source: patches/iputils-s20121221-fixes-2.patch @ 83e4c6d

clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since 83e4c6d was 205fbc0, checked in by William Harrington <kb0iic@…>, 9 years ago

Add iputils fixes 2 patch. Current updates from iputils git and include -m option for tracepath in man pages.

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File size: 155.1 KB
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[205fbc0]1Submitted By: William Harrington <kb0iic at cross-lfs dot org>
2Date: 2014-04-01
3Initial Package Version: s20121221
4Upstream Status: Applied
5Origin: git://git.linux-ipv6.org/gitroot/iputils.git
6Description: Contains Fixes for Various Issues and Manpages
7
8diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/Makefile iputils-s20121221/Makefile
9--- iputils-s20121221.orig/Makefile     2012-12-21 14:01:07.000000000 +0000
10+++ iputils-s20121221/Makefile  2014-04-02 01:01:49.917694047 +0000
11@@ -149,7 +149,7 @@
12 DEF_ping_common = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN)
13 DEF_ping  = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS)
14 LIB_ping  = $(LIB_CAP) $(LIB_IDN)
15-DEF_ping6 = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS) $(DEF_ENABLE_PING6_RTHDR)
16+DEF_ping6 = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS) $(DEF_ENABLE_PING6_RTHDR) $(DEF_CRYPTO)
17 LIB_ping6 = $(LIB_CAP) $(LIB_IDN) $(LIB_RESOLV) $(LIB_CRYPTO)
18 
19 ping: ping_common.o
20diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/arping.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/arping.8
21--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/arping.8 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
22+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/arping.8      2014-04-02 01:07:09.997700654 +0000
23@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
24+.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
25+.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
26+.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
27+.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
28+.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
29+.TH "ARPING" "8" "01 April 2014" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
30+.SH NAME
31+arping \- send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host
32+.SH SYNOPSIS
33+
34+\fBarping\fR [\fB-AbDfhqUV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] \fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
35+
36+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
37+.PP
38+Ping \fIdestination\fR on device \fIinterface\fR by ARP packets,
39+using source address \fIsource\fR.
40+.SH "OPTIONS"
41+.TP
42+\fB-A\fR
43+The same as \fB-U\fR, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
44+of ARP REQUEST.
45+.TP
46+\fB-b\fR
47+Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally \fBarping\fR starts
48+from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
49+.TP
50+\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
51+Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ARP REQUEST
52+packets. With
53+\fIdeadline\fR
54+option, \fBarping\fR waits for
55+\fIcount\fR ARP REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
56+.TP
57+\fB-D\fR
58+Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
59+RFC2131, 4.4.1.
60+Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
61+.TP
62+\fB-f\fR
63+Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
64+.TP
65+\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
66+Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets.
67+.TP
68+\fB-h\fR
69+Print help page and exit.
70+.TP
71+\fB-q\fR
72+Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
73+.TP
74+\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR
75+IP source address to use in ARP packets.
76+If this option is absent, source address is:
77+.RS
78+.TP 0.2i
79+\(bu
80+In DAD mode (with option \fB-D\fR) set to 0.0.0.0.
81+.TP 0.2i
82+\(bu
83+In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options \fB-U\fR or \fB-A\fR)
84+set to \fIdestination\fR.
85+.TP 0.2i
86+\(bu
87+Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
88+.RE
89+.TP
90+\fB-U\fR
91+Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
92+No replies are expected.
93+.TP
94+\fB-V\fR
95+Print version of the program and exit.
96+.TP
97+\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
98+Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
99+\fBarping\fR
100+exits regardless of how many
101+packets have been sent or received. In this case
102+\fBarping\fR
103+does not stop after
104+\fIcount\fR
105+packet are sent, it waits either for
106+\fIdeadline\fR
107+expire or until
108+\fIcount\fR
109+probes are answered.
110+.SH "SEE ALSO"
111+.PP
112+\fBping\fR(8),
113+\fBclockdiff\fR(8),
114+\fBtracepath\fR(8).
115+.SH "AUTHOR"
116+.PP
117+\fBarping\fR was written by
118+Alexey Kuznetsov
119+<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
120+It is now maintained by
121+YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
122+<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
123+.SH "SECURITY"
124+.PP
125+\fBarping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
126+to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
127+because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.
128+.SH "AVAILABILITY"
129+.PP
130+\fBarping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
131+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
132+http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
133diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/clockdiff.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/clockdiff.8
134--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/clockdiff.8      1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
135+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/clockdiff.8   2014-04-02 01:07:10.829700671 +0000
136@@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
137+.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
138+.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
139+.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
140+.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
141+.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
142+.TH "CLOCKDIFF" "8" "01 April 2014" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
143+.SH NAME
144+clockdiff \- measure clock difference between hosts
145+.SH SYNOPSIS
146+
147+\fBclockdiff\fR [\fB-o\fR] [\fB-o1\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
148+
149+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
150+.PP
151+\fBclockdiff\fR Measures clock difference between us and
152+\fIdestination\fR with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
153+[2]
154+packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
155+[3]
156+option added to ICMP ECHO.
157+[1]
158+.SH "OPTIONS"
159+.TP
160+\fB-o\fR
161+Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
162+messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
163+ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris <2.4).
164+.TP
165+\fB-o1\fR
166+Slightly different form of \fB-o\fR, namely it uses three-term
167+IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
168+What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
169+\fB-o\fR is better for Linux.
170+.SH "WARNINGS"
171+.TP 0.2i
172+\(bu
173+Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
174+by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
175+.TP 0.2i
176+\(bu
177+Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris>2.4), when
178+run \fBxntpd\fR. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
179+which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
180+randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
181+use NTP in this case, which is even better.
182+.TP 0.2i
183+\(bu
184+\fBclockdiff\fR shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
185+.SH "SEE ALSO"
186+.PP
187+\fBping\fR(8),
188+\fBarping\fR(8),
189+\fBtracepath\fR(8).
190+.SH "REFERENCES"
191+.PP
192+[1] ICMP ECHO,
193+RFC0792, page 14.
194+.PP
195+[2] ICMP TIMESTAMP,
196+RFC0792, page 16.
197+.PP
198+[3] IP TIMESTAMP option,
199+RFC0791, 3.1, page 16.
200+.SH "AUTHOR"
201+.PP
202+\fBclockdiff\fR was compiled by
203+Alexey Kuznetsov
204+<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. It was based on code borrowed
205+from BSD \fBtimed\fR daemon.
206+It is now maintained by
207+YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
208+<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
209+.SH "SECURITY"
210+.PP
211+\fBclockdiff\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
212+to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
213+.SH "AVAILABILITY"
214+.PP
215+\fBclockdiff\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
216+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
217+http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
218diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/index.html iputils-s20121221/doc/index.html
219--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/index.html       1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
220+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/index.html    2014-04-02 01:05:52.917699063 +0000
221@@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
222+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
223+<HTML
224+><HEAD
225+><TITLE
226+>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TITLE
227+><META
228+NAME="GENERATOR"
229+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
230+REL="NEXT"
231+TITLE="ping"
232+HREF="r3.html"></HEAD
233+><BODY
234+CLASS="REFERENCE"
235+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
236+TEXT="#000000"
237+LINK="#0000FF"
238+VLINK="#840084"
239+ALINK="#0000FF"
240+><DIV
241+CLASS="NAVHEADER"
242+><TABLE
243+SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
244+WIDTH="100%"
245+BORDER="0"
246+CELLPADDING="0"
247+CELLSPACING="0"
248+><TR
249+><TD
250+WIDTH="10%"
251+ALIGN="left"
252+VALIGN="bottom"
253+>&nbsp;</TD
254+><TD
255+WIDTH="80%"
256+ALIGN="center"
257+VALIGN="bottom"
258+></TD
259+><TD
260+WIDTH="10%"
261+ALIGN="right"
262+VALIGN="bottom"
263+><A
264+HREF="r3.html"
265+ACCESSKEY="N"
266+>Next</A
267+></TD
268+></TR
269+></TABLE
270+><HR
271+ALIGN="LEFT"
272+WIDTH="100%"></DIV
273+><DIV
274+CLASS="REFERENCE"
275+><A
276+NAME="INDEX"
277+></A
278+><DIV
279+CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
280+><H1
281+CLASS="TITLE"
282+>I. System Manager's Manual: iputils</H1
283+><DIV
284+CLASS="TOC"
285+><DL
286+><DT
287+><B
288+>Table of Contents</B
289+></DT
290+><DT
291+><A
292+HREF="r3.html"
293+>ping</A
294+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DT
295+><DT
296+><A
297+HREF="r466.html"
298+>arping</A
299+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DT
300+><DT
301+><A
302+HREF="r625.html"
303+>clockdiff</A
304+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DT
305+><DT
306+><A
307+HREF="r720.html"
308+>rarpd</A
309+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DT
310+><DT
311+><A
312+HREF="r819.html"
313+>tracepath</A
314+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DT
315+><DT
316+><A
317+HREF="r926.html"
318+>traceroute6</A
319+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DT
320+><DT
321+><A
322+HREF="r991.html"
323+>tftpd</A
324+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DT
325+><DT
326+><A
327+HREF="r1064.html"
328+>ninfod</A
329+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DT
330+><DT
331+><A
332+HREF="r1133.html"
333+>rdisc</A
334+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DT
335+><DT
336+><A
337+HREF="r1277.html"
338+>pg3</A
339+>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DT
340+></DL
341+></DIV
342+></DIV
343+></DIV
344+><DIV
345+CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
346+><HR
347+ALIGN="LEFT"
348+WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
349+SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
350+WIDTH="100%"
351+BORDER="0"
352+CELLPADDING="0"
353+CELLSPACING="0"
354+><TR
355+><TD
356+WIDTH="33%"
357+ALIGN="left"
358+VALIGN="top"
359+>&nbsp;</TD
360+><TD
361+WIDTH="34%"
362+ALIGN="center"
363+VALIGN="top"
364+>&nbsp;</TD
365+><TD
366+WIDTH="33%"
367+ALIGN="right"
368+VALIGN="top"
369+><A
370+HREF="r3.html"
371+ACCESSKEY="N"
372+>Next</A
373+></TD
374+></TR
375+><TR
376+><TD
377+WIDTH="33%"
378+ALIGN="left"
379+VALIGN="top"
380+>&nbsp;</TD
381+><TD
382+WIDTH="34%"
383+ALIGN="center"
384+VALIGN="top"
385+>&nbsp;</TD
386+><TD
387+WIDTH="33%"
388+ALIGN="right"
389+VALIGN="top"
390+>ping</TD
391+></TR
392+></TABLE
393+></DIV
394+></BODY
395+></HTML
396+>
397\ No newline at end of file
398diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/iputils.html iputils-s20121221/doc/iputils.html
399--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/iputils.html     1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
400+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/iputils.html  2014-04-02 01:05:55.845699123 +0000
401@@ -0,0 +1,491 @@
402+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
403+<HTML
404+><HEAD
405+><TITLE
406+>iputils: documentation directory</TITLE
407+><META
408+NAME="GENERATOR"
409+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"></HEAD
410+><BODY
411+CLASS="ARTICLE"
412+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
413+TEXT="#000000"
414+LINK="#0000FF"
415+VLINK="#840084"
416+ALINK="#0000FF"
417+><DIV
418+CLASS="ARTICLE"
419+><DIV
420+CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
421+><H1
422+CLASS="TITLE"
423+><A
424+NAME="AEN2"
425+>iputils: documentation directory</A
426+></H1
427+><HR></DIV
428+><DIV
429+CLASS="TOC"
430+><DL
431+><DT
432+><B
433+>Table of Contents</B
434+></DT
435+><DT
436+>1. <A
437+HREF="#AEN4"
438+>Index</A
439+></DT
440+><DT
441+>2. <A
442+HREF="#AEN34"
443+>Historical notes</A
444+></DT
445+><DT
446+>3. <A
447+HREF="#AEN89"
448+>Installation notes</A
449+></DT
450+><DT
451+>4. <A
452+HREF="#AEN109"
453+>Availability</A
454+></DT
455+><DT
456+>5. <A
457+HREF="#AEN114"
458+>Copying</A
459+></DT
460+></DL
461+></DIV
462+><DIV
463+CLASS="SECT1"
464+><H2
465+CLASS="SECT1"
466+><A
467+NAME="AEN4"
468+>1. Index</A
469+></H2
470+><P
471+></P
472+><UL
473+><LI
474+><P
475+>  <A
476+HREF="ping.html"
477+TARGET="_top"
478+>ping, ping6</A
479+>.
