></TT
     496></CODE
     497></DT
     498><DD
     499><P
     500>If <TT
     501CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     502><I
     503>preload</I
     504></TT
     505> is specified,
     506<B
     507CLASS="COMMAND"
     508>ping</B
     509> sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     510Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     511  </P
     512></DD
     513><DT
     514><CODE
     515CLASS="OPTION"
     516>-L</CODE
     517></DT
     518><DD
     519><P
     520>Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     521destination is a multicast address.
     522  </P
     523></DD
     524><DT
     525><CODE
     526CLASS="OPTION"
     527>-m <TT
     528CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     529><I
     530>mark</I
     531></TT
     532></CODE
     533></DT
     534><DD
     535><P
     536>use <TT
     537CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     538><I
     539>mark</I
     540></TT
     541> to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     542for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     543routing to select specific outbound processing.
     544  </P
     545></DD
     546><DT
     547><CODE
     548CLASS="OPTION"
     549>-M <TT
     550CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     551><I
     552>pmtudisc_opt</I
     553></TT
     554></CODE
     555></DT
     556><DD
     557><P
     558>Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     559<TT
     560CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     561><I
     562>pmtudisc_option</I
     563></TT
     564> may be either <TT
     565CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     566><I
     567>do</I
     568></TT
     569>
     570(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     571<TT
     572CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     573><I
     574>want</I
     575></TT
     576> (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     577is large), or <TT
     578CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     579><I
     580>dont</I
     581></TT
     582> (do not set DF flag).
     583  </P
     584></DD
     585><DT
     586><CODE
     587CLASS="OPTION"
     588>-N <TT
     589CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     590><I
     591>nodeinfo_option</I
     592></TT
     593></CODE
     594></DT
     595><DD
     596><P
     597>IPv6 only.
     598Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     599<CODE
     600CLASS="CONSTANT"
     601>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     602> capability is required.
     603   <P
     604></P
     605><DIV
     606CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     607><DL
     608><DT
     609><CODE
     610CLASS="OPTION"
     611>help</CODE
     612></DT
     613><DD
     614><P
     615>Show help for NI support.</P
     616></DD
     617></DL
     618></DIV
     619>
     620   <P
     621></P
     622><DIV
     623CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     624><DL
     625><DT
     626><CODE
     627CLASS="OPTION"
     628>name</CODE
     629></DT
     630><DD
     631><P
     632>Queries for Node Names.</P
     633></DD
     634></DL
     635></DIV
     636>
     637   <P
     638></P
     639><DIV
     640CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     641><DL
     642><DT
     643><CODE
     644CLASS="OPTION"
     645>ipv6</CODE
     646></DT
     647><DD
     648><P
     649>Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     650      <P
     651></P
     652><DIV
     653CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     654><DL
     655><DT
     656><CODE
     657CLASS="OPTION"
     658>ipv6-global</CODE
     659></DT
     660><DD
     661><P
     662>Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.</P
     663></DD
     664></DL
     665></DIV
     666>
     667      <P
     668></P
     669><DIV
     670CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     671><DL
     672><DT
     673><CODE
     674CLASS="OPTION"
     675>ipv6-sitelocal</CODE
     676></DT
     677><DD
     678><P
     679>Request IPv6 site-local addresses.</P
     680></DD
     681></DL
     682></DIV
     683>
     684      <P
     685></P
     686><DIV
     687CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     688><DL
     689><DT
     690><CODE
     691CLASS="OPTION"
     692>ipv6-linklocal</CODE
     693></DT
     694><DD
     695><P
     696>Request IPv6 link-local addresses.</P
     697></DD
     698></DL
     699></DIV
     700>
     701      <P
     702></P
     703><DIV
     704CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     705><DL
     706><DT
     707><CODE
     708CLASS="OPTION"
     709>ipv6-all</CODE
     710></DT
     711><DD
     712><P
     713>Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     714></DD
     715></DL
     716></DIV
     717>
     718     </P
     719></DD
     720></DL
     721></DIV
     722>
     723   <P
     724></P
     725><DIV
     726CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     727><DL
     728><DT
     729><CODE
     730CLASS="OPTION"
     731>ipv4</CODE
     732></DT
     733><DD
     734><P
     735>Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     736      <P
     737></P
     738><DIV
     739CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     740><DL
     741><DT
     742><CODE
     743CLASS="OPTION"
     744>ipv4-all</CODE
     745></DT
     746><DD
     747><P
     748>Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     749></DD
     750></DL
     751></DIV
     752>
     753     </P
     754></DD
     755></DL
     756></DIV
     757>
     758   <P
     759></P
     760><DIV
     761CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     762><DL
     763><DT
     764><CODE
     765CLASS="OPTION"
     766>subject-ipv6=<TT
     767CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     768><I
     769>ipv6addr</I
     770></TT
     771></CODE
     772></DT
     773><DD
     774><P
     775>IPv6 subject address.</P
     776></DD
     777></DL
     778></DIV
     779>
     780   <P
     781></P
     782><DIV
     783CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     784><DL
     785><DT
     786><CODE
     787CLASS="OPTION"
     788>subject-ipv4=<TT
     789CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     790><I
     791>ipv4addr</I
     792></TT
     793></CODE
     794></DT
     795><DD
     796><P
     797>IPv4 subject address.</P
     798></DD
     799></DL
     800></DIV
     801>
     802   <P
     803></P
     804><DIV
     805CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     806><DL
     807><DT
     808><CODE
     809CLASS="OPTION"
     810>subject-name=<TT
     811CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     812><I
     813>nodename</I
     814></TT
     815></CODE
     816></DT
     817><DD
     818><P
     819>Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     820        fully-qualified domain name is assumed.</P
     821></DD
     822></DL
     823></DIV
     824>
     825   <P
     826></P
     827><DIV
     828CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     829><DL
     830><DT
     831><CODE
     832CLASS="OPTION"
     833>subject-fqdn=<TT
     834CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     835><I
     836>nodename</I
     837></TT
     838></CODE
     839></DT
     840><DD
     841><P
     842>Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     843        always assumed.</P
     844></DD
     845></DL
     846></DIV
     847>
     848  </P
     849></DD
     850><DT
     851><CODE
     852CLASS="OPTION"
     853>-n</CODE
     854></DT
     855><DD
     856><P
     857>Numeric output only.
     858No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     859  </P
     860></DD
     861><DT
     862><CODE
     863CLASS="OPTION"
     864>-O</CODE
     865></DT
     866><DD
     867><P
     868>Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
     869This is useful together with the timestamp <CODE
     870CLASS="OPTION"
     871>-D</CODE
     872> to
     873log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
     874  </P
     875></DD
     876><DT
     877><CODE
     878CLASS="OPTION"
     879>-p <TT
     880CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     881><I
     882>pattern</I
     883></TT
     884></CODE
     885></DT
     886><DD
     887><P
     888>You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     889This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     890For example, <CODE
     891CLASS="OPTION"
     892>-p ff</CODE
     893> will cause the sent packet
     894to be filled with all ones.
     895  </P
     896></DD
     897><DT
     898><CODE
     899CLASS="OPTION"
     900>-q</CODE
     901></DT
     902><DD
     903><P
     904>Quiet output.
     905Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     906when finished.
     907  </P
     908></DD
     909><DT
     910><CODE
     911CLASS="OPTION"
     912>-Q <TT
     913CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     914><I
     915>tos</I
     916></TT
     917></CODE
     918></DT
     919><DD
     920><P
     921>       Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
     922        <TT
     923CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     924><I
     925>tos</I
     926></TT
     927> can be decimal (<B
     928CLASS="COMMAND"
     929>ping</B
     930> only) or hex number.
     931        </P
     932><P
     933>       In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
     934        Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
     935        data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
     936        Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
     937        </P
     938><P
     939>       Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
     940        as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
     941        congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
     942        (highest bits) for Precedence.
     943   </P
     944></DD
     945><DT
     946><CODE
     947CLASS="OPTION"
     948>-r</CODE
     949></DT
     950><DD
     951><P
     952>Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     953interface.
     954If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     955This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     956that has no route through it provided the option <CODE
     957CLASS="OPTION"
     958>-I</CODE
     959> is also
     960used.
     961  </P
     962></DD
     963><DT
     964><CODE
     965CLASS="OPTION"
     966>-R</CODE
     967></DT
     968><DD
     969><P
     970><B
     971CLASS="COMMAND"
     972>ping</B
     973> only.
     974Record route.