480+ </P
481+></LI
482+><LI
483+><P
484+>  <A
485+HREF="arping.html"
486+TARGET="_top"
487+>arping</A
488+>.
489+ </P
490+></LI
491+><LI
492+><P
493+>  <A
494+HREF="clockdiff.html"
495+TARGET="_top"
496+>clockdiff</A
497+>.
498+ </P
499+></LI
500+><LI
501+><P
502+>  <A
503+HREF="rarpd.html"
504+TARGET="_top"
505+>rarpd</A
506+>.
507+ </P
508+></LI
509+><LI
510+><P
511+>  <A
512+HREF="tracepath.html"
513+TARGET="_top"
514+>tracepath, tracepath6</A
515+>.
516+ </P
517+></LI
518+><LI
519+><P
520+>  <A
521+HREF="traceroute6.html"
522+TARGET="_top"
523+>traceroute6</A
524+>.
525+ </P
526+></LI
527+><LI
528+><P
529+>  <A
530+HREF="rdisc.html"
531+TARGET="_top"
532+>rdisc</A
533+>.
534+ </P
535+></LI
536+><LI
537+><P
538+>  <A
539+HREF="tftpd.html"
540+TARGET="_top"
541+>tftpd</A
542+>.
543+ </P
544+></LI
545+><LI
546+><P
547+>  <A
548+HREF="pg3.html"
549+TARGET="_top"
550+>pg3, ipg, pgset</A
551+>.
552+ </P
553+></LI
554+></UL
555+></DIV
556+><DIV
557+CLASS="SECT1"
558+><HR><H2
559+CLASS="SECT1"
560+><A
561+NAME="AEN34"
562+>2. Historical notes</A
563+></H2
564+><P
565+>This package appeared as a desperate attempt to bring some life
566+to state of basic networking applets: <B
567+CLASS="COMMAND"
568+>ping</B
569+>, <B
570+CLASS="COMMAND"
571+>traceroute</B
572+>
573+etc. Though it was known that port of BSD <B
574+CLASS="COMMAND"
575+>ping</B
576+> to Linux
577+was basically broken, neither maintainers of well known (and superb)
578+Linux net-tools package nor maintainers of Linux distributions
579+worried about fixing well known bugs, which were reported in linux-kernel
580+and linux-net mail lists for ages, were identified and nevertheless
581+not repaired. So, one day 1001th resuming of the subject happened
582+to be the last straw to break camel's back, I just parsed my hard disks
583+and collected a set of utilities, which shared the following properties:</P
584+><P
585+></P
586+><UL
587+><LI
588+><P
589+>Small
590+ </P
591+></LI
592+><LI
593+><P
594+>Useful despite of this
595+ </P
596+></LI
597+><LI
598+><P
599+>I never seen it was made right
600+ </P
601+></LI
602+><LI
603+><P
604+>Not quite trivial
605+ </P
606+></LI
607+><LI
608+><P
609+>Demonstrating some important feature of Linux
610+ </P
611+></LI
612+><LI
613+><P
614+>The last but not the least, I use it more or less regularly
615+ </P
616+></LI
617+></UL
618+><P
619+>This utility set was not supposed to be a reference set or something like
620+that. Most of them were cloned from some originals:
621+<DIV
622+CLASS="INFORMALTABLE"
623+><P
624+></P
625+><A
626+NAME="AEN54"
627+></A
628+><TABLE
629+BORDER="1"
630+CLASS="CALSTABLE"
631+><COL><COL><TBODY
632+><TR
633+><TD
634+>ping</TD
635+><TD
636+>cloned of an ancient NetTools-B-xx</TD
637+></TR
638+><TR
639+><TD
640+>ping6</TD
641+><TD
642+>cloned of a very old Pedro's utility set</TD
643+></TR
644+><TR
645+><TD
646+>traceroute6</TD
647+><TD
648+>cloned of NRL Sep 96 distribution</TD
649+></TR
650+><TR
651+><TD
652+>rdisc</TD
653+><TD
654+>cloned of SUN in.rdisc</TD
655+></TR
656+><TR
657+><TD
658+>clockdiff</TD
659+><TD
660+>broken out of some BSD timed</TD
661+></TR
662+><TR
663+><TD
664+>tftpd</TD
665+><TD
666+>it is clone of some ancient NetKit package</TD
667+></TR
668+></TBODY
669+></TABLE
670+><P
671+></P
672+></DIV
673+></P
674+><P
675+>Also I added some utilities written from scratch, namely
676+<B
677+CLASS="COMMAND"
678+>tracepath</B
679+>, <B
680+CLASS="COMMAND"
681+>arping</B
682+> and later <B
683+CLASS="COMMAND"
684+>rarpd</B
685+>
686+(the last one does not satisfy all the criteria, I used it two or three
687+times).</P
688+><P
689+>Hesitated a bit I overcame temptation to add <B
690+CLASS="COMMAND"
691+>traceroute</B
692+>.
693+The variant released by LBNL to that time was mostly sane and bugs
694+in it were mostly not specific to Linux, but main reason was that
695+the latest version of LBNL <B
696+CLASS="COMMAND"
697+>traceroute</B
698+> was not
699+<SPAN
700+CLASS="emphasis"
701+><I
702+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
703+>small</I
704+></SPAN
705+>, it consisted of several files,
706+used a wicked (and failing with Linux :-)) autoconfiguration etc.
707+So, instead I assembled to iputils a simplistic <B
708+CLASS="COMMAND"
709+>tracepath</B
710+> utility
711+and IPv6 version of traceroute, and published my
712+<A
713+HREF="ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/lbl-tools"
714+TARGET="_top"
715+> patches</A
716+>.
717+to LBNL <B
718+CLASS="COMMAND"
719+>traceroute</B
720+> separately.<A
721+NAME="AEN86"
722+HREF="#FTN.AEN86"
723+><SPAN
724+CLASS="footnote"
725+>[1]</SPAN
726+></A
727+></P
728+></DIV
729+><DIV
730+CLASS="SECT1"
731+><HR><H2
732+CLASS="SECT1"
733+><A
734+NAME="AEN89"
735+>3. Installation notes</A
736+></H2
737+><P
738+><KBD
739+CLASS="USERINPUT"
740+>make</KBD
741+> to compile utilities. <KBD
742+CLASS="USERINPUT"
743+>make html</KBD
744+> to prepare
745+html documentation, <KBD
746+CLASS="USERINPUT"
747+>make man</KBD
748+> if you prefer man pages.
749+Nothing fancy, provided you have DocBook package installed.</P
750+><P
751+><KBD
752+CLASS="USERINPUT"
753+>make install</KBD
754+> installs <SPAN
755+CLASS="emphasis"
756+><I
757+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
758+>only</I
759+></SPAN
760+> HTML documentation
761+to <TT
762+CLASS="FILENAME"
763+>/usr/doc/iputils</TT
764+>. It even does not try
765+to install binaries and man pages. If you read historical
766+notes above, the reason should be evident. Most of utilities
767+intersect with utilities distributed in another packages, and
768+making such target rewriting existing installation would be a crime
769+from my side. The decision what variant of <B
770+CLASS="COMMAND"
771+>ping</B
772+> is preferred,
773+how to resolve the conflicts etc. is left to you or to person who
774+assembled an rpm. I vote for variant from <B
775+CLASS="COMMAND"
776+>iputils</B
777+> of course.</P
778+><P
779+>Anyway, select utilities which you like and install them to the places
780+which you prefer together with their man pages.</P
781+><P
782+>It is possible that compilation will fail, if you use some
783+funny Linux distribution mangling header files in some unexpected ways
784+(expected ones are the ways of redhat of course :-)).
785+I validate iputils against <A
786+HREF="http://www.asplinux.ru"
787+TARGET="_top"
788+>asplinux</A
789+>
790+distribution, which is inevitably followed by validity with respect
791+to <A
792+HREF="http://www.redhat.com"
793+TARGET="_top"
794+>redhat</A
795+>.
796+If your distribution is one of widely known ones, suse or debian,
797+it also will compile provided snapshot is elder than month or so and
798+someone reported all the problems, if they took place at all.</P
799+><P
800+><SPAN
801+CLASS="emphasis"
802+><I
803+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
804+>Anyway, please, do not abuse me complaining about some compilation problems
805+in any distribution different of asplinux or redhat.
806+If you have a fix, please, send it to
807+<A
808+HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
809+TARGET="_top"
810+>me</A
811+>,
812+I will check that it does not break distributions mentioned above
813+and apply it. But I am not going to undertake any investigations,
814+bare reports are deemed to be routed to <TT
815+CLASS="FILENAME"
816+>/dev/null</TT
817+>.</I
818+></SPAN
819+></P
820+></DIV
821+><DIV
822+CLASS="SECT1"
823+><HR><H2
824+CLASS="SECT1"
825+><A
826+NAME="AEN109"
827+>4. Availability</A
828+></H2
829+><P
830+>The collection of documents is part of <TT
831+CLASS="FILENAME"
832+>iputils</TT
833+> package
834+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
835+<A
836+HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
837+TARGET="_top"
838+>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
839+>.</P
840+></DIV
841+><DIV
842+CLASS="SECT1"
843+><HR><H2
844+CLASS="SECT1"
845+><A
846+NAME="AEN114"
847+>5. Copying</A
848+></H2
849+><P
850+>Different files are copyrighted by different persons and organizations
851+and distributed under different licenses. For details look into corresponding
852+source files.</P
853+></DIV
854+></DIV
855+><H3
856+CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
857+>Notes</H3
858+><TABLE
859+BORDER="0"
860+CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
861+WIDTH="100%"
862+><TR
863+><TD
864+ALIGN="LEFT"
865+VALIGN="TOP"
866+WIDTH="5%"
867+><A
868+NAME="FTN.AEN86"
869+HREF="#AEN86"
870+><SPAN
871+CLASS="footnote"
872+>[1]</SPAN
873+></A
874+></TD
875+><TD
876+ALIGN="LEFT"
877+VALIGN="TOP"
878+WIDTH="95%"
879+><P
880+>This was mistake.
881+Due to this <B
882+CLASS="COMMAND"
883+>traceroute</B
884+> was in a sad state until recently.
885+Good news, redhat-7.2 seems to add these patches to their traceroute
886+rpm eventually. So, I think I will refrain of suicide for awhile.</P
887+></TD
888+></TR
889+></TABLE
890+></BODY
891+></HTML
892+>
893\ No newline at end of file
894diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ninfod.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/ninfod.8
895--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ninfod.8 1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
896+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/ninfod.8      2014-04-02 01:07:11.809700691 +0000
897@@ -0,0 +1,72 @@
898+.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
899+.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
900+.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
901+.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
902+.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
903+.TH "NINFOD" "8" "01 April 2014" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
904+.SH NAME
905+ninfod \- Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries
906+.SH SYNOPSIS
907+
908+\fBninfod\fR [\fB-dhv\fR] [\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR] [\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR]
909+
910+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
911+.PP
912+Responds to IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620) from clients.
913+Queries can be sent by various implementations of \fBping6\fR command.
914+.SH "OPTIONS"
915+.TP
916+\fB-a\fR
917+Debug mode.  Do not go background.
918+.TP
919+\fB-h\fR
920+Show help.
921+.TP
922+\fB-v\fR
923+Verbose mode.
924+.TP
925+\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR
926+Run as another user.
927+\fIuser\fR can either be username or user ID.
928+.TP
929+\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR
930+File for process-id storage.
931+\fIuser\fR is required to be able to create the file.
932+.SH "SEE ALSO"
933+.PP
934+\fBping\fR(8).
935+.SH "AUTHOR"
936+.PP
937+\fBninfod\fR was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.
938+.SH "COPYING"
939+.PP
940+
941+.nf
942+Copyright (C) 2012 YOSHIFUJI Hideaki.
943+Copyright (C) 2002 USAGI/WIDE Project.
944+All rights reserved.
945+
946+Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
947+modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
948+are met:
949+1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
950+   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
951+2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
952+   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
953+   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
954+3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
955+   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
956+   without specific prior written permission.
957+
958+THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
959+ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
960+IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
961+ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
962+FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
963+DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
964+OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
965+HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
966+LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
967+OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
968+SUCH DAMAGE.
969+.fi
970diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/pg3.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/pg3.8
971--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/pg3.8    1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
972+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/pg3.8 2014-04-02 01:07:12.697700709 +0000
973@@ -0,0 +1,86 @@
974+.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
975+.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
976+.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
977+.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
978+.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
979+.TH "PG3" "8" "01 April 2014" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
980+.SH NAME
981+pg3, ipg, pgset \- send stream of UDP packets
982+.SH SYNOPSIS
983+
984+\fBsource ipg\fR
985+
986+
987+\fBpg\fR
988+
989+
990+\fBpgset\fR \fB\fICOMMAND\fB\fR
991+
992+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
993+.PP
994+\fBipg\fR is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
995+to \fBbash\fR. When sourced it loads module \fIpg3\fR and
996+exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
997+are \fBpg\fR to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
998+and \fBpgset\fR to setup packet generator.
999+.PP
1000+\fBpgset\fR can send the following commands to module \fIpg3\fR:
1001+.SH "COMMAND"
1002+.TP
1003+\fBodev \fIDEVICE\fB\fR
1004+Name of Ethernet device to test. See
1005+warning below.
1006+.TP
1007+\fBpkt_size \fIBYTES\fB\fR
1008+Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
1009+MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
1010+and various paddings.
1011+.TP
1012+\fBfrags \fINUMBER\fB\fR
1013+Each packet will contain \fINUMBER\fR of fragments.
1014+Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
1015+fragmented buffers.
1016+.TP
1017+\fBcount \fINUMBER\fB\fR
1018+Send stream of \fINUMBER\fR of packets and stop after this.
1019+.TP
1020+\fBipg \fITIME\fB\fR
1021+Introduce artificial delay between packets of \fITIME\fR
1022+microseconds.
1023+.TP
1024+\fBdst \fIIP_ADDRESS\fB\fR
1025+Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
1026+Beware, never set this address at random. \fBpg3\fR is not a toy,
1027+it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
1028+.TP
1029+\fBdst \fIMAC_ADDRESS\fB\fR
1030+Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
1031+Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
1032+by any node on LAN.
1033+.TP
1034+\fBstop\fR
1035+Abort packet injection.
1036+.SH "WARNING"
1037+.PP
1038+When output device is set to some random device different
1039+of hardware Ethernet device, \fBpg3\fR will crash kernel.
1040+.PP
1041+Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
1042+which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.
1043+.SH "AUTHOR"
1044+.PP
1045+\fBpg3\fR was written by Robert Olsson <robert.olsson@its.uu.se>.
1046+.SH "SECURITY"
1047+.PP
1048+This can be used only by superuser.
1049+.PP
1050+This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
1051+even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
1052+60 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
1053+switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
1054+Use only in test lab environment.
1055+.SH "AVAILABILITY"
1056+.PP
1057+\fBpg3\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
1058+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
1059+http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
1060diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ping.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/ping.8
1061--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ping.8   1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
1062+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/ping.8        2014-04-02 01:07:13.053700717 +0000
1063@@ -0,0 +1,428 @@
1064+.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
1065+.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
1066+.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
1067+.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
1068+.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
1069+.TH "PING" "8" "01 April 2014" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
1070+.SH NAME
1071+ping, ping6 \- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
1072+.SH SYNOPSIS
1073+
1074+\fBping\fR [\fB-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-F \fIflowlabel\fB\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR] [\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_option\fB\fR] [\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR] [\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR] [\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR] [\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR] [\fB\fIhop\fB\fR\fI ...\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
1075+
1076+.SH "DESCRIPTION"
1077+.PP
1078+\fBping\fR uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
1079+datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
1080+ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
1081+header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary
1082+number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.
1083+.PP
1084+\fBping6\fR is IPv6 version of \fBping\fR, and can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
1085+Intermediate \fIhop\fRs may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).
1086+.SH "OPTIONS"
1087+.TP
1088+\fB-a\fR
1089+Audible ping.
1090+.TP
1091+\fB-A\fR
1092+Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
1093+effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
1094+is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
1095+On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
1096+.TP
1097+\fB-b\fR
1098+Allow pinging a broadcast address.
1099+.TP
1100+\fB-B\fR
1101+Do not allow \fBping\fR to change source address of probes.
1102+The address is bound to one selected when \fBping\fR starts.
1103+.TP
1104+\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
1105+Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ECHO_REQUEST
1106+packets. With
1107+\fIdeadline\fR
1108+option, \fBping\fR waits for
1109+\fIcount\fR ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
1110+.TP
1111+\fB-d\fR
1112+Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
1113+Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
1114+.TP
1115+\fB-D\fR
1116+Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
1117+each line.
1118+.TP
1119+\fB-f\fR
1120+Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
1121+while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
1122+This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
1123+If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
1124+outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
1125+whichever is more.
1126+Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
1127+.TP
1128+\fB-F \fIflow label\fB\fR
1129+\fBping6\fR only.
1130+Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
1131+If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
1132+.TP
1133+\fB-h\fR
1134+Show help.
1135+.TP
1136+\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR
1137+Wait \fIinterval\fR seconds between sending each packet.
1138+The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
1139+or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
1140+to values less 0.2 seconds.
1141+.TP
1142+\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
1143+\fIinterface\fR is either an address, or an interface name.
1144+If \fIinterface\fR is an address, it sets source address
1145+to specified interface address.
1146+If \fIinterface\fR in an interface name, it sets
1147+source interface to specified interface.
1148+For \fBping6\fR, when doing ping to a link-local scope
1149+address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
1150+\fIdestination\fR, or by this option) is required.
1151+.TP
1152+\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR
1153+If \fIpreload\fR is specified,
1154+\fBping\fR sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
1155+Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
1156+.TP
1157+\fB-L\fR
1158+Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
1159+destination is a multicast address.
1160+.TP
1161+\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR
1162+use \fImark\fR to tag the packets going out. This is useful
1163+for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
1164+routing to select specific outbound processing.
1165+.TP
1166+\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_opt\fB\fR
1167+Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
1168+\fIpmtudisc_option\fR may be either \fIdo\fR
1169+(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
1170+\fIwant\fR (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
1171+is large), or \fIdont\fR (do not set DF flag).
1172+.TP
1173+\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR
1174+\fBping6\fR only.
1175+Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
1176+.RS
1177+.TP
1178+\fBhelp\fR
1179+Show help for NI support.
1180+.RE
1181+.RS
1182+.TP
1183+\fBname\fR
1184+Queries for Node Names.
1185+.RE
1186+.RS
1187+.TP
1188+\fBipv6\fR
1189+Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
1190+.RS
1191+.TP
1192+\fBipv6-global\fR
1193+Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.
1194+.RE
1195+.RS
1196+.TP
1197+\fBipv6-sitelocal\fR
1198+Request IPv6 site-local addresses.
1199+.RE
1200+.RS
1201+.TP
1202+\fBipv6-linklocal\fR
1203+Request IPv6 link-local addresses.
1204+.RE
1205+.RS
1206+.TP
1207+\fBipv6-all\fR
1208+Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.
1209+.RE
1210+.RE
1211+.RS
1212+.TP
1213+\fBipv4\fR
1214+Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
1215+.RS
1216+.TP
1217+\fBipv4-all\fR
1218+Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.
1219+.RE
1220+.RE
1221+.RS
1222+.TP
1223+\fBsubject-ipv6=\fIipv6addr\fB\fR
1224+IPv6 subject address.
1225+.RE
1226+.RS
1227+.TP
1228+\fBsubject-ipv4=\fIipv4addr\fB\fR
1229+IPv4 subject address.
1230+.RE
1231+.RS
1232+.TP
1233+\fBsubject-name=\fInodename\fB\fR
1234+Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
1235+fully-qualified domain name is assumed.
1236+.RE
1237+.RS
1238+.TP
1239+\fBsubject-fqdn=\fInodename\fB\fR
1240+Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
1241+always assumed.
1242+.RE
1243+.TP
1244+\fB-n\fR
1245+Numeric output only.
1246+No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
1247+.TP
1248+\fB-O\fR
1249+Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
1250+This is useful together with the timestamp \fB-D\fR to
1251+log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
1252+.TP
1253+\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR
1254+You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
1255+This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
1256+For example, \fB-p ff\fR will cause the sent packet
1257+to be filled with all ones.
1258+.TP
1259+\fB-q\fR
1260+Quiet output.
1261+Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
1262+when finished.
1263+.TP
1264+\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR
1265+Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
1266+\fItos\fR can be decimal (\fBping\fR only) or hex number.
1267+
1268+In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
1269+Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
1270+data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
1271+Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
1272+
1273+Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
1274+as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
1275+congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
1276+(highest bits) for Precedence.
1277+.TP
1278+\fB-r\fR
1279+Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
1280+interface.
1281+If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
1282+This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
1283+that has no route through it provided the option \fB-I\fR is also
1284+used.
1285+.TP
1286+\fB-R\fR
1287+\fBping\fR only.
1288+Record route.
1289+Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
1290+packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
1291+Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
1292+Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
1293+.TP
1294+\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR
1295+Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
1296+The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
1297+data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
1298+.TP
1299+\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR
1300+Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
1301+not more than one packet.
1302+.TP
1303+\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR
1304+\fBping\fR only.
1305+Set the IP Time to Live.
1306+.TP
1307+\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR
1308+Set special IP timestamp options.
1309+\fItimestamp option\fR may be either
1310+\fItsonly\fR (only timestamps),
1311+\fItsandaddr\fR (timestamps and addresses) or
1312+\fItsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]\fR
1313+(timestamp prespecified hops).
1314+.TP
1315+\fB-U\fR
1316+Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
1317+\fBping\fR
1318+prints network round trip time, which can be different
1319+f.e. due to DNS failures.
1320+.TP
1321+\fB-v\fR
1322+Verbose output.
1323+.TP
1324+\fB-V\fR
1325+Show version and exit.
1326+.TP
1327+\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
1328+Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
1329+\fBping\fR
1330+exits regardless of how many
1331+packets have been sent or received. In this case
1332+\fBping\fR
1333+does not stop after
1334+\fIcount\fR
1335+packet are sent, it waits either for
1336+\fIdeadline\fR
1337+expire or until
1338+\fIcount\fR
1339+probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
1340+.TP
1341+\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR
1342+Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
1343+in absence of any responses, otherwise \fBping\fR waits for two RTTs.
1344+.PP
1345+When using \fBping\fR for fault isolation, it should first be run
1346+on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
1347+and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
1348+``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
1349+If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
1350+loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
1351+in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
1352+When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
1353+if the program is terminated with a
1354+SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
1355+can be obtained without termination of process with signal
1356+SIGQUIT.