     975Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     976packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     977Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     978Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     979  </P
     980></DD
     981><DT
     982><CODE
     983CLASS="OPTION"
     984>-s <TT
     985CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     986><I
     987>packetsize</I
     988></TT
     989></CODE
     990></DT
     991><DD
     992><P
     993>Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     994The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     995data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     996  </P
     997></DD
     998><DT
     999><CODE
     1000CLASS="OPTION"
     1001>-S <TT
     1002CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1003><I
     1004>sndbuf</I
     1005></TT
     1006></CODE
     1007></DT
     1008><DD
     1009><P
     1010>Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     1011not more than one packet.
     1012  </P
     1013></DD
     1014><DT
     1015><CODE
     1016CLASS="OPTION"
     1017>-t <TT
     1018CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1019><I
     1020>ttl</I
     1021></TT
     1022></CODE
     1023></DT
     1024><DD
     1025><P
     1026><B
     1027CLASS="COMMAND"
     1028>ping</B
     1029> only.
     1030Set the IP Time to Live.
     1031  </P
     1032></DD
     1033><DT
     1034><CODE
     1035CLASS="OPTION"
     1036>-T <TT
     1037CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1038><I
     1039>timestamp option</I
     1040></TT
     1041></CODE
     1042></DT
     1043><DD
     1044><P
     1045>Set special IP timestamp options.
     1046<TT
     1047CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1048><I
     1049>timestamp option</I
     1050></TT
     1051> may be either
     1052<TT
     1053CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1054><I
     1055>tsonly</I
     1056></TT
     1057> (only timestamps),
     1058<TT
     1059CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1060><I
     1061>tsandaddr</I
     1062></TT
     1063> (timestamps and addresses) or
     1064<TT
     1065CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1066><I
     1067>tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]</I
     1068></TT
     1069>
     1070(timestamp prespecified hops).
     1071  </P
     1072></DD
     1073><DT
     1074><CODE
     1075CLASS="OPTION"
     1076>-U</CODE
     1077></DT
     1078><DD
     1079><P
     1080>Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     1081<B
     1082CLASS="COMMAND"
     1083>ping</B
     1084>
     1085prints network round trip time, which can be different
     1086f.e. due to DNS failures.
     1087  </P
     1088></DD
     1089><DT
     1090><CODE
     1091CLASS="OPTION"
     1092>-v</CODE
     1093></DT
     1094><DD
     1095><P
     1096>Verbose output.
     1097  </P
     1098></DD
     1099><DT
     1100><CODE
     1101CLASS="OPTION"
     1102>-V</CODE
     1103></DT
     1104><DD
     1105><P
     1106>Show version and exit.
     1107  </P
     1108></DD
     1109><DT
     1110><CODE
     1111CLASS="OPTION"
     1112><A
     1113NAME="PING.DEADLINE"
     1114></A
     1115>-w <TT
     1116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1117><I
     1118>deadline</I
     1119></TT
     1120></CODE
     1121></DT
     1122><DD
     1123><P
     1124>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     1125<B
     1126CLASS="COMMAND"
     1127>ping</B
     1128>
     1129exits regardless of how many
     1130packets have been sent or received. In this case
     1131<B
     1132CLASS="COMMAND"
     1133>ping</B
     1134>
     1135does not stop after
     1136<A
     1137HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1138><TT
     1139CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1140><I
     1141>count</I
     1142></TT
     1143></A
     1144>
     1145packet are sent, it waits either for
     1146<A
     1147HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1148><TT
     1149CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1150><I
     1151>deadline</I
     1152></TT
     1153></A
     1154>
     1155expire or until
     1156<A
     1157HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1158><TT
     1159CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1160><I
     1161>count</I
     1162></TT
     1163></A
     1164>
     1165probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     1166  </P
     1167></DD
     1168><DT
     1169><CODE
     1170CLASS="OPTION"
     1171>-W <TT
     1172CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1173><I
     1174>timeout</I
     1175></TT
     1176></CODE
     1177></DT
     1178><DD
     1179><P
     1180>Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     1181in absence of any responses, otherwise <B
     1182CLASS="COMMAND"
     1183>ping</B
     1184> waits for two RTTs.
     1185  </P
     1186></DD
     1187></DL
     1188></DIV
     1189><P
     1190>When using <B
     1191CLASS="COMMAND"
     1192>ping</B
     1193> for fault isolation, it should first be run
     1194on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     1195and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     1196``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     1197If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     1198loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     1199in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     1200When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     1201if the program is terminated with a
     1202<CODE
     1203CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1204>SIGINT</CODE
     1205>, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     1206can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     1207<CODE
     1208CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1209>SIGQUIT</CODE
     1210>.</P
     1211><P
     1212>If <B
     1213CLASS="COMMAND"
     1214>ping</B
     1215> does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     1216exit with code 1. If a packet
     1217<A
     1218HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1219><TT
     1220CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1221><I
     1222>count</I
     1223></TT
     1224></A
     1225>
     1226and
     1227<A
     1228HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1229><TT
     1230CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1231><I
     1232>deadline</I
     1233></TT
     1234></A
     1235>
     1236are both specified, and fewer than
     1237<A
     1238HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1239><TT
     1240CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1241><I
     1242>count</I
     1243></TT
     1244></A
     1245>
     1246packets are received by the time the
     1247<A
     1248HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1249><TT
     1250CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1251><I
     1252>deadline</I
     1253></TT
     1254></A
     1255>
     1256has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     1257On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     1258makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     1259not.</P
     1260><P
     1261>This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     1262management.
     1263Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     1264<B
     1265CLASS="COMMAND"
     1266>ping</B
     1267> during normal operations or from automated scripts.</P
     1268></DIV
     1269><DIV
     1270CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1271><A
     1272NAME="AEN402"
     1273></A
     1274><H2
     1275>ICMP PACKET DETAILS</H2
     1276><P
     1277>An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     1278An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     1279of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     1280When a <TT
     1281CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1282><I
     1283>packetsize</I
     1284></TT
     1285> is given, this indicated the size of this
     1286extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     1287inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     1288more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).</P
     1289><P
     1290>If the data space is at least of size of <CODE
     1291CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     1292>struct timeval</CODE
     1293>
     1294<B
     1295CLASS="COMMAND"
     1296>ping</B
     1297> uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     1298a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     1299If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.</P
     1300></DIV
     1301><DIV
     1302CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1303><A
     1304NAME="AEN409"
     1305></A
     1306><H2
     1307>DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS</H2
     1308><P
     1309><B
     1310CLASS="COMMAND"
     1311>ping</B
     1312> will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     1313Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     1314inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     1315Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     1316good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     1317always be cause for alarm.</P
     1318><P
     1319>Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     1320indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     1321<B
     1322CLASS="COMMAND"
     1323>ping</B
     1324> packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).</P
     1325></DIV
     1326><DIV
     1327CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1328><A
     1329NAME="AEN415"
     1330></A
     1331><H2
     1332>TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS</H2
     1333><P
     1334>The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     1335on the data contained in the data portion.
     1336Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     1337networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     1338In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     1339that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     1340zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     1341It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     1342example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     1343at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     1344what the controllers transmit can be complicated.</P
     1345><P
     1346>This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     1347have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     1348If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     1349across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     1350similar length files.
     1351You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     1352using the <CODE
     1353CLASS="OPTION"
     1354>-p</CODE
     1355> option of <B
     1356CLASS="COMMAND"
     1357>ping</B
     1358>.</P
     1359></DIV
     1360><DIV
     1361CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1362><A
     1363NAME="AEN421"
     1364></A
     1365><H2
     1366>TTL DETAILS</H2
     1367><P
     1368>The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     1369that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     1370In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     1371the TTL field by exactly one.</P
     1372><P
     1373>The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     1374packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     1375(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).</P
     1376><P
     1377>The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     1378the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     1379This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     1380with
     1381<SPAN
     1382CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1383><SPAN
     1384CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1385>telnet</SPAN
     1386>(1)</SPAN
     1387>
     1388or
     1389<SPAN
     1390CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1391><SPAN
     1392CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1393>ftp</SPAN
     1394>(1)</SPAN
     1395>.</P
     1396><P
     1397>In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
     1398When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     1399with the TTL field in its response:</P
     1400><P
     1401></P
     1402><UL
     1403><LI
     1404><P
     1405>Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     14064.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     1407will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     1408 </P
     1409></LI
     1410><LI
     1411><P
     1412>Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     1413In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     1414number of routers in the path <I
     1415CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1416>from</I
     1417>
     1418the remote system <I
     1419CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1420>to</I
     1421> the <B
     1422CLASS="COMMAND"
     1423>ping</B
     1424>ing host.