1357+.PP
1358+If \fBping\fR does not receive any reply packets at all it will
1359+exit with code 1. If a packet
1360+\fIcount\fR
1361+and
1362+\fIdeadline\fR
1363+are both specified, and fewer than
1364+\fIcount\fR
1365+packets are received by the time the
1366+\fIdeadline\fR
1367+has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
1368+On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
1369+makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
1370+not.
1371+.PP
1372+This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
1373+management.
1374+Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
1375+\fBping\fR during normal operations or from automated scripts.
1376+.SH "ICMP PACKET DETAILS"
1377+.PP
1378+An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
1379+An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
1380+of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
1381+When a \fIpacketsize\fR is given, this indicated the size of this
1382+extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
1383+inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
1384+more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).
1385+.PP
1386+If the data space is at least of size of struct timeval
1387+\fBping\fR uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
1388+a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
1389+If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.
1390+.SH "DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS"
1391+.PP
1392+\fBping\fR will report duplicate and damaged packets.
1393+Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
1394+inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
1395+Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
1396+good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
1397+always be cause for alarm.
1398+.PP
1399+Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
1400+indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
1401+\fBping\fR packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).
1402+.SH "TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS"
1403+.PP
1404+The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
1405+on the data contained in the data portion.
1406+Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
1407+networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
1408+In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
1409+that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
1410+zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
1411+It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
1412+example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
1413+at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
1414+what the controllers transmit can be complicated.
1415+.PP
1416+This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
1417+have to do a lot of testing to find it.
1418+If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
1419+across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
1420+similar length files.
1421+You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
1422+using the \fB-p\fR option of \fBping\fR.
1423+.SH "TTL DETAILS"
1424+.PP
1425+The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
1426+that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
1427+In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
1428+the TTL field by exactly one.
1429+.PP
1430+The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
1431+packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
1432+(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).
1433+.PP
1434+The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
1435+the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
1436+This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
1437+with
1438+\fBtelnet\fR(1)
1439+or
1440+\fBftp\fR(1).
1441+.PP
1442+In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
1443+When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
1444+with the TTL field in its response:
1445+.TP 0.2i
1446+\(bu
1447+Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
1448+4.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
1449+will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
1450+.TP 0.2i
1451+\(bu
1452+Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
1453+In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
1454+number of routers in the path \fBfrom\fR
1455+the remote system \fBto\fR the \fBping\fRing host.
1456+.TP 0.2i
1457+\(bu
1458+Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
1459+ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
1460+Others may use completely wild values.
1461+.SH "BUGS"
1462+.TP 0.2i
1463+\(bu
1464+Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
1465+.TP 0.2i
1466+\(bu
1467+The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
1468+RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
1469+There's not much that can be done about this, however.
1470+.TP 0.2i
1471+\(bu
1472+Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
1473+broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
1474+.SH "SEE ALSO"
1475+.PP
1476+\fBnetstat\fR(1),
1477+\fBifconfig\fR(8).
1478+.SH "HISTORY"
1479+.PP
1480+The \fBping\fR command appeared in 4.3BSD.
1481+.PP
1482+The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.
1483+.SH "SECURITY"
1484+.PP
1485+\fBping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
1486+to be executed. It may be used as set-uid root.
1487+.SH "AVAILABILITY"
1488+.PP
1489+\fBping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
1490+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
1491+http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
1492diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ping.sgml iputils-s20121221/doc/ping.sgml
1493--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ping.sgml        2012-12-21 14:01:07.000000000 +0000
1494+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/ping.sgml     2014-04-02 01:02:05.429694367 +0000
1495@@ -600,7 +600,7 @@
1496  <listitem><para>
1497 The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
1498 RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
1499-There's not much that that can be done about this, however.
1500+There's not much that can be done about this, however.
1501  </para></listitem>
1502  <listitem><para>
1503 Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
1504diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1064.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r1064.html
1505--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1064.html       1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
1506+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/r1064.html    2014-04-02 01:05:52.849699061 +0000
1507@@ -0,0 +1,343 @@
1508+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
1509+<HTML
1510+><HEAD
1511+><TITLE
1512+>ninfod</TITLE
1513+><META
1514+NAME="GENERATOR"
1515+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
1516+REL="HOME"
1517+TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
1518+HREF="index.html"><LINK
1519+REL="PREVIOUS"
1520+TITLE="tftpd"
1521+HREF="r991.html"><LINK
1522+REL="NEXT"
1523+TITLE="rdisc"
1524+HREF="r1133.html"></HEAD
1525+><BODY
1526+CLASS="REFENTRY"
1527+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
1528+TEXT="#000000"
1529+LINK="#0000FF"
1530+VLINK="#840084"
1531+ALINK="#0000FF"
1532+><DIV
1533+CLASS="NAVHEADER"
1534+><TABLE
1535+SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
1536+WIDTH="100%"
1537+BORDER="0"
1538+CELLPADDING="0"
1539+CELLSPACING="0"
1540+><TR
1541+><TH
1542+COLSPAN="3"
1543+ALIGN="center"
1544+>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
1545+></TR
1546+><TR
1547+><TD
1548+WIDTH="10%"
1549+ALIGN="left"
1550+VALIGN="bottom"
1551+><A
1552+HREF="r991.html"
1553+ACCESSKEY="P"
1554+>Prev</A
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1556+><TD
1557+WIDTH="80%"
1558+ALIGN="center"
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1560+></TD
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1563+ALIGN="right"
1564+VALIGN="bottom"
1565+><A
1566+HREF="r1133.html"
1567+ACCESSKEY="N"
1568+>Next</A
1569+></TD
1570+></TR
1571+></TABLE
1572+><HR
1573+ALIGN="LEFT"
1574+WIDTH="100%"></DIV
1575+><H1
1576+><A
1577+NAME="NINFOD"
1578+></A
1579+>ninfod</H1
1580+><DIV
1581+CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
1582+><A
1583+NAME="AEN1069"
1584+></A
1585+><H2
1586+>Name</H2
1587+>ninfod&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DIV
1588+><DIV
1589+CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
1590+><A
1591+NAME="AEN1072"
1592+></A
1593+><H2
1594+>Synopsis</H2
1595+><P
1596+><B
1597+CLASS="COMMAND"
1598+>ninfod</B
1599+>  [<CODE
1600+CLASS="OPTION"
1601+>-dhv</CODE
1602+>] [-p <TT
1603+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1604+><I
1605+>pidfile</I
1606+></TT
1607+>] [-u <TT
1608+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1609+><I
1610+>user</I
1611+></TT
1612+>]</P
1613+></DIV
1614+><DIV
1615+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1616+><A
1617+NAME="AEN1081"
1618+></A
1619+><H2
1620+>DESCRIPTION</H2
1621+><P
1622+>Responds to <A
1623+HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4620.txt"
1624+TARGET="_top"
1625+>IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620)</A
1626+> from clients.
1627+Queries can be sent by various implementations of <B
1628+CLASS="COMMAND"
1629+>ping6</B
1630+> command.</P
1631+></DIV
1632+><DIV
1633+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1634+><A
1635+NAME="AEN1086"
1636+></A
1637+><H2
1638+>OPTIONS</H2
1639+><P
1640+></P
1641+><DIV
1642+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
1643+><DL
1644+><DT
1645+><CODE
1646+CLASS="OPTION"
1647+>-a</CODE
1648+></DT
1649+><DD
1650+><P
1651+>Debug mode.  Do not go background.
1652+  </P
1653+></DD
1654+><DT
1655+><CODE
1656+CLASS="OPTION"
1657+>-h</CODE
1658+></DT
1659+><DD
1660+><P
1661+>Show help.
1662+  </P
1663+></DD
1664+><DT
1665+><CODE
1666+CLASS="OPTION"
1667+>-v</CODE
1668+></DT
1669+><DD
1670+><P
1671+>Verbose mode.
1672+  </P
1673+></DD
1674+><DT
1675+><CODE
1676+CLASS="OPTION"
1677+>-u <TT
1678+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1679+><I
1680+>user</I
1681+></TT
1682+></CODE
1683+></DT
1684+><DD
1685+><P
1686+>Run as another user.
1687+<TT
1688+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1689+><I
1690+>user</I
1691+></TT
1692+> can either be username or user ID.
1693+  </P
1694+></DD
1695+><DT
1696+><CODE
1697+CLASS="OPTION"
1698+>-p <TT
1699+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1700+><I
1701+>pidfile</I
1702+></TT
1703+></CODE
1704+></DT
1705+><DD
1706+><P
1707+>File for process-id storage.
1708+<TT
1709+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1710+><I
1711+>user</I
1712+></TT
1713+> is required to be able to create the file.
1714+  </P
1715+></DD
1716+></DL
1717+></DIV
1718+></DIV
1719+><DIV
1720+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1721+><A
1722+NAME="AEN1118"
1723+></A
1724+><H2
1725+>SEE ALSO</H2
1726+><P
1727+><A
1728+HREF="r3.html"
1729+><SPAN
1730+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
1731+><SPAN
1732+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
1733+>ping</SPAN
1734+>(8)</SPAN
1735+></A
1736+>.</P
1737+></DIV
1738+><DIV
1739+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1740+><A
1741+NAME="AEN1125"
1742+></A
1743+><H2
1744+>AUTHOR</H2
1745+><P
1746+><B
1747+CLASS="COMMAND"
1748+>ninfod</B
1749+> was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.</P
1750+></DIV
1751+><DIV
1752+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1753+><A
1754+NAME="AEN1129"
1755+></A
1756+><H2
1757+>COPYING</H2
1758+><P
1759+><P
1760+CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
1761+>Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2012&nbsp;YOSHIFUJI&nbsp;Hideaki.<br>
1762+Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2002&nbsp;USAGI/WIDE&nbsp;Project.<br>
1763+All&nbsp;rights&nbsp;reserved.<br>
1764+<br>
1765+Redistribution&nbsp;and&nbsp;use&nbsp;in&nbsp;source&nbsp;and&nbsp;binary&nbsp;forms,&nbsp;with&nbsp;or&nbsp;without<br>
1766+modification,&nbsp;are&nbsp;permitted&nbsp;provided&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;conditions<br>
1767+are&nbsp;met:<br>
1768+1.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;of&nbsp;source&nbsp;code&nbsp;must&nbsp;retain&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
1769+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer.<br>
1770+2.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;in&nbsp;binary&nbsp;form&nbsp;must&nbsp;reproduce&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
1771+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer&nbsp;in&nbsp;the<br>
1772+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;documentation&nbsp;and/or&nbsp;other&nbsp;materials&nbsp;provided&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;distribution.<br>
1773+3.&nbsp;Neither&nbsp;the&nbsp;name&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;project&nbsp;nor&nbsp;the&nbsp;names&nbsp;of&nbsp;its&nbsp;contributors<br>
1774+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;may&nbsp;be&nbsp;used&nbsp;to&nbsp;endorse&nbsp;or&nbsp;promote&nbsp;products&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;this&nbsp;software<br>
1775+&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;without&nbsp;specific&nbsp;prior&nbsp;written&nbsp;permission.<br>
1776+<br>
1777+THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE&nbsp;IS&nbsp;PROVIDED&nbsp;BY&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;AND&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;``AS&nbsp;IS''&nbsp;AND<br>
1778+ANY&nbsp;EXPRESS&nbsp;OR&nbsp;IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES,&nbsp;INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;THE<br>
1779+IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES&nbsp;OF&nbsp;MERCHANTABILITY&nbsp;AND&nbsp;FITNESS&nbsp;FOR&nbsp;A&nbsp;PARTICULAR&nbsp;PURPOSE<br>
1780+ARE&nbsp;DISCLAIMED.&nbsp;&nbsp;IN&nbsp;NO&nbsp;EVENT&nbsp;SHALL&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;BE&nbsp;LIABLE<br>
1781+FOR&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;DIRECT,&nbsp;INDIRECT,&nbsp;INCIDENTAL,&nbsp;SPECIAL,&nbsp;EXEMPLARY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONSEQUENTIAL<br>
1782+DAMAGES&nbsp;(INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;PROCUREMENT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;SUBSTITUTE&nbsp;GOODS<br>
1783+OR&nbsp;SERVICES;&nbsp;LOSS&nbsp;OF&nbsp;USE,&nbsp;DATA,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;PROFITS;&nbsp;OR&nbsp;BUSINESS&nbsp;INTERRUPTION)<br>
1784+HOWEVER&nbsp;CAUSED&nbsp;AND&nbsp;ON&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;THEORY&nbsp;OF&nbsp;LIABILITY,&nbsp;WHETHER&nbsp;IN&nbsp;CONTRACT,&nbsp;STRICT<br>
1785+LIABILITY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;TORT&nbsp;(INCLUDING&nbsp;NEGLIGENCE&nbsp;OR&nbsp;OTHERWISE)&nbsp;ARISING&nbsp;IN&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;WAY<br>
1786+OUT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;USE&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE,&nbsp;EVEN&nbsp;IF&nbsp;ADVISED&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;POSSIBILITY&nbsp;OF<br>
1787+SUCH&nbsp;DAMAGE.</P
1788+></P
1789+></DIV
1790+><DIV
1791+CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
1792+><HR
1793+ALIGN="LEFT"
1794+WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
1795+SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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1797+BORDER="0"
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1803+ALIGN="left"
1804+VALIGN="top"
1805+><A
1806+HREF="r991.html"
1807+ACCESSKEY="P"
1808+>Prev</A
1809+></TD
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1816+ACCESSKEY="H"
1817+>Home</A
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1827+></TD
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1835+><TD
1836+WIDTH="34%"
1837+ALIGN="center"
1838+VALIGN="top"
1839+>&nbsp;</TD
1840+><TD
1841+WIDTH="33%"
1842+ALIGN="right"
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1844+>rdisc</TD
1845+></TR
1846+></TABLE
1847+></DIV
1848+></BODY
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1850+>
1851\ No newline at end of file
1852diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1133.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r1133.html
1853--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1133.html       1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
1854+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/r1133.html    2014-04-02 01:05:52.889699062 +0000
1855@@ -0,0 +1,567 @@
1856+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
1857+<HTML
1858+><HEAD
1859+><TITLE
1860+>rdisc</TITLE
1861+><META
1862+NAME="GENERATOR"
1863+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
1864+REL="HOME"
1865+TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
1866+HREF="index.html"><LINK
1867+REL="PREVIOUS"
1868+TITLE="ninfod"
1869+HREF="r1064.html"><LINK
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1872+HREF="r1277.html"></HEAD
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1875+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
1876+TEXT="#000000"
1877+LINK="#0000FF"
1878+VLINK="#840084"
1879+ALINK="#0000FF"
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1883+SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
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1889+><TH
1890+COLSPAN="3"
1891+ALIGN="center"
1892+>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
1893+></TR
1894+><TR
1895+><TD
1896+WIDTH="10%"
1897+ALIGN="left"
1898+VALIGN="bottom"
1899+><A
1900+HREF="r1064.html"
1901+ACCESSKEY="P"
1902+>Prev</A
1903+></TD
1904+><TD
1905+WIDTH="80%"
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1908+></TD
1909+><TD
1910+WIDTH="10%"
1911+ALIGN="right"
1912+VALIGN="bottom"
1913+><A
1914+HREF="r1277.html"
1915+ACCESSKEY="N"
1916+>Next</A
1917+></TD
1918+></TR
1919+></TABLE
1920+><HR
1921+ALIGN="LEFT"
1922+WIDTH="100%"></DIV
1923+><H1
1924+><A
1925+NAME="RDISC"
1926+></A
1927+>rdisc</H1
1928+><DIV
1929+CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
1930+><A
1931+NAME="AEN1138"
1932+></A
1933+><H2
1934+>Name</H2
1935+>rdisc&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DIV
1936+><DIV
1937+CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
1938+><A
1939+NAME="AEN1141"
1940+></A
1941+><H2
1942+>Synopsis</H2
1943+><P
1944+><B
1945+CLASS="COMMAND"
1946+>rdisc</B
1947+>  [<CODE
1948+CLASS="OPTION"
1949+>-abdfrstvV</CODE
1950+>] [-p <TT
1951+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1952+><I
1953+>preference</I
1954+></TT
1955+>] [-T <TT
1956+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1957+><I
1958+>max_interval</I
1959+></TT
1960+>] [<TT
1961+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1962+><I
1963+>send_address</I
1964+></TT
1965+>] [<TT
1966+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1967+><I
1968+>receive_address</I
1969+></TT
1970+>]</P
1971+></DIV
1972+><DIV
1973+CLASS="REFSECT1"
1974+><A
1975+NAME="AEN1154"
1976+></A
1977+><H2
1978+>DESCRIPTION</H2
1979+><P
1980+><B
1981+CLASS="COMMAND"
1982+>rdisc</B
1983+> implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
1984+<B
1985+CLASS="COMMAND"
1986+>rdisc</B
1987+> is invoked at boot time to populate the network
1988+routing tables with default routes. </P
1989+><P
1990+><B
1991+CLASS="COMMAND"
1992+>rdisc</B
1993+> listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
1994+(or <TT
1995+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
1996+><I
1997+>receive_address</I
1998+></TT
1999+> provided it is given)
2000+for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
2001+messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
2002+with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
2003+the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
2004+and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
2005+for each one of them.</P
2006+><P
2007+>Optionally, <B
2008+CLASS="COMMAND"
2009+>rdisc</B
2010+> can avoid waiting for routers to announce
2011+themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
2012+to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
2013+(or <TT
2014+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2015+><I
2016+>send_address</I
2017+></TT
2018+> provided it is given)
2019+when it is started.</P
2020+><P
2021+>A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
2022+no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
2023+timer expires before a new
2024+<SPAN
2025+CLASS="emphasis"
2026+><I
2027+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
2028+>advertise</I
2029+></SPAN
2030+> message is received from the router.
2031+The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
2032+<SPAN
2033+CLASS="emphasis"
2034+><I
2035+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
2036+>advertise</I
2037+></SPAN
2038+>
2039+message with the preference being maximally negative.</P
2040+><P
2041+>Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
2042+and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e <B
2043+CLASS="COMMAND"
2044+>gated</B
2045+>.
2046+Or, <B
2047+CLASS="COMMAND"
2048+>rdisc</B
2049+> can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.</P
2050+></DIV
2051+><DIV
2052+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2053+><A
2054+NAME="AEN1171"
2055+></A
2056+><H2
2057+>OPTIONS</H2
2058+><P
2059+></P
2060+><DIV
2061+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
2062+><DL
2063+><DT
2064+><CODE
2065+CLASS="OPTION"
2066+>-a</CODE
2067+></DT
2068+><DD
2069+><P
2070+>Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
2071+<SPAN
2072+CLASS="emphasis"
2073+><I
2074+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
2075+>advertise</I
2076+></SPAN
2077+> messages.
2078+Normally <B
2079+CLASS="COMMAND"
2080+>rdisc</B
2081+> only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
2082+tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
2083+  </P
2084+></DD
2085+><DT
2086+><CODE
2087+CLASS="OPTION"
2088+>-b</CODE
2089+></DT
2090+><DD
2091+><P
2092+>Opposite to <CODE
2093+CLASS="OPTION"
2094+>-a</CODE
2095+>, i.e. install only router with the best
2096+preference value. It is default behaviour.
2097+  </P
2098+></DD
2099+><DT
2100+><CODE
2101+CLASS="OPTION"
2102+>-d</CODE
2103+></DT
2104+><DD
2105+><P
2106+>Send debugging messages to syslog.
2107+  </P
2108+></DD
2109+><DT
2110+><CODE
2111+CLASS="OPTION"
2112+>-f</CODE
2113+></DT
2114+><DD
2115+><P
2116+>Run <B
2117+CLASS="COMMAND"
2118+>rdisc</B
2119+> forever even if no routers are found.
2120+Normally <B
2121+CLASS="COMMAND"
2122+>rdisc</B
2123+> gives up if it has not received any
2124+<SPAN
2125+CLASS="emphasis"
2126+><I
2127+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
2128+>advertise</I
2129+></SPAN
2130+> message after after soliciting three times,
2131+in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
2132+If <CODE
2133+CLASS="OPTION"
2134+>-f</CODE
2135+> is not specified in the first form then
2136+<CODE
2137+CLASS="OPTION"
2138+>-s</CODE
2139+> must be specified.
2140+  </P
2141+></DD
2142+><DT
2143+><CODE
2144+CLASS="OPTION"
2145+>-r</CODE
2146+></DT
2147+><DD
2148+><P
2149+>Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
2150+  </P
2151+></DD
2152+><DT
2153+><CODE
2154+CLASS="OPTION"
2155+>-s</CODE
2156+></DT
2157+><DD
2158+><P
2159+>Send three <SPAN
2160+CLASS="emphasis"
2161+><I
2162+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
2163+>solicitation</I
2164+></SPAN
2165+> messages initially to quickly discover
2166+the routers when the system is booted.
2167+When <CODE
2168+CLASS="OPTION"
2169+>-s</CODE
2170+> is specified <B
2171+CLASS="COMMAND"
2172+>rdisc</B
2173+>
2174+exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
2175+This can be overridden with the <CODE
2176+CLASS="OPTION"
2177+>-f</CODE
2178+> option.
2179+  </P
2180+></DD
2181+><DT
2182+><CODE
2183+CLASS="OPTION"
2184+>-p <TT
2185+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2186+><I
2187+>preference</I
2188+></TT
2189+></CODE
2190+></DT
2191+><DD
2192+><P
2193+>Set preference in advertisement.
2194+Available only with -r option.
2195+  </P
2196+></DD
2197+><DT
2198+><CODE
2199+CLASS="OPTION"
2200+>-T <TT
2201+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2202+><I
2203+>max_interval</I
2204+></TT
2205+></CODE
2206+></DT
2207+><DD
2208+><P
2209+>Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs.
2210+Available only with -r option.
2211+  </P
2212+></DD
2213+><DT
2214+><CODE
2215+CLASS="OPTION"
2216+>-t</CODE
2217+></DT
2218+><DD
2219+><P
2220+>Test mode. Do not go to background.
2221+  </P
2222+></DD
2223+><DT
2224+><CODE
2225+CLASS="OPTION"
2226+>-v</CODE
2227+></DT
2228+><DD
2229+><P
2230+>Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
2231+  </P
2232+></DD
2233+><DT
2234+><CODE
2235+CLASS="OPTION"
2236+>-V</CODE
2237+></DT
2238+><DD
2239+><P
2240+>Print version and exit.
2241+  </P
2242+></DD
2243+></DL
2244+></DIV
2245+></DIV
2246+><DIV
2247+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2248+><A
2249+NAME="AEN1243"
2250+></A
2251+><H2
2252+>HISTORY</H2
2253+><P
2254+>This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
2255+notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
2256+<A
2257+HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
2258+TARGET="_top"
2259+>Alexey Kuznetsov
2260+&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
2261+>.