     1425 </P
     1426></LI
     1427><LI
     1428><P
     1429>Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     1430ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     1431Others may use completely wild values.
     1432 </P
     1433></LI
     1434></UL
     1435></DIV
     1436><DIV
     1437CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1438><A
     1439NAME="AEN443"
     1440></A
     1441><H2
     1442>BUGS</H2
     1443><P
     1444></P
     1445><UL
     1446><LI
     1447><P
     1448>Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     1449 </P
     1450></LI
     1451><LI
     1452><P
     1453>The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     1454RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     1455There's not much that can be done about this, however.
     1456 </P
     1457></LI
     1458><LI
     1459><P
     1460>Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     1461broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     1462 </P
     1463></LI
     1464></UL
     1465></DIV
     1466><DIV
     1467CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1468><A
     1469NAME="AEN452"
     1470></A
     1471><H2
     1472>SEE ALSO</H2
     1473><P
     1474><SPAN
     1475CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1476><SPAN
     1477CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1478>netstat</SPAN
     1479>(1)</SPAN
     1480>,
     1481<SPAN
     1482CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1483><SPAN
     1484CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1485>ifconfig</SPAN
     1486>(8)</SPAN
     1487>.</P
     1488></DIV
     1489><DIV
     1490CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1491><A
     1492NAME="AEN461"
     1493></A
     1494><H2
     1495>HISTORY</H2
     1496><P
     1497>The <B
     1498CLASS="COMMAND"
     1499>ping</B
     1500> command appeared in 4.3BSD.</P
     1501><P
     1502>The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.</P
     1503><P
     1504>As of version s20150815, the <B
     1505CLASS="COMMAND"
     1506>ping6</B
     1507> binary doesn't exist anymore.
     1508It has been merged into <B
     1509CLASS="COMMAND"
     1510>ping</B
     1511>. Creating a symlink named
     1512<B
     1513CLASS="COMMAND"
     1514>ping6</B
     1515> pointing to <B
     1516CLASS="COMMAND"
     1517>ping</B
     1518> will result in the same
     1519funcionality as before.</P
     1520></DIV
     1521><DIV
     1522CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1523><A
     1524NAME="AEN471"
     1525></A
     1526><H2
     1527>SECURITY</H2
     1528><P
     1529><B
     1530CLASS="COMMAND"
     1531>ping</B
     1532> requires <CODE
     1533CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1534>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     1535> capability
     1536to be executed 1) if the program is used for non-echo queries
     1537(See <CODE
     1538CLASS="OPTION"
     1539>-N</CODE
     1540> option), or 2) if kernel does not
     1541support non-raw ICMP sockets, or 3) if the user is not allowed
     1542to create an ICMP echo socket.  The program may be used as
     1543set-uid root.</P
     1544></DIV
     1545><DIV
     1546CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1547><A
     1548NAME="AEN477"
     1549></A
     1550><H2
     1551>AVAILABILITY</H2
     1552><P
     1553><B
     1554CLASS="COMMAND"
     1555>ping</B
     1556> is part of <TT
     1557CLASS="FILENAME"
     1558>iputils</TT
     1559> package
     1560and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     1561<A
     1562HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     1563TARGET="_top"
     1564>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     1565>.</P
     1566></DIV
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     1611>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TD
     1612><TD
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     1614ALIGN="center"
     1615VALIGN="top"
     1616>&nbsp;</TD
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     1628 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r483.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r483.html
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     5>arping</TITLE
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
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     39><TR
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     65><HR
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="ARPING"
     71></A
     72>arping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN488"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>arping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN491"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-AbDfhqUV</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-w <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>deadline</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-s <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>source</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-I <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>interface</I
     114></TT
     115>] {<TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>destination</I
     119></TT
     120>}</P
     121></DIV
     122><DIV
     123CLASS="REFSECT1"
     124><A
     125NAME="AEN506"
     126></A
     127><H2
     128>DESCRIPTION</H2
     129><P
     130>Ping <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>destination</I
     134></TT
     135> on device <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>interface</I
     139></TT
     140> by ARP packets,
     141using source address <TT
     142CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     143><I
     144>source</I
     145></TT
     146>.</P
     147></DIV
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="REFSECT1"
     150><A
     151NAME="AEN512"
     152></A
     153><H2
     154>OPTIONS</H2
     155><P
     156></P
     157><DIV
     158CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     159><DL
     160><DT
     161><CODE
     162CLASS="OPTION"
     163>-A</CODE
     164></DT
     165><DD
     166><P
     167>The same as <CODE
     168CLASS="OPTION"
     169>-U</CODE
     170>, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     171of ARP REQUEST.
     172  </P
     173></DD
     174><DT
     175><CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-b</CODE
     178></DT
     179><DD
     180><P
     181>Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally <B
     182CLASS="COMMAND"
     183>arping</B
     184> starts
     185from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     186  </P
     187></DD
     188><DT
     189><CODE
     190CLASS="OPTION"
     191><A
     192NAME="ARPING.COUNT"
     193></A
     194>-c <TT
     195CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     196><I
     197>count</I
     198></TT
     199></CODE
     200></DT
     201><DD
     202><P
     203>Stop after sending <TT
     204CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     205><I
     206>count</I
     207></TT
     208> ARP REQUEST
     209packets. With
     210<A
     211HREF="r483.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     212><TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>deadline</I
     216></TT
     217></A
     218>
     219option, instead wait for
     220<TT
     221CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     222><I
     223>count</I
     224></TT
     225> ARP REPLY packets, or until the timeout expires.
     226  </P
     227></DD
     228><DT
     229><CODE
     230CLASS="OPTION"
     231>-D</CODE
     232></DT
     233><DD
     234><P
     235>Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     236<A
     237HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt"
     238TARGET="_top"
     239>RFC2131, 4.4.1</A
     240>.
     241Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     242  </P
     243></DD
     244><DT
     245><CODE
     246CLASS="OPTION"
     247>-f</CODE
     248></DT
     249><DD
     250><P
     251>Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     252  </P
     253></DD
     254><DT
     255><CODE
     256CLASS="OPTION"
     257><A
     258NAME="OPT.INTERFACE"
     259></A
     260>-I <TT
     261CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     262><I
     263>interface</I
     264></TT
     265></CODE
     266></DT
     267><DD
     268><P
     269>Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets.
     270  </P
     271></DD
     272><DT
     273><CODE
     274CLASS="OPTION"
     275>-h</CODE
     276></DT
     277><DD
     278><P
     279>Print help page and exit.
     280  </P
     281></DD
     282><DT
     283><CODE
     284CLASS="OPTION"
     285>-q</CODE
     286></DT
     287><DD
     288><P
     289>Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     290  </P
     291></DD
     292><DT
     293><CODE
     294CLASS="OPTION"
     295><A
     296NAME="OPT.SOURCE"
     297></A
     298>-s <TT
     299CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     300><I
     301>source</I
     302></TT
     303></CODE
     304></DT
     305><DD
     306><P
     307>IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     308If this option is absent, source address is:
     309   <P
     310></P
     311><UL
     312><LI
     313><P
     314>In DAD mode (with option <CODE
     315CLASS="OPTION"
     316>-D</CODE
     317>) set to 0.0.0.0.
     318    </P
     319></LI
     320><LI
     321><P
     322>In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options <CODE
     323CLASS="OPTION"
     324>-U</CODE
     325> or <CODE
     326CLASS="OPTION"
     327>-A</CODE
     328>)
     329set to <TT
     330CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     331><I
     332>destination</I
     333></TT
     334>.
     335    </P
     336></LI
     337><LI
     338><P
     339>Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     340    </P
     341></LI
     342></UL
     343>
     344  </P
     345></DD
     346><DT
     347><CODE
     348CLASS="OPTION"
     349>-U</CODE
     350></DT
     351><DD
     352><P
     353>Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     354No replies are expected.
     355  </P
     356></DD
     357><DT
     358><CODE
     359CLASS="OPTION"
     360>-V</CODE
     361></DT
     362><DD
     363><P
     364>Print version of the program and exit.