2262+It is now maintained by
2263+<A
2264+HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
2265+TARGET="_top"
2266+>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
2267+&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
2268+>.</P
2269+></DIV
2270+><DIV
2271+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2272+><A
2273+NAME="AEN1248"
2274+></A
2275+><H2
2276+>SEE ALSO</H2
2277+><P
2278+><SPAN
2279+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
2280+><SPAN
2281+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
2282+>icmp</SPAN
2283+>(7)</SPAN
2284+>,
2285+<SPAN
2286+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
2287+><SPAN
2288+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
2289+>inet</SPAN
2290+>(7)</SPAN
2291+>,
2292+<A
2293+HREF="r3.html"
2294+><SPAN
2295+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
2296+><SPAN
2297+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
2298+>ping</SPAN
2299+>(8)</SPAN
2300+></A
2301+>.</P
2302+></DIV
2303+><DIV
2304+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2305+><A
2306+NAME="AEN1261"
2307+></A
2308+><H2
2309+>REFERENCES</H2
2310+><P
2311+>Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
2312+<A
2313+HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1256.txt"
2314+TARGET="_top"
2315+>RFC1256</A
2316+>, Network Information Center, SRI International,
2317+Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.</P
2318+></DIV
2319+><DIV
2320+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2321+><A
2322+NAME="AEN1265"
2323+></A
2324+><H2
2325+>SECURITY</H2
2326+><P
2327+><B
2328+CLASS="COMMAND"
2329+>rdisc</B
2330+> requires <CODE
2331+CLASS="CONSTANT"
2332+>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
2333+> to listen
2334+and send ICMP messages and capability <CODE
2335+CLASS="CONSTANT"
2336+>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
2337+>
2338+to update routing tables. </P
2339+></DIV
2340+><DIV
2341+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2342+><A
2343+NAME="AEN1271"
2344+></A
2345+><H2
2346+>AVAILABILITY</H2
2347+><P
2348+><B
2349+CLASS="COMMAND"
2350+>rdisc</B
2351+> is part of <TT
2352+CLASS="FILENAME"
2353+>iputils</TT
2354+> package
2355+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
2356+<A
2357+HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
2358+TARGET="_top"
2359+>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
2360+>.</P
2361+></DIV
2362+><DIV
2363+CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
2364+><HR
2365+ALIGN="LEFT"
2366+WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
2367+SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
2368+WIDTH="100%"
2369+BORDER="0"
2370+CELLPADDING="0"
2371+CELLSPACING="0"
2372+><TR
2373+><TD
2374+WIDTH="33%"
2375+ALIGN="left"
2376+VALIGN="top"
2377+><A
2378+HREF="r1064.html"
2379+ACCESSKEY="P"
2380+>Prev</A
2381+></TD
2382+><TD
2383+WIDTH="34%"
2384+ALIGN="center"
2385+VALIGN="top"
2386+><A
2387+HREF="index.html"
2388+ACCESSKEY="H"
2389+>Home</A
2390+></TD
2391+><TD
2392+WIDTH="33%"
2393+ALIGN="right"
2394+VALIGN="top"
2395+><A
2396+HREF="r1277.html"
2397+ACCESSKEY="N"
2398+>Next</A
2399+></TD
2400+></TR
2401+><TR
2402+><TD
2403+WIDTH="33%"
2404+ALIGN="left"
2405+VALIGN="top"
2406+>ninfod</TD
2407+><TD
2408+WIDTH="34%"
2409+ALIGN="center"
2410+VALIGN="top"
2411+>&nbsp;</TD
2412+><TD
2413+WIDTH="33%"
2414+ALIGN="right"
2415+VALIGN="top"
2416+>pg3</TD
2417+></TR
2418+></TABLE
2419+></DIV
2420+></BODY
2421+></HTML
2422+>
2423\ No newline at end of file
2424diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1277.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r1277.html
2425--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1277.html       1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
2426+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/r1277.html    2014-04-02 01:05:52.917699063 +0000
2427@@ -0,0 +1,428 @@
2428+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
2429+<HTML
2430+><HEAD
2431+><TITLE
2432+>pg3</TITLE
2433+><META
2434+NAME="GENERATOR"
2435+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
2436+REL="HOME"
2437+TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
2438+HREF="index.html"><LINK
2439+REL="PREVIOUS"
2440+TITLE="rdisc"
2441+HREF="r1133.html"></HEAD
2442+><BODY
2443+CLASS="REFENTRY"
2444+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
2445+TEXT="#000000"
2446+LINK="#0000FF"
2447+VLINK="#840084"
2448+ALINK="#0000FF"
2449+><DIV
2450+CLASS="NAVHEADER"
2451+><TABLE
2452+SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
2453+WIDTH="100%"
2454+BORDER="0"
2455+CELLPADDING="0"
2456+CELLSPACING="0"
2457+><TR
2458+><TH
2459+COLSPAN="3"
2460+ALIGN="center"
2461+>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
2462+></TR
2463+><TR
2464+><TD
2465+WIDTH="10%"
2466+ALIGN="left"
2467+VALIGN="bottom"
2468+><A
2469+HREF="r1133.html"
2470+ACCESSKEY="P"
2471+>Prev</A
2472+></TD
2473+><TD
2474+WIDTH="80%"
2475+ALIGN="center"
2476+VALIGN="bottom"
2477+></TD
2478+><TD
2479+WIDTH="10%"
2480+ALIGN="right"
2481+VALIGN="bottom"
2482+>&nbsp;</TD
2483+></TR
2484+></TABLE
2485+><HR
2486+ALIGN="LEFT"
2487+WIDTH="100%"></DIV
2488+><H1
2489+><A
2490+NAME="PG3"
2491+></A
2492+>pg3</H1
2493+><DIV
2494+CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
2495+><A
2496+NAME="AEN1282"
2497+></A
2498+><H2
2499+>Name</H2
2500+>pg3, ipg, pgset&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DIV
2501+><DIV
2502+CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
2503+><A
2504+NAME="AEN1285"
2505+></A
2506+><H2
2507+>Synopsis</H2
2508+><P
2509+><B
2510+CLASS="COMMAND"
2511+>source ipg</B
2512+> </P
2513+><P
2514+><B
2515+CLASS="COMMAND"
2516+>pg</B
2517+> </P
2518+><P
2519+><B
2520+CLASS="COMMAND"
2521+>pgset</B
2522+>  {<TT
2523+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2524+><I
2525+>COMMAND</I
2526+></TT
2527+>}</P
2528+></DIV
2529+><DIV
2530+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2531+><A
2532+NAME="AEN1294"
2533+></A
2534+><H2
2535+>DESCRIPTION</H2
2536+><P
2537+><B
2538+CLASS="COMMAND"
2539+>ipg</B
2540+> is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
2541+to <B
2542+CLASS="COMMAND"
2543+>bash</B
2544+>. When sourced it loads module <TT
2545+CLASS="FILENAME"
2546+>pg3</TT
2547+> and
2548+exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
2549+are <B
2550+CLASS="COMMAND"
2551+>pg</B
2552+> to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
2553+and <B
2554+CLASS="COMMAND"
2555+>pgset</B
2556+> to setup packet generator.</P
2557+><P
2558+><B
2559+CLASS="COMMAND"
2560+>pgset</B
2561+> can send the following commands to module <TT
2562+CLASS="FILENAME"
2563+>pg3</TT
2564+>:</P
2565+></DIV
2566+><DIV
2567+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2568+><A
2569+NAME="AEN1305"
2570+></A
2571+><H2
2572+>COMMAND</H2
2573+><P
2574+></P
2575+><DIV
2576+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
2577+><DL
2578+><DT
2579+><CODE
2580+CLASS="OPTION"
2581+>odev <TT
2582+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2583+><I
2584+>DEVICE</I
2585+></TT
2586+></CODE
2587+></DT
2588+><DD
2589+><P
2590+>Name of Ethernet device to test. See
2591+<A
2592+HREF="r1277.html#PG3.WARNING"
2593+>warning</A
2594+> below.
2595+  </P
2596+></DD
2597+><DT
2598+><CODE
2599+CLASS="OPTION"
2600+>pkt_size <TT
2601+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2602+><I
2603+>BYTES</I
2604+></TT
2605+></CODE
2606+></DT
2607+><DD
2608+><P
2609+>Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
2610+MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
2611+and various paddings.
2612+  </P
2613+></DD
2614+><DT
2615+><CODE
2616+CLASS="OPTION"
2617+>frags <TT
2618+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2619+><I
2620+>NUMBER</I
2621+></TT
2622+></CODE
2623+></DT
2624+><DD
2625+><P
2626+>Each packet will contain <TT
2627+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2628+><I
2629+>NUMBER</I
2630+></TT
2631+> of fragments.
2632+Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
2633+fragmented buffers.
2634+  </P
2635+></DD
2636+><DT
2637+><CODE
2638+CLASS="OPTION"
2639+>count <TT
2640+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2641+><I
2642+>NUMBER</I
2643+></TT
2644+></CODE
2645+></DT
2646+><DD
2647+><P
2648+>Send stream of <TT
2649+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2650+><I
2651+>NUMBER</I
2652+></TT
2653+> of packets and stop after this.
2654+  </P
2655+></DD
2656+><DT
2657+><CODE
2658+CLASS="OPTION"
2659+>ipg <TT
2660+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2661+><I
2662+>TIME</I
2663+></TT
2664+></CODE
2665+></DT
2666+><DD
2667+><P
2668+>Introduce artificial delay between packets of <TT
2669+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2670+><I
2671+>TIME</I
2672+></TT
2673+>
2674+microseconds.
2675+  </P
2676+></DD
2677+><DT
2678+><CODE
2679+CLASS="OPTION"
2680+>dst <TT
2681+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2682+><I
2683+>IP_ADDRESS</I
2684+></TT
2685+></CODE
2686+></DT
2687+><DD
2688+><P
2689+>Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
2690+Beware, never set this address at random. <B
2691+CLASS="COMMAND"
2692+>pg3</B
2693+> is not a toy,
2694+it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
2695+  </P
2696+></DD
2697+><DT
2698+><CODE
2699+CLASS="OPTION"
2700+>dst <TT
2701+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2702+><I
2703+>MAC_ADDRESS</I
2704+></TT
2705+></CODE
2706+></DT
2707+><DD
2708+><P
2709+>Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
2710+Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
2711+by any node on LAN.
2712+  </P
2713+></DD
2714+><DT
2715+><CODE
2716+CLASS="OPTION"
2717+>stop</CODE
2718+></DT
2719+><DD
2720+><P
2721+>Abort packet injection.
2722+  </P
2723+></DD
2724+></DL
2725+></DIV
2726+></DIV
2727+><DIV
2728+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2729+><A
2730+NAME="PG3.WARNING"
2731+></A
2732+><H2
2733+>WARNING</H2
2734+><P
2735+>When output device is set to some random device different
2736+of hardware Ethernet device, <B
2737+CLASS="COMMAND"
2738+>pg3</B
2739+> will crash kernel.</P
2740+><P
2741+>Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
2742+which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.</P
2743+></DIV
2744+><DIV
2745+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2746+><A
2747+NAME="AEN1365"
2748+></A
2749+><H2
2750+>AUTHOR</H2
2751+><P
2752+><B
2753+CLASS="COMMAND"
2754+>pg3</B
2755+> was written by <A
2756+HREF="mailto:robert.olsson@its.uu.se"
2757+TARGET="_top"
2758+>Robert Olsson &lt;robert.olsson@its.uu.se&gt;</A
2759+>.</P
2760+></DIV
2761+><DIV
2762+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2763+><A
2764+NAME="AEN1370"
2765+></A
2766+><H2
2767+>SECURITY</H2
2768+><P
2769+>This can be used only by superuser.</P
2770+><P
2771+>This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
2772+even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
2773+60 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
2774+switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
2775+Use only in test lab environment.</P
2776+></DIV
2777+><DIV
2778+CLASS="REFSECT1"
2779+><A
2780+NAME="AEN1374"
2781+></A
2782+><H2
2783+>AVAILABILITY</H2
2784+><P
2785+><B
2786+CLASS="COMMAND"
2787+>pg3</B
2788+> is part of <TT
2789+CLASS="FILENAME"
2790+>iputils</TT
2791+> package
2792+and the latest versions are  available in source form at
2793+<A
2794+HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
2795+TARGET="_top"
2796+>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
2797+>.</P
2798+></DIV
2799+><DIV
2800+CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
2801+><HR
2802+ALIGN="LEFT"
2803+WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
2804+SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
2805+WIDTH="100%"
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2856\ No newline at end of file
2857diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r3.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r3.html
2858--- iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r3.html  1970-01-01 00:00:00.000000000 +0000
2859+++ iputils-s20121221/doc/r3.html       2014-04-02 01:05:52.589699056 +0000
2860@@ -0,0 +1,1585 @@
2861+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN""http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
2862+<HTML
2863+><HEAD
2864+><TITLE
2865+>ping</TITLE
2866+><META
2867+NAME="GENERATOR"
2868+CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
2869+REL="HOME"
2870+TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
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2872+REL="PREVIOUS"
2873+TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
2874+HREF="index.html"><LINK
2875+REL="NEXT"
2876+TITLE="arping"
2877+HREF="r466.html"></HEAD
2878+><BODY
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2880+BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
2881+TEXT="#000000"
2882+LINK="#0000FF"
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2896+ALIGN="center"
2897+>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
2898+></TR
2899+><TR
2900+><TD
2901+WIDTH="10%"
2902+ALIGN="left"
2903+VALIGN="bottom"
2904+><A
2905+HREF="index.html"
2906+ACCESSKEY="P"
2907+>Prev</A
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2910+WIDTH="80%"
2911+ALIGN="center"
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2916+ALIGN="right"
2917+VALIGN="bottom"
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2920+ACCESSKEY="N"
2921+>Next</A
2922+></TD
2923+></TR
2924+></TABLE
2925+><HR
2926+ALIGN="LEFT"
2927+WIDTH="100%"></DIV
2928+><H1
2929+><A
2930+NAME="PING"
2931+></A
2932+>ping</H1
2933+><DIV
2934+CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
2935+><A
2936+NAME="AEN8"
2937+></A
2938+><H2
2939+>Name</H2
2940+>ping, ping6&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DIV
2941+><DIV
2942+CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
2943+><A
2944+NAME="AEN11"
2945+></A
2946+><H2
2947+>Synopsis</H2
2948+><P
2949+><B
2950+CLASS="COMMAND"
2951+>ping</B
2952+>  [<CODE
2953+CLASS="OPTION"
2954+>-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV</CODE
2955+>] [-c <TT
2956+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2957+><I
2958+>count</I
2959+></TT
2960+>] [-F <TT
2961+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2962+><I
2963+>flowlabel</I
2964+></TT
2965+>] [-i <TT
2966+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2967+><I
2968+>interval</I
2969+></TT
2970+>] [-I <TT
2971+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2972+><I
2973+>interface</I
2974+></TT
2975+>] [-l <TT
2976+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2977+><I
2978+>preload</I
2979+></TT
2980+>] [-m <TT
2981+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2982+><I
2983+>mark</I
2984+></TT
2985+>] [-M <TT
2986+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2987+><I
2988+>pmtudisc_option</I
2989+></TT
2990+>] [-N <TT
2991+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2992+><I
2993+>nodeinfo_option</I
2994+></TT
2995+>] [-w <TT
2996+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
2997+><I
2998+>deadline</I
2999+></TT
3000+>] [-W <TT
3001+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3002+><I
3003+>timeout</I
3004+></TT
3005+>] [-p <TT
3006+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3007+><I
3008+>pattern</I
3009+></TT
3010+>] [-Q <TT
3011+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3012+><I
3013+>tos</I
3014+></TT
3015+>] [-s <TT
3016+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3017+><I
3018+>packetsize</I
3019+></TT
3020+>] [-S <TT
3021+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3022+><I
3023+>sndbuf</I
3024+></TT
3025+>] [-t <TT
3026+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3027+><I
3028+>ttl</I
3029+></TT
3030+>] [-T <TT
3031+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3032+><I
3033+>timestamp option</I
3034+></TT
3035+>] [<TT
3036+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3037+><I
3038+>hop</I
3039+></TT
3040+>...] {<TT
3041+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3042+><I
3043+>destination</I
3044+></TT
3045+>}</P
3046+></DIV
3047+><DIV
3048+CLASS="REFSECT1"
3049+><A
3050+NAME="AEN52"
3051+></A
3052+><H2
3053+>DESCRIPTION</H2
3054+><P
3055+><B
3056+CLASS="COMMAND"
3057+>ping</B
3058+> uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
3059+datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
3060+ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
3061+header, followed by a <CODE
3062+CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
3063+>struct timeval</CODE
3064+> and then an arbitrary
3065+number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.</P
3066+><P
3067+><B
3068+CLASS="COMMAND"
3069+>ping6</B
3070+> is IPv6 version of <B
3071+CLASS="COMMAND"
3072+>ping</B
3073+>, and can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
3074+Intermediate <TT
3075+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3076+><I
3077+>hop</I
3078+></TT
3079+>s may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).</P
3080+></DIV
3081+><DIV
3082+CLASS="REFSECT1"
3083+><A
3084+NAME="AEN61"
3085+></A
3086+><H2
3087+>OPTIONS</H2
3088+><P
3089+></P
3090+><DIV
3091+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3092+><DL
3093+><DT
3094+><CODE
3095+CLASS="OPTION"
3096+>-a</CODE
3097+></DT
3098+><DD
3099+><P
3100+>Audible ping.
3101+  </P
3102+></DD
3103+><DT
3104+><CODE
3105+CLASS="OPTION"
3106+>-A</CODE
3107+></DT
3108+><DD
3109+><P
3110+>Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
3111+effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
3112+is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
3113+On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
3114+  </P
3115+></DD
3116+><DT
3117+><CODE
3118+CLASS="OPTION"
3119+>-b</CODE
3120+></DT
3121+><DD
3122+><P
3123+>Allow pinging a broadcast address.
3124+  </P
3125+></DD
3126+><DT
3127+><CODE
3128+CLASS="OPTION"
3129+>-B</CODE
3130+></DT
3131+><DD
3132+><P
3133+>Do not allow <B
3134+CLASS="COMMAND"
3135+>ping</B
3136+> to change source address of probes.
3137+The address is bound to one selected when <B
3138+CLASS="COMMAND"
3139+>ping</B
3140+> starts.
3141+  </P
3142+></DD
3143+><DT
3144+><CODE
3145+CLASS="OPTION"
3146+><A
3147+NAME="PING.COUNT"
3148+></A
3149+>-c <TT
3150+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3151+><I
3152+>count</I
3153+></TT
3154+></CODE
3155+></DT
3156+><DD
3157+><P
3158+>Stop after sending <TT
3159+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3160+><I
3161+>count</I
3162+></TT
3163+> ECHO_REQUEST
3164+packets. With
3165+<A
3166+HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
3167+><TT
3168+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3169+><I
3170+>deadline</I
3171+></TT
3172+></A
3173+>
3174+option, <B
3175+CLASS="COMMAND"
3176+>ping</B
3177+> waits for
3178+<TT
3179+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3180+><I
3181+>count</I
3182+></TT
3183+> ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
3184+  </P
3185+></DD
3186+><DT
3187+><CODE
3188+CLASS="OPTION"
3189+>-d</CODE
3190+></DT
3191+><DD
3192+><P
3193+>Set the <CODE
3194+CLASS="CONSTANT"
3195+>SO_DEBUG</CODE
3196+> option on the socket being used.
3197+Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
3198+  </P
3199+></DD
3200+><DT
3201+><CODE
3202+CLASS="OPTION"
3203+>-D</CODE
3204+></DT
3205+><DD
3206+><P
3207+>Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
3208+each line.
3209+  </P
3210+></DD
3211+><DT
3212+><CODE
3213+CLASS="OPTION"
3214+>-f</CODE
3215+></DT
3216+><DD
3217+><P
3218+>Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
3219+while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
3220+This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
3221+If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
3222+outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
3223+whichever is more.
3224+Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
3225+  </P
3226+></DD
3227+><DT
3228+><CODE
3229+CLASS="OPTION"
3230+>-F <TT
3231+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3232+><I
3233+>flow label</I
3234+></TT
3235+></CODE
3236+></DT
3237+><DD
3238+><P
3239+><B
3240+CLASS="COMMAND"
3241+>ping6</B
3242+> only.
3243+Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
3244+If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
3245+  </P
3246+></DD
3247+><DT
3248+><CODE
3249+CLASS="OPTION"
3250+>-h</CODE
3251+></DT
3252+><DD
3253+><P
3254+>Show help.
3255+  </P
3256+></DD
3257+><DT
3258+><CODE
3259+CLASS="OPTION"
3260+>-i <TT
3261+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3262+><I
3263+>interval</I
3264+></TT
3265+></CODE
3266+></DT
3267+><DD
3268+><P
3269+>Wait <TT
3270+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3271+><I
3272+>interval</I
3273+></TT
3274+> seconds between sending each packet.
3275+The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
3276+or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
3277+to values less 0.2 seconds.
3278+  </P
3279+></DD
3280+><DT
3281+><CODE
3282+CLASS="OPTION"
3283+>-I <TT
3284+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3285+><I
3286+>interface</I
3287+></TT
3288+></CODE
3289+></DT
3290+><DD
3291+><P
3292+><TT
3293+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3294+><I
3295+>interface</I
3296+></TT
3297+> is either an address, or an interface name.
3298+If <TT
3299+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3300+><I
3301+>interface</I
3302+></TT
3303+> is an address, it sets source address
3304+to specified interface address.
3305+If <TT
3306+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3307+><I
3308+>interface</I
3309+></TT
3310+> in an interface name, it sets
3311+source interface to specified interface.
3312+For <B
3313+CLASS="COMMAND"
3314+>ping6</B
3315+>, when doing ping to a link-local scope
3316+address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
3317+<TT
3318+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3319+><I
3320+>destination</I
3321+></TT
3322+>, or by this option) is required.
3323+  </P
3324+></DD
3325+><DT
3326+><CODE
3327+CLASS="OPTION"
3328+>-l <TT
3329+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3330+><I
3331+>preload</I
3332+></TT
3333+></CODE
3334+></DT
3335+><DD
3336+><P
3337+>If <TT
3338+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3339+><I
3340+>preload</I
3341+></TT
3342+> is specified,
3343+<B
3344+CLASS="COMMAND"
3345+>ping</B
3346+> sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
3347+Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
3348+  </P
3349+></DD
3350+><DT
3351+><CODE
3352+CLASS="OPTION"
3353+>-L</CODE
3354+></DT
3355+><DD
3356+><P
3357+>Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
3358+destination is a multicast address.
3359+  </P
3360+></DD
3361+><DT
3362+><CODE
3363+CLASS="OPTION"
3364+>-m <TT
3365+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3366+><I
3367+>mark</I
3368+></TT
3369+></CODE
3370+></DT
3371+><DD
3372+><P
3373+>use <TT
3374+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3375+><I
3376+>mark</I
3377+></TT
3378+> to tag the packets going out. This is useful
3379+for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
3380+routing to select specific outbound processing.
3381+  </P
3382+></DD
3383+><DT
3384+><CODE
3385+CLASS="OPTION"
3386+>-M <TT
3387+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3388+><I
3389+>pmtudisc_opt</I
3390+></TT
3391+></CODE
3392+></DT
3393+><DD
3394+><P
3395+>Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
3396+<TT
3397+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3398+><I
3399+>pmtudisc_option</I
3400+></TT
3401+> may be either <TT
3402+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3403+><I
3404+>do</I
3405+></TT
3406+>
3407+(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
3408+<TT
3409+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3410+><I
3411+>want</I
3412+></TT
3413+> (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
3414+is large), or <TT
3415+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3416+><I
3417+>dont</I
3418+></TT
3419+> (do not set DF flag).