     365  </P
     366></DD
     367><DT
     368><CODE
     369CLASS="OPTION"
     370><A
     371NAME="ARPING.DEADLINE"
     372></A
     373>-w <TT
     374CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     375><I
     376>deadline</I
     377></TT
     378></CODE
     379></DT
     380><DD
     381><P
     382>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     383<B
     384CLASS="COMMAND"
     385>arping</B
     386>
     387exits regardless of how many
     388packets have been sent or received. In this case
     389<B
     390CLASS="COMMAND"
     391>arping</B
     392>
     393does not stop after
     394<A
     395HREF="r483.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     396><TT
     397CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     398><I
     399>count</I
     400></TT
     401></A
     402>
     403packet are sent, it waits either for
     404<A
     405HREF="r483.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     406><TT
     407CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     408><I
     409>deadline</I
     410></TT
     411></A
     412>
     413expire or until
     414<A
     415HREF="r483.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     416><TT
     417CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     418><I
     419>count</I
     420></TT
     421></A
     422>
     423probes are answered.
     424  </P
     425></DD
     426></DL
     427></DIV
     428></DIV
     429><DIV
     430CLASS="REFSECT1"
     431><A
     432NAME="AEN609"
     433></A
     434><H2
     435>SEE ALSO</H2
     436><P
     437><A
     438HREF="r3.html"
     439><SPAN
     440CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     441><SPAN
     442CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     443>ping</SPAN
     444>(8)</SPAN
     445></A
     446>,
     447<A
     448HREF="r641.html"
     449><SPAN
     450CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     451><SPAN
     452CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     453>clockdiff</SPAN
     454>(8)</SPAN
     455></A
     456>,
     457<A
     458HREF="r835.html"
     459><SPAN
     460CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     461><SPAN
     462CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     463>tracepath</SPAN
     464>(8)</SPAN
     465></A
     466>.</P
     467></DIV
     468><DIV
     469CLASS="REFSECT1"
     470><A
     471NAME="AEN624"
     472></A
     473><H2
     474>AUTHOR</H2
     475><P
     476><B
     477CLASS="COMMAND"
     478>arping</B
     479> was written by
     480<A
     481HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     482TARGET="_top"
     483>Alexey Kuznetsov
     484&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     485>.
     486It is now maintained by
     487<A
     488HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     489TARGET="_top"
     490>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     491&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A
     492>.</P
     493></DIV
     494><DIV
     495CLASS="REFSECT1"
     496><A
     497NAME="AEN630"
     498></A
     499><H2
     500>SECURITY</H2
     501><P
     502><B
     503CLASS="COMMAND"
     504>arping</B
     505> requires <CODE
     506CLASS="CONSTANT"
     507>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     508> capability
     509to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     510because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.</P
     511></DIV
     512><DIV
     513CLASS="REFSECT1"
     514><A
     515NAME="AEN635"
     516></A
     517><H2
     518>AVAILABILITY</H2
     519><P
     520><B
     521CLASS="COMMAND"
     522>arping</B
     523> is part of <TT
     524CLASS="FILENAME"
     525>iputils</TT
     526> package
     527and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     528<A
     529HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     530TARGET="_top"
     531>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     532>.</P
     533></DIV
     534><DIV
     535CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     536><HR
     537ALIGN="LEFT"
     538WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     539SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     553></TD
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     555WIDTH="34%"
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     561>Home</A
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     571></TD
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     573><TR
     574><TD
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     576ALIGN="left"
     577VALIGN="top"
     578>ping</TD
     579><TD
     580WIDTH="34%"
     581ALIGN="center"
     582VALIGN="top"
     583>&nbsp;</TD
     584><TD
     585WIDTH="33%"
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     588>clockdiff</TD
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     594>
     595 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r641.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r641.html
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="CLOCKDIFF"
     71></A
     72>clockdiff</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN646"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>clockdiff&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN649"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>clockdiff</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-o</CODE
     95>] [<CODE
     96CLASS="OPTION"
     97>-o1</CODE
     98>] {<TT
     99CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     100><I
     101>destination</I
     102></TT
     103>}</P
     104></DIV
     105><DIV
     106CLASS="REFSECT1"
     107><A
     108NAME="AEN658"
     109></A
     110><H2
     111>DESCRIPTION</H2
     112><P
     113><B
     114CLASS="COMMAND"
     115>clockdiff</B
     116> Measures clock difference between us and
     117<TT
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     119><I
     120>destination</I
     121></TT
     122> with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     123<A
     124HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     125>[2]</A
     126>
     127packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     128<A
     129HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     130>[3]</A
     131>
     132option added to ICMP ECHO.
     133<A
     134HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     135>[1]</A
     136></P
     137></DIV
     138><DIV
     139CLASS="REFSECT1"
     140><A
     141NAME="AEN666"
     142></A
     143><H2
     144>OPTIONS</H2
     145><P
     146></P
     147><DIV
     148CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     149><DL
     150><DT
     151><CODE
     152CLASS="OPTION"
     153>-o</CODE
     154></DT
     155><DD
     156><P
     157>Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     158messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     159ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris &#60;2.4).
     160  </P
     161></DD
     162><DT
     163><CODE
     164CLASS="OPTION"
     165>-o1</CODE
     166></DT
     167><DD
     168><P
     169>Slightly different form of <CODE
     170CLASS="OPTION"
     171>-o</CODE
     172>, namely it uses three-term
     173IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     174What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     175<CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-o</CODE
     178> is better for Linux.
     179  </P
     180></DD
     181></DL
     182></DIV
     183></DIV
     184><DIV
     185CLASS="REFSECT1"
     186><A
     187NAME="AEN681"
     188></A
     189><H2
     190>WARNINGS</H2
     191><P
     192></P
     193><UL
     194><LI
     195><P
     196>Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     197by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     198 </P
     199></LI
     200><LI
     201><P
     202>Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris&#62;2.4), when
     203run <B
     204CLASS="COMMAND"
     205>xntpd</B
     206>. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     207which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     208randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     209use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     210 </P
     211></LI
     212><LI
     213><P
     214><B
     215CLASS="COMMAND"
     216>clockdiff</B
     217> shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     218 </P
     219></LI
     220></UL
     221></DIV
     222><DIV
     223CLASS="REFSECT1"
     224><A
     225NAME="AEN692"
     226></A
     227><H2
     228>SEE ALSO</H2
     229><P
     230><A
     231HREF="r3.html"
     232><SPAN
     233CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     234><SPAN
     235CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     236>ping</SPAN
     237>(8)</SPAN
     238></A
     239>,
     240<A
     241HREF="r483.html"
     242><SPAN
     243CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     244><SPAN
     245CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     246>arping</SPAN
     247>(8)</SPAN
     248></A
     249>,
     250<A
     251HREF="r835.html"
     252><SPAN
     253CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     254><SPAN
     255CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     256>tracepath</SPAN
     257>(8)</SPAN
     258></A
     259>.</P
     260></DIV
     261><DIV
     262CLASS="REFSECT1"
     263><A
     264NAME="AEN707"
     265></A
     266><H2
     267>REFERENCES</H2
     268><P
     269>[1] <A
     270NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     271></A
     272>ICMP ECHO,
     273<A
     274HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt"
     275TARGET="_top"
     276>RFC0792, page 14</A
     277>.</P
     278><P
     279>[2] <A
     280NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     281></A
     282>ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     283<A
     284HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt"
     285TARGET="_top"
     286>RFC0792, page 16</A
     287>.</P
     288><P
     289>[3] <A
     290NAME="CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     291></A
     292>IP TIMESTAMP option,
     293<A
     294HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt"
     295TARGET="_top"
     296>RFC0791, 3.1, page 16</A
     297>.</P
     298></DIV
     299><DIV
     300CLASS="REFSECT1"
     301><A
     302NAME="AEN718"
     303></A
     304><H2
     305>AUTHOR</H2
     306><P
     307><B
     308CLASS="COMMAND"
     309>clockdiff</B
     310> was compiled by
     311<A
     312HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     313TARGET="_top"
     314>Alexey Kuznetsov
     315&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     316>. It was based on code borrowed
     317from BSD <B
     318CLASS="COMMAND"
     319>timed</B
     320> daemon.
     321It is now maintained by
     322<A
     323HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     324TARGET="_top"
     325>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     326&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A
     327>.</P
     328></DIV
     329><DIV
     330CLASS="REFSECT1"
     331><A
     332NAME="AEN725"
     333></A
     334><H2
     335>SECURITY</H2
     336><P
     337><B
     338CLASS="COMMAND"
     339>clockdiff</B
     340> requires <CODE
     341CLASS="CONSTANT"
     342>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     343> capability
     344to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     345></DIV
     346><DIV
     347CLASS="REFSECT1"
     348><A
     349NAME="AEN730"
     350></A
     351><H2
     352>AVAILABILITY</H2
     353><P
     354><B
     355CLASS="COMMAND"
     356>clockdiff</B
     357> is part of <TT
     358CLASS="FILENAME"
     359>iputils</TT
     360> package
     361and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     362<A
     363HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     364TARGET="_top"
     365>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     366>.</P
     367></DIV
     368><DIV
     369CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     370><HR
     371ALIGN="LEFT"
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     373SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     412>arping</TD
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     414WIDTH="34%"
     415ALIGN="center"
     416VALIGN="top"
     417>&nbsp;</TD
     418><TD
     419WIDTH="33%"
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     422>rarpd</TD
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     429 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r736.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r736.html
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
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     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="RARPD"
     71></A
     72>rarpd</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN741"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rarpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN744"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-aAvde</CODE
     95>] [-b <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>bootdir</I
     99></TT
     100>] [<TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>interface</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN753"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115>Listens
     116<A
     117HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc903.txt"
     118TARGET="_top"
     119>RARP</A
     120>
     121requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     122is found in <TT
     123CLASS="FILENAME"
     124>/etc/ethers</TT
     125> database and
     126obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     127for attached network, <B
     128CLASS="COMMAND"
     129>rarpd</B
     130> answers to client with RARPD
     131reply carrying an IP address.</P
     132><P
     133>To allow multiple boot servers on the network <B
     134CLASS="COMMAND"
     135>rarpd</B
     136>
     137optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     138It should have form <KBD
     139CLASS="USERINPUT"
     140>Hexadecimal_IP.ARCH</KBD
     141>, f.e. to load
     142sparc 193.233.7.98 <TT
     143CLASS="FILENAME"
     144>C1E90762.SUN4M</TT
     145> is linked to
     146an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory <TT
     147CLASS="FILENAME"
     148>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     149>.</P
     150></DIV
     151><DIV
     152CLASS="REFSECT1"
     153><A
     154NAME="AEN764"
     155></A
     156><H2
     157>WARNING</H2
     158><P
     159>This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     160<A
     161HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc951.txt"
     162TARGET="_top"
     163>BOOTP</A
     164>
     165and later
     166<A
     167HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt"
     168TARGET="_top"
     169>DHCP</A
     170> protocols.
     171However, some clients really still need this to boot.</P
     172></DIV
     173><DIV
     174CLASS="REFSECT1"
     175><A
     176NAME="AEN769"
     177></A
     178><H2
     179>OPTIONS</H2
     180><P
     181></P
     182><DIV
     183CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     184><DL
     185><DT
     186><CODE
     187CLASS="OPTION"
     188>-a</CODE
     189></DT
     190><DD
     191><P
     192>Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     193option, its function is overridden with <TT
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     195><I
     196>interface</I
     197></TT
     198>
     199argument. It should not be used.
     200  </P
     201></DD
     202><DT
     203><CODE
     204CLASS="OPTION"
     205>-A</CODE
     206></DT
     207><DD
     208><P
     209>Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     210use ARP by some unknown reason.
     211  </P
     212></DD
     213><DT
     214><CODE
     215CLASS="OPTION"
     216>-v</CODE
     217></DT
     218><DD
     219><P
     220>Be verbose.
     221  </P
     222></DD
     223><DT
     224><CODE
     225CLASS="OPTION"
     226>-d</CODE
     227></DT
     228><DD
     229><P
     230>Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     231  </P
     232></DD
     233><DT
     234><CODE
     235CLASS="OPTION"
     236>-e</CODE
     237></DT
     238><DD
     239><P
     240>Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     241resolves to a valid IP address using <TT
     242CLASS="FILENAME"
     243>/etc/ethers</TT
     244>
     245database and DNS.
     246  </P
     247></DD
     248><DT
     249><CODE
     250CLASS="OPTION"
     251>-b <TT
     252CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     253><I
     254>bootdir</I
     255></TT
     256></CODE
     257></DT
     258><DD
     259><P
     260>TFTP boot directory. Default is <TT
     261CLASS="FILENAME"
     262>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     263>
     264  </P
     265></DD
     266></DL
     267></DIV
     268></DIV
     269><DIV
     270CLASS="REFSECT1"
     271><A
     272NAME="AEN806"
     273></A
     274><H2
     275>SEE ALSO</H2
     276><P
     277><A
     278HREF="r483.html"
     279><SPAN
     280CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     281><SPAN
     282CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     283>arping</SPAN
     284>(8)</SPAN
     285></A
     286>,
     287<A
     288HREF="r1007.html"
     289><SPAN
     290CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     291><SPAN
     292CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     293>tftpd</SPAN
     294>(8)</SPAN
     295></A
     296>.</P
     297></DIV
     298><DIV
     299CLASS="REFSECT1"
     300><A
     301NAME="AEN817"
     302></A
     303><H2
     304>AUTHOR</H2
     305><P
     306><B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>rarpd</B
     309> was written by
     310<A
     311HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     312TARGET="_top"
     313>Alexey Kuznetsov
     314&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     315>.
     316It is now maintained by
     317<A
     318HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     319TARGET="_top"
     320>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     321&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A
     322>.</P
     323></DIV
     324><DIV
     325CLASS="REFSECT1"
     326><A
     327NAME="AEN823"
     328></A
     329><H2
     330>SECURITY</H2
     331><P
     332><B
     333CLASS="COMMAND"
     334>rarpd</B
     335> requires <CODE
     336CLASS="CONSTANT"
     337>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     338> capability
     339to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs <CODE
     340CLASS="CONSTANT"
     341>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     342>
     343to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     344but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     345are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     346not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     347are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.</P
     348></DIV
     349><DIV
     350CLASS="REFSECT1"
     351><A
     352NAME="AEN829"
     353></A
     354><H2
     355>AVAILABILITY</H2
     356><P
     357><B
     358CLASS="COMMAND"
     359>rarpd</B
     360> is part of <TT
     361CLASS="FILENAME"
     362>iputils</TT
     363> package
     364and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     365<A
     366HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     367TARGET="_top"
     368>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     369>.</P
     370></DIV
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     415>clockdiff</TD
     416><TD
     417WIDTH="34%"
     418ALIGN="center"
     419VALIGN="top"
     420>&nbsp;</TD
     421><TD
     422WIDTH="33%"
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     432 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

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     65><HR
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TRACEPATH"
     71></A
     72>tracepath</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN840"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tracepath, tracepath6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN843"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tracepath</B
     92> [-n] [-b] [-l <TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>pktlen</I
     96></TT
     97>] [-m <TT
     98CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     99><I
     100>max_hops</I
     101></TT
     102>] [-p <TT
     103CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     104><I
     105>port</I
     106></TT
     107>] {<TT
     108CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     109><I
     110>destination</I
     111></TT
     112>}</P
     113></DIV
     114><DIV
     115CLASS="REFSECT1"
     116><A
     117NAME="AEN856"
     118></A
     119><H2
     120>DESCRIPTION</H2
     121><P
     122>It traces path to <TT
     123CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     124><I
     125>destination</I
     126></TT
     127> discovering MTU along this path.
     128It uses UDP port <TT
     129CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     130><I
     131>port</I
     132></TT
     133> or some random port.
     134It is similar to <B
     135CLASS="COMMAND"
     136>traceroute</B
     137>, only does not require superuser
     138privileges and has no fancy options.</P
     139><P
     140><B
     141CLASS="COMMAND"
     142>tracepath6</B
     143> is good replacement for <B
     144CLASS="COMMAND"
     145>traceroute6</B
     146>
     147and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     148The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     149IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages.
     150Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     151For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     152of UDP ports to maintain trace history.</P
     153></DIV
     154><DIV
     155CLASS="REFSECT1"
     156><A
     157NAME="AEN865"
     158></A
     159><H2
     160>OPTIONS</H2
     161><P
     162></P
     163><DIV
     164CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     165><DL
     166><DT
     167><CODE
     168CLASS="OPTION"
     169>-n</CODE
     170></DT
     171><DD
     172><P
     173>Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     174  </P
     175></DD
     176><DT
     177><CODE
     178CLASS="OPTION"
     179>-b</CODE
     180></DT
     181><DD
     182><P
     183>Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     184  </P
     185></DD
     186><DT
     187><CODE
     188CLASS="OPTION"
     189>-l</CODE
     190></DT
     191><DD
     192><P
     193>Sets the initial packet length to <TT
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     195><I
     196>pktlen</I
     197></TT
     198> instead of
     19965535 for <B
     200CLASS="COMMAND"
     201>tracepath</B
     202> or 128000 for <B
     203CLASS="COMMAND"
     204>tracepath6</B
     205>.
     206  </P
     207></DD
     208><DT
     209><CODE
     210CLASS="OPTION"
     211>-m</CODE
     212></DT
     213><DD
     214><P
     215>Set maximum hops (or maximum TTLs) to <TT
     216CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     217><I
     218>max_hops</I
     219></TT
     220>
     221instead of 30.
     222  </P
     223></DD
     224><DT
     225><CODE
     226CLASS="OPTION"
     227>-p</CODE
     228></DT
     229><DD
     230><P
     231>Sets the initial destination port to use.
     232  </P
     233></DD
     234></DL
     235></DIV
     236></DIV
     237><DIV
     238CLASS="REFSECT1"
     239><A
     240NAME="AEN897"
     241></A
     242><H2
     243>OUTPUT</H2
     244><P
     245><P
     246CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
     247>root@mops:~&nbsp;#&nbsp;tracepath6&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2<br>
     248&nbsp;1?:&nbsp;[LOCALHOST]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1500<br>
     249&nbsp;1:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.411ms<br>
     250&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;asymm&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.390ms&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480<br>
     251&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;463.514ms&nbsp;reached<br>
     252&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Resume:&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480&nbsp;hops&nbsp;2&nbsp;back&nbsp;2</P
     253></P
     254><P
     255>The first column shows <TT
     256CLASS="LITERAL"
     257>TTL</TT
     258> of the probe, followed by colon.
     259Usually value of <TT
     260CLASS="LITERAL"
     261>TTL</TT
     262> is obtained from reply from network,
     263but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     264we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.</P
     265><P
     266>The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     267It is either address of router or word <TT
     268CLASS="LITERAL"
     269>[LOCALHOST]</TT
     270>, if
     271the probe was not sent to the network.</P
     272><P
     273>The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     274the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     275Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     276If the path is asymmetric
     277or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     278between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     279following keyword <TT
     280CLASS="LITERAL"
     281>async</TT
     282>. This information is not reliable.
     283F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     284with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.</P
     285><P
     286>The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     287it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     288guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     289different when the path is asymmetric.</P
     290></DIV
     291><DIV
     292CLASS="REFSECT1"
     293><A
     294NAME="AEN909"
     295></A
     296><H2
     297>SEE ALSO</H2
     298><P
     299><SPAN
     300CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     301><SPAN
     302CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     303>traceroute</SPAN
     304>(8)</SPAN
     305>,
     306<A
     307HREF="r942.html"
     308><SPAN
     309CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     310><SPAN
     311CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     312>traceroute6</SPAN
     313>(8)</SPAN
     314></A
     315>,
     316<A
     317HREF="r3.html"
     318><SPAN
     319CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     320><SPAN
     321CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     322>ping</SPAN
     323>(8)</SPAN
     324></A
     325>.</P
     326></DIV
     327><DIV
     328CLASS="REFSECT1"
     329><A
     330NAME="AEN923"
     331></A
     332><H2
     333>AUTHOR</H2
     334><P
     335><B
     336CLASS="COMMAND"
     337>tracepath</B
     338> was written by
     339<A
     340HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     341TARGET="_top"
     342>Alexey Kuznetsov
     343&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     344>.</P
     345></DIV
     346><DIV
     347CLASS="REFSECT1"
     348><A
     349NAME="AEN928"
     350></A
     351><H2
     352>SECURITY</H2
     353><P
     354>No security issues.</P
     355><P
     356>This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     357<B
     358CLASS="COMMAND"
     359>tracepath</B
     360> is not a privileged program, unlike
     361<B
     362CLASS="COMMAND"
     363>traceroute</B
     364>, <B
     365CLASS="COMMAND"
     366>ping</B
     367> and other beasts of this kind.
     368<B
     369CLASS="COMMAND"
     370>tracepath</B
     371> may be executed by everyone who has some access
     372to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     373using given port.</P
     374></DIV
     375><DIV
     376CLASS="REFSECT1"
     377><A
     378NAME="AEN936"
     379></A
     380><H2
     381>AVAILABILITY</H2
     382><P
     383><B
     384CLASS="COMMAND"
     385>tracepath</B
     386> is part of <TT
     387CLASS="FILENAME"
     388>iputils</TT
     389> package
     390and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     391<A
     392HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     393TARGET="_top"
     394>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     395>.</P
     396></DIV
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     398CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
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     436><TR
     437><TD
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     441>rarpd</TD
     442><TD
     443WIDTH="34%"
     444ALIGN="center"
     445VALIGN="top"
     446>&nbsp;</TD
     447><TD
     448WIDTH="33%"
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     451>traceroute6</TD
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     458 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r942.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r942.html
    old new  
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     4><TITLE
     5>traceroute6</TITLE
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     10TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     11HREF="r1.html"><LINK
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TRACEROUTE6"
     71></A
     72>traceroute6</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN947"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>traceroute6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN950"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>traceroute6</B
     92> [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-dnrvV</CODE
     95>] [-i <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>interface</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-m <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>max_ttl</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-p <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>port</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-q <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>max_probes</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-s <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>source</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-w <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>wait time</I
     124></TT
     125>] {<TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>destination</I
     129></TT
     130>} [<TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>size</I
     134></TT
     135>]</P
     136></DIV
     137><DIV
     138CLASS="REFSECT1"
     139><A
     140NAME="AEN971"
     141></A
     142><H2
     143>DESCRIPTION</H2
     144><P
     145>Description can be found in
     146<SPAN
     147CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     148><SPAN
     149CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     150>traceroute</SPAN
     151>(8)</SPAN
     152>,
     153all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     154the description from there.</P
     155></DIV
     156><DIV
     157CLASS="REFSECT1"
     158><A
     159NAME="AEN977"
     160></A
     161><H2
     162>SEE ALSO</H2
     163><P
     164><SPAN
     165CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     166><SPAN
     167CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     168>traceroute</SPAN
     169>(8)</SPAN
     170>,
     171<SPAN
     172CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     173><SPAN
     174CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     175>tracepath</SPAN
     176>(8)</SPAN
     177>,
     178<SPAN
     179CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     180><SPAN
     181CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     182>ping</SPAN
     183>(8)</SPAN
     184>.</P
     185></DIV
     186><DIV
     187CLASS="REFSECT1"
     188><A
     189NAME="AEN989"
     190></A
     191><H2
     192>HISTORY</H2
     193><P
     194>This program has long history. Author of <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>traceroute</B
     197>
     198is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     199based on a port of <B
     200CLASS="COMMAND"
     201>traceroute</B
     202> to IPv6 published
     203in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     204to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     205<A
     206HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     207TARGET="_top"
     208>Alexey Kuznetsov
     209&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A
     210>. And eventually entered
     211<B
     212CLASS="COMMAND"
     213>iputils</B
     214> package.</P
     215></DIV
     216><DIV
     217CLASS="REFSECT1"
     218><A
     219NAME="AEN996"
     220></A
     221><H2
     222>SECURITY</H2
     223><P
     224><B
     225CLASS="COMMAND"
     226>tracepath6</B
     227> requires <CODE
     228CLASS="CONSTANT"
     229>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     230> capability
     231to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     232></DIV
     233><DIV
     234CLASS="REFSECT1"
     235><A
     236NAME="AEN1001"
     237></A
     238><H2
     239>AVAILABILITY</H2
     240><P
     241><B
     242CLASS="COMMAND"
     243>traceroute6</B
     244> is part of <TT
     245CLASS="FILENAME"
     246>iputils</TT
     247> package
     248and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     249<A
     250HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     251TARGET="_top"
     252>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     253>.</P
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     300><TD
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  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/rarpd.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/rarpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RARPD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rarpd \- answer RARP REQUESTs
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-aAvde\fR] [\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR] [\fB\fIinterface\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Listens
     16RARP
     17requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     18is found in \fI/etc/ethers\fR database and
     19obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     20for attached network, \fBrarpd\fR answers to client with RARPD
     21reply carrying an IP address.
     22.PP
     23To allow multiple boot servers on the network \fBrarpd\fR
     24optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     25It should have form \fBHexadecimal_IP.ARCH\fR, f.e. to load
     26sparc 193.233.7.98 \fIC1E90762.SUN4M\fR is linked to
     27an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR.
     28.SH "WARNING"
     29.PP
     30This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     31BOOTP
     32and later
     33DHCP protocols.
     34However, some clients really still need this to boot.
     35.SH "OPTIONS"
     36.TP
     37\fB-a\fR
     38Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     39option, its function is overridden with \fIinterface\fR
     40argument. It should not be used.
     41.TP
     42\fB-A\fR
     43Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     44use ARP by some unknown reason.
     45.TP
     46\fB-v\fR
     47Be verbose.
     48.TP
     49\fB-d\fR
     50Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     51.TP
     52\fB-e\fR
     53Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     54resolves to a valid IP address using \fI/etc/ethers\fR
     55database and DNS.
     56.TP
     57\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR
     58TFTP boot directory. Default is \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR
     59.SH "SEE ALSO"
     60.PP
     61\fBarping\fR(8),
     62\fBtftpd\fR(8).
     63.SH "AUTHOR"
     64.PP
     65\fBrarpd\fR was written by
     66Alexey Kuznetsov
     67<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     68It is now maintained by
     69YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     70<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     71.SH "SECURITY"
     72.PP
     73\fBrarpd\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     74to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs CAP_NET_ADMIN
     75to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     76but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     77are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     78not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     79are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.
     80.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     81.PP
     82\fBrarpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     83and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     84http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/rdisc.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/rdisc.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RDISC" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rdisc \- network router discovery daemon
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBrdisc\fR [\fB-abdfrstvV\fR] [\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR] [\fB\fIsend_address\fB\fR] [\fB\fIreceive_address\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBrdisc\fR implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     16\fBrdisc\fR is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     17routing tables with default routes.
     18.PP
     19\fBrdisc\fR listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     20(or \fIreceive_address\fR provided it is given)
     21for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     22messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     23with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     24the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     25and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     26for each one of them.
     27.PP
     28Optionally, \fBrdisc\fR can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     29themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     30to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     31(or \fIsend_address\fR provided it is given)
     32when it is started.
     33.PP
     34A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     35no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     36timer expires before a new
     37\fBadvertise\fR message is received from the router.
     38The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     39\fBadvertise\fR
     40message with the preference being maximally negative.
     41.PP
     42Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     43and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e \fBgated\fR.
     44Or, \fBrdisc\fR can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     45.SH "OPTIONS"
     46.TP
     47\fB-a\fR
     48Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     49\fBadvertise\fR messages.
     50Normally \fBrdisc\fR only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     51tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     52.TP
     53\fB-b\fR
     54Opposite to \fB-a\fR, i.e. install only router with the best
     55preference value. It is default behaviour.
     56.TP
     57\fB-d\fR
     58Send debugging messages to syslog.
     59.TP
     60\fB-f\fR
     61Run \fBrdisc\fR forever even if no routers are found.
     62Normally \fBrdisc\fR gives up if it has not received any
     63\fBadvertise\fR message after after soliciting three times,
     64in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     65If \fB-f\fR is not specified in the first form then
     66\fB-s\fR must be specified.
     67.TP
     68\fB-r\fR
     69Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     70.TP
     71\fB-s\fR
     72Send three \fBsolicitation\fR messages initially to quickly discover
     73the routers when the system is booted.
     74When \fB-s\fR is specified \fBrdisc\fR
     75exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     76This can be overridden with the \fB-f\fR option.
     77.TP
     78\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR
     79Set preference in advertisement.
     80Available only with -r option.
     81.TP
     82\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR
     83Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs.
     84Available only with -r option.
     85.TP
     86\fB-t\fR
     87Test mode. Do not go to background.
     88.TP
     89\fB-v\fR
     90Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     91.TP
     92\fB-V\fR
     93Print version and exit.
     94.SH "HISTORY"
     95.PP
     96This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     97notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     98Alexey Kuznetsov
     99<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     100It is now maintained by
     101YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     102<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     103.SH "SEE ALSO"
     104.PP
     105\fBicmp\fR(7),
     106\fBinet\fR(7),
     107\fBping\fR(8).
     108.SH "REFERENCES"
     109.PP
     110Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     111RFC1256, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     112Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.
     113.SH "SECURITY"
     114.PP
     115\fBrdisc\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW to listen
     116and send ICMP messages and capability CAP_NET_ADMIN
     117to update routing tables.
     118.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     119.PP
     120\fBrdisc\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     121and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     122http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/t1.html iputils-s20161105/doc/t1.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
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     44>Index</A
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     49>Historical notes</A
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     78><UL
     79><LI
     80><P
     81>  <A
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     85>.
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     87></LI
     88><LI
     89><P
     90>  <A
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     94>.
     95 </P
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     104 </P
     105></LI
     106><LI
     107><P
     108>  <A
     109HREF="rarpd.html"
     110TARGET="_top"
     111>rarpd</A
     112>.
     113 </P
     114></LI
     115><LI
     116><P
     117>  <A
     118HREF="tracepath.html"
     119TARGET="_top"
     120>tracepath</A
     121>.
     122 </P
     123></LI
     124><LI
     125><P
     126>  <A
     127HREF="traceroute6.html"
     128TARGET="_top"
     129>traceroute6</A
     130>.
     131 </P
     132></LI
     133><LI
     134><P
     135>  <A
     136HREF="rdisc.html"
     137TARGET="_top"
     138>rdisc</A
     139>.
     140 </P
     141></LI
     142><LI
     143><P
     144>  <A
     145HREF="tftpd.html"
     146TARGET="_top"
     147>tftpd</A
     148>.
     149 </P
     150></LI
     151><LI
     152><P
     153>  <A
     154HREF="pg3.html"
     155TARGET="_top"
     156>pg3, ipg, pgset</A
     157>.
     158 </P
     159></LI
     160></UL
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     164CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
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     205><TD
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     207ALIGN="right"
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  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/tftpd.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/tftpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TFTPD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tftpd \- Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtftpd\fR \fB\fIdirectory\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBtftpd\fR is a server which supports the DARPA
     16Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     17(RFC1350).
     18The TFTP server is started
     19by \fBinetd\fR(8).
     20.PP
     21\fIdirectory\fR is required argument; if it is not given
     22\fBtftpd\fR aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     23via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting \fBtftpd\fR to this directory.
     24File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     25administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.
     26.PP
     27It is in difference of variants of \fBtftpd\fR usually distributed
     28with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     29file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     30default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     31behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     32to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     33And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     34it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients.
     35.PP
     36In the case when \fBtftpd\fR is used together with
     37\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     38tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     39that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     40its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     41conventions. See
     42\fBrarpd\fR(8)
     43for more details.
     44.SH "SECURITY"
     45.PP
     46TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     47Due to this capital flaw \fBtftpd\fR is not able to restrict
     48access to files and will allow only publically readable
     49files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     50exist and are publically writable.
     51.PP
     52Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP \fBmust not\fR
     53contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     54to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     55such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     56publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     57\fBunencrypted\fR passwords and may contain some information
     58about the network, which you were not going to make public.
     59.PP
     60The \fBtftpd\fR server should be executed by \fBinetd\fR
     61with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     62access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     63as superuser occasionally, \fBtftpd\fR drops its UID and GID
     64to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     65However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     66for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.
     67.SH "SEE ALSO"
     68.PP
     69\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     70\fBtftp\fR(1),
     71\fBinetd\fR(8).
     72.SH "HISTORY"
     73.PP
     74The \fBtftpd\fR command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     75is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).
     76.PP
     77It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     78(MSG_CONFIRM) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     79not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     80However, this is full functional and can be used in production.
     81.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     82.PP
     83\fBtftpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     84and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     85http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/tracepath.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/tracepath.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEPATH" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tracepath, tracepath6 \- traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtracepath\fR [\fB-n\fR] [\fB-b\fR] [\fB-l \fIpktlen\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_hops\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15It traces path to \fIdestination\fR discovering MTU along this path.
     16It uses UDP port \fIport\fR or some random port.
     17It is similar to \fBtraceroute\fR, only does not require superuser
     18privileges and has no fancy options.
     19.PP
     20\fBtracepath6\fR is good replacement for \fBtraceroute6\fR
     21and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     22The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     23IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages.
     24Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     25For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     26of UDP ports to maintain trace history.
     27.SH "OPTIONS"
     28.TP
     29\fB-n\fR
     30Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     31.TP
     32\fB-b\fR
     33Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     34.TP
     35\fB-l\fR
     36Sets the initial packet length to \fIpktlen\fR instead of
     3765535 for \fBtracepath\fR or 128000 for \fBtracepath6\fR.
     38.TP
     39\fB-m\fR
     40Set maximum hops (or maximum TTLs) to \fImax_hops\fR
     41instead of 30.
     42.TP
     43\fB-p\fR
     44Sets the initial destination port to use.
     45.SH "OUTPUT"
     46.PP
     47
     48.nf
     49root@mops:~ # tracepath6 3ffe:2400:0:109::2
     50 1?: [LOCALHOST]                              pmtu 1500
     51 1:  dust.inr.ac.ru                   0.411ms
     52 2:  dust.inr.ac.ru        asymm  1   0.390ms pmtu 1480
     53 2:  3ffe:2400:0:109::2               463.514ms reached
     54     Resume: pmtu 1480 hops 2 back 2
     55.fi
     56.PP
     57The first column shows TTL of the probe, followed by colon.
     58Usually value of TTL is obtained from reply from network,
     59but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     60we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.
     61.PP
     62The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     63It is either address of router or word [LOCALHOST], if
     64the probe was not sent to the network.
     65.PP
     66The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     67the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     68Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     69If the path is asymmetric
     70or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     71between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     72following keyword async. This information is not reliable.
     73F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     74with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.
     75.PP
     76The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     77it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     78guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     79different when the path is asymmetric.
     80.SH "SEE ALSO"
     81.PP
     82\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     83\fBtraceroute6\fR(8),
     84\fBping\fR(8).
     85.SH "AUTHOR"
     86.PP
     87\fBtracepath\fR was written by
     88Alexey Kuznetsov
     89<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     90.SH "SECURITY"
     91.PP
     92No security issues.
     93.PP
     94This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     95\fBtracepath\fR is not a privileged program, unlike
     96\fBtraceroute\fR, \fBping\fR and other beasts of this kind.
     97\fBtracepath\fR may be executed by everyone who has some access
     98to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     99using given port.
     100.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     101.PP
     102\fBtracepath\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     103and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     104http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • doc/traceroute6.8

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/traceroute6.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/traceroute6.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEROUTE6" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8traceroute6 \- traces path to a network host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtraceroute6\fR [\fB-dnrvV\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_ttl\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] [\fB-q \fImax_probes\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIwait time\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR [\fB\fIsize\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Description can be found in
     16\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     17all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     18the description from there.
     19.SH "SEE ALSO"
     20.PP
     21\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     22\fBtracepath\fR(8),
     23\fBping\fR(8).
     24.SH "HISTORY"
     25.PP
     26This program has long history. Author of \fBtraceroute\fR
     27is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     28based on a port of \fBtraceroute\fR to IPv6 published
     29in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     30to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     31Alexey Kuznetsov
     32<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. And eventually entered
     33\fBiputils\fR package.
     34.SH "SECURITY"
     35.PP
     36\fBtracepath6\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     37to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     38.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     39.PP
     40\fBtraceroute6\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     41and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     42http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/x109.html iputils-s20161105/doc/x109.html
    old new  
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     3><HEAD
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     5>Availability</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
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     76><P
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     81and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     82<A
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     84TARGET="_top"
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     71CLASS="SECT1"
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     73NAME="AEN34"
     74>Historical notes</A
     75></H1
     76><P
     77>This package appeared as a desperate attempt to bring some life
     78to state of basic networking applets: <B
     79CLASS="COMMAND"
     80>ping</B
     81>, <B
     82CLASS="COMMAND"
     83>traceroute</B
     84>
     85etc. Though it was known that port of BSD <B
     86CLASS="COMMAND"
     87>ping</B
     88> to Linux
     89was basically broken, neither maintainers of well known (and superb)
     90Linux net-tools package nor maintainers of Linux distributions
     91worried about fixing well known bugs, which were reported in linux-kernel
     92and linux-net mail lists for ages, were identified and nevertheless
     93not repaired. So, one day 1001th resuming of the subject happened
     94to be the last straw to break camel's back, I just parsed my hard disks
     95and collected a set of utilities, which shared the following properties:</P
     96><P
     97></P
     98><UL
     99><LI
     100><P
     101>Small
     102 </P
     103></LI
     104><LI
     105><P
     106>Useful despite of this
     107 </P
     108></LI
     109><LI
     110><P
     111>I never seen it was made right
     112 </P
     113></LI
     114><LI
     115><P
     116>Not quite trivial
     117 </P
     118></LI
     119><LI
     120><P
     121>Demonstrating some important feature of Linux
     122 </P
     123></LI
     124><LI
     125><P
     126>The last but not the least, I use it more or less regularly
     127 </P
     128></LI
     129></UL
     130><P
     131>This utility set was not supposed to be a reference set or something like
     132that. Most of them were cloned from some originals:
     133<DIV
     134CLASS="INFORMALTABLE"
     135><P
     136></P
     137><A
     138NAME="AEN54"
     139></A
     140><TABLE
     141BORDER="1"
     142BGCOLOR="#E0E0E0"
     143CELLSPACING="0"
     144CELLPADDING="4"
     145CLASS="CALSTABLE"
     146><TBODY
     147><TR
     148><TD
     149>ping</TD
     150><TD
     151>cloned of an ancient NetTools-B-xx</TD
     152></TR
     153><TR
     154><TD
     155>ping6</TD
     156><TD
     157>cloned of a very old Pedro's utility set</TD
     158></TR
     159><TR
     160><TD
     161>traceroute6</TD
     162><TD
     163>cloned of NRL Sep 96 distribution</TD
     164></TR
     165><TR
     166><TD
     167>rdisc</TD
     168><TD
     169>cloned of SUN in.rdisc</TD
     170></TR
     171><TR
     172><TD
     173>clockdiff</TD
     174><TD
     175>broken out of some BSD timed</TD
     176></TR
     177><TR
     178><TD
     179>tftpd</TD
     180><TD
     181>it is clone of some ancient NetKit package</TD
     182></TR
     183></TBODY
     184></TABLE
     185><P
     186></P
     187></DIV
     188></P
     189><P
     190>Also I added some utilities written from scratch, namely
     191<B
     192CLASS="COMMAND"
     193>tracepath</B
     194>, <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>arping</B
     197> and later <B
     198CLASS="COMMAND"
     199>rarpd</B
     200>
     201(the last one does not satisfy all the criteria, I used it two or three
     202times).</P
     203><P
     204>Hesitated a bit I overcame temptation to add <B
     205CLASS="COMMAND"
     206>traceroute</B
     207>.
     208The variant released by LBNL to that time was mostly sane and bugs
     209in it were mostly not specific to Linux, but main reason was that
     210the latest version of LBNL <B
     211CLASS="COMMAND"
     212>traceroute</B
     213> was not
     214<I
     215CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     216>small</I
     217>, it consisted of several files,
     218used a wicked (and failing with Linux :-)) autoconfiguration etc.
     219So, instead I assembled to iputils a simplistic <B
     220CLASS="COMMAND"
     221>tracepath</B
     222> utility
     223and IPv6 version of traceroute, and published my
     224<A
     225HREF="ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/lbl-tools"
     226TARGET="_top"
     227> patches</A
     228>.
     229to LBNL <B
     230CLASS="COMMAND"
     231>traceroute</B
     232> separately.<A
     233NAME="AEN86"
     234HREF="#FTN.AEN86"
     235><SPAN
     236CLASS="footnote"
     237>[1]</SPAN
     238></A
     239></P
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     241><H3
     242CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
     243>Notes</H3
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     253><A
     254NAME="FTN.AEN86"
     255HREF="x34.html#AEN86"
     256><SPAN
     257CLASS="footnote"
     258>[1]</SPAN
     259></A
     260></TD
     261><TD
     262ALIGN="LEFT"
     263VALIGN="TOP"
     264WIDTH="95%"
     265><P
     266>This was mistake.
     267Due to this <B
     268CLASS="COMMAND"
     269>traceroute</B
     270> was in a sad state until recently.
     271Good news, redhat-7.2 seems to add these patches to their traceroute
     272rpm eventually. So, I think I will refrain of suicide for awhile.</P
     273></TD
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     75></H1
     76><P
     77><KBD
     78CLASS="USERINPUT"
     79>make</KBD
     80> to compile utilities. <KBD
     81CLASS="USERINPUT"
     82>make html</KBD
     83> to prepare
     84html documentation, <KBD
     85CLASS="USERINPUT"
     86>make man</KBD
     87> if you prefer man pages.
     88Nothing fancy, provided you have DocBook package installed.</P
     89><P
     90><KBD
     91CLASS="USERINPUT"
     92>make install</KBD
     93> installs <I
     94CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     95>only</I
     96> HTML documentation
     97to <TT
     98CLASS="FILENAME"