3420+  </P
3421+></DD
3422+><DT
3423+><CODE
3424+CLASS="OPTION"
3425+>-N <TT
3426+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3427+><I
3428+>nodeinfo_option</I
3429+></TT
3430+></CODE
3431+></DT
3432+><DD
3433+><P
3434+><B
3435+CLASS="COMMAND"
3436+>ping6</B
3437+> only.
3438+Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
3439+   <P
3440+></P
3441+><DIV
3442+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3443+><DL
3444+><DT
3445+><CODE
3446+CLASS="OPTION"
3447+>help</CODE
3448+></DT
3449+><DD
3450+><P
3451+>Show help for NI support.</P
3452+></DD
3453+></DL
3454+></DIV
3455+>
3456+   <P
3457+></P
3458+><DIV
3459+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3460+><DL
3461+><DT
3462+><CODE
3463+CLASS="OPTION"
3464+>name</CODE
3465+></DT
3466+><DD
3467+><P
3468+>Queries for Node Names.</P
3469+></DD
3470+></DL
3471+></DIV
3472+>
3473+   <P
3474+></P
3475+><DIV
3476+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3477+><DL
3478+><DT
3479+><CODE
3480+CLASS="OPTION"
3481+>ipv6</CODE
3482+></DT
3483+><DD
3484+><P
3485+>Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
3486+      <P
3487+></P
3488+><DIV
3489+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3490+><DL
3491+><DT
3492+><CODE
3493+CLASS="OPTION"
3494+>ipv6-global</CODE
3495+></DT
3496+><DD
3497+><P
3498+>Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.</P
3499+></DD
3500+></DL
3501+></DIV
3502+>
3503+      <P
3504+></P
3505+><DIV
3506+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3507+><DL
3508+><DT
3509+><CODE
3510+CLASS="OPTION"
3511+>ipv6-sitelocal</CODE
3512+></DT
3513+><DD
3514+><P
3515+>Request IPv6 site-local addresses.</P
3516+></DD
3517+></DL
3518+></DIV
3519+>
3520+      <P
3521+></P
3522+><DIV
3523+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3524+><DL
3525+><DT
3526+><CODE
3527+CLASS="OPTION"
3528+>ipv6-linklocal</CODE
3529+></DT
3530+><DD
3531+><P
3532+>Request IPv6 link-local addresses.</P
3533+></DD
3534+></DL
3535+></DIV
3536+>
3537+      <P
3538+></P
3539+><DIV
3540+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3541+><DL
3542+><DT
3543+><CODE
3544+CLASS="OPTION"
3545+>ipv6-all</CODE
3546+></DT
3547+><DD
3548+><P
3549+>Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.</P
3550+></DD
3551+></DL
3552+></DIV
3553+>
3554+     </P
3555+></DD
3556+></DL
3557+></DIV
3558+>
3559+   <P
3560+></P
3561+><DIV
3562+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3563+><DL
3564+><DT
3565+><CODE
3566+CLASS="OPTION"
3567+>ipv4</CODE
3568+></DT
3569+><DD
3570+><P
3571+>Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
3572+      <P
3573+></P
3574+><DIV
3575+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3576+><DL
3577+><DT
3578+><CODE
3579+CLASS="OPTION"
3580+>ipv4-all</CODE
3581+></DT
3582+><DD
3583+><P
3584+>Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.</P
3585+></DD
3586+></DL
3587+></DIV
3588+>
3589+     </P
3590+></DD
3591+></DL
3592+></DIV
3593+>
3594+   <P
3595+></P
3596+><DIV
3597+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3598+><DL
3599+><DT
3600+><CODE
3601+CLASS="OPTION"
3602+>subject-ipv6=<TT
3603+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3604+><I
3605+>ipv6addr</I
3606+></TT
3607+></CODE
3608+></DT
3609+><DD
3610+><P
3611+>IPv6 subject address.</P
3612+></DD
3613+></DL
3614+></DIV
3615+>
3616+   <P
3617+></P
3618+><DIV
3619+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3620+><DL
3621+><DT
3622+><CODE
3623+CLASS="OPTION"
3624+>subject-ipv4=<TT
3625+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3626+><I
3627+>ipv4addr</I
3628+></TT
3629+></CODE
3630+></DT
3631+><DD
3632+><P
3633+>IPv4 subject address.</P
3634+></DD
3635+></DL
3636+></DIV
3637+>
3638+   <P
3639+></P
3640+><DIV
3641+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3642+><DL
3643+><DT
3644+><CODE
3645+CLASS="OPTION"
3646+>subject-name=<TT
3647+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3648+><I
3649+>nodename</I
3650+></TT
3651+></CODE
3652+></DT
3653+><DD
3654+><P
3655+>Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
3656+       fully-qualified domain name is assumed.</P
3657+></DD
3658+></DL
3659+></DIV
3660+>
3661+   <P
3662+></P
3663+><DIV
3664+CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
3665+><DL
3666+><DT
3667+><CODE
3668+CLASS="OPTION"
3669+>subject-fqdn=<TT
3670+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3671+><I
3672+>nodename</I
3673+></TT
3674+></CODE
3675+></DT
3676+><DD
3677+><P
3678+>Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
3679+       always assumed.</P
3680+></DD
3681+></DL
3682+></DIV
3683+>
3684+  </P
3685+></DD
3686+><DT
3687+><CODE
3688+CLASS="OPTION"
3689+>-n</CODE
3690+></DT
3691+><DD
3692+><P
3693+>Numeric output only.
3694+No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
3695+  </P
3696+></DD
3697+><DT
3698+><CODE
3699+CLASS="OPTION"
3700+>-O</CODE
3701+></DT
3702+><DD
3703+><P
3704+>Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
3705+This is useful together with the timestamp <CODE
3706+CLASS="OPTION"
3707+>-D</CODE
3708+> to
3709+log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
3710+  </P
3711+></DD
3712+><DT
3713+><CODE
3714+CLASS="OPTION"
3715+>-p <TT
3716+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3717+><I
3718+>pattern</I
3719+></TT
3720+></CODE
3721+></DT
3722+><DD
3723+><P
3724+>You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
3725+This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
3726+For example, <CODE
3727+CLASS="OPTION"
3728+>-p ff</CODE
3729+> will cause the sent packet
3730+to be filled with all ones.
3731+  </P
3732+></DD
3733+><DT
3734+><CODE
3735+CLASS="OPTION"
3736+>-q</CODE
3737+></DT
3738+><DD
3739+><P
3740+>Quiet output.
3741+Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
3742+when finished.
3743+  </P
3744+></DD
3745+><DT
3746+><CODE
3747+CLASS="OPTION"
3748+>-Q <TT
3749+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3750+><I
3751+>tos</I
3752+></TT
3753+></CODE
3754+></DT
3755+><DD
3756+><P
3757+>      Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
3758+       <TT
3759+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3760+><I
3761+>tos</I
3762+></TT
3763+> can be decimal (<B
3764+CLASS="COMMAND"
3765+>ping</B
3766+> only) or hex number.
3767+       </P
3768+><P
3769+>      In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
3770+       Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
3771+       data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
3772+       Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
3773+       </P
3774+><P
3775+>      Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
3776+       as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
3777+       congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
3778+       (highest bits) for Precedence.
3779+   </P
3780+></DD
3781+><DT
3782+><CODE
3783+CLASS="OPTION"
3784+>-r</CODE
3785+></DT
3786+><DD
3787+><P
3788+>Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
3789+interface.
3790+If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
3791+This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
3792+that has no route through it provided the option <CODE
3793+CLASS="OPTION"
3794+>-I</CODE
3795+> is also
3796+used.
3797+  </P
3798+></DD
3799+><DT
3800+><CODE
3801+CLASS="OPTION"
3802+>-R</CODE
3803+></DT
3804+><DD
3805+><P
3806+><B
3807+CLASS="COMMAND"
3808+>ping</B
3809+> only.
3810+Record route.
3811+Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
3812+packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
3813+Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
3814+Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
3815+  </P
3816+></DD
3817+><DT
3818+><CODE
3819+CLASS="OPTION"
3820+>-s <TT
3821+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3822+><I
3823+>packetsize</I
3824+></TT
3825+></CODE
3826+></DT
3827+><DD
3828+><P
3829+>Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
3830+The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
3831+data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
3832+  </P
3833+></DD
3834+><DT
3835+><CODE
3836+CLASS="OPTION"
3837+>-S <TT
3838+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3839+><I
3840+>sndbuf</I
3841+></TT
3842+></CODE
3843+></DT
3844+><DD
3845+><P
3846+>Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
3847+not more than one packet.
3848+  </P
3849+></DD
3850+><DT
3851+><CODE
3852+CLASS="OPTION"
3853+>-t <TT
3854+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3855+><I
3856+>ttl</I
3857+></TT
3858+></CODE
3859+></DT
3860+><DD
3861+><P
3862+><B
3863+CLASS="COMMAND"
3864+>ping</B
3865+> only.
3866+Set the IP Time to Live.
3867+  </P
3868+></DD
3869+><DT
3870+><CODE
3871+CLASS="OPTION"
3872+>-T <TT
3873+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3874+><I
3875+>timestamp option</I
3876+></TT
3877+></CODE
3878+></DT
3879+><DD
3880+><P
3881+>Set special IP timestamp options.
3882+<TT
3883+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3884+><I
3885+>timestamp option</I
3886+></TT
3887+> may be either
3888+<TT
3889+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3890+><I
3891+>tsonly</I
3892+></TT
3893+> (only timestamps),
3894+<TT
3895+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3896+><I
3897+>tsandaddr</I
3898+></TT
3899+> (timestamps and addresses) or
3900+<TT
3901+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3902+><I
3903+>tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]</I
3904+></TT
3905+>
3906+(timestamp prespecified hops).
3907+  </P
3908+></DD
3909+><DT
3910+><CODE
3911+CLASS="OPTION"
3912+>-U</CODE
3913+></DT
3914+><DD
3915+><P
3916+>Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
3917+<B
3918+CLASS="COMMAND"
3919+>ping</B
3920+>
3921+prints network round trip time, which can be different
3922+f.e. due to DNS failures.
3923+  </P
3924+></DD
3925+><DT
3926+><CODE
3927+CLASS="OPTION"
3928+>-v</CODE
3929+></DT
3930+><DD
3931+><P
3932+>Verbose output.
3933+  </P
3934+></DD
3935+><DT
3936+><CODE
3937+CLASS="OPTION"
3938+>-V</CODE
3939+></DT
3940+><DD
3941+><P
3942+>Show version and exit.
3943+  </P
3944+></DD
3945+><DT
3946+><CODE
3947+CLASS="OPTION"
3948+><A
3949+NAME="PING.DEADLINE"
3950+></A
3951+>-w <TT
3952+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3953+><I
3954+>deadline</I
3955+></TT
3956+></CODE
3957+></DT
3958+><DD
3959+><P
3960+>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
3961+<B
3962+CLASS="COMMAND"
3963+>ping</B
3964+>
3965+exits regardless of how many
3966+packets have been sent or received. In this case
3967+<B
3968+CLASS="COMMAND"
3969+>ping</B
3970+>
3971+does not stop after
3972+<A
3973+HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
3974+><TT
3975+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3976+><I
3977+>count</I
3978+></TT
3979+></A
3980+>
3981+packet are sent, it waits either for
3982+<A
3983+HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
3984+><TT
3985+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3986+><I
3987+>deadline</I
3988+></TT
3989+></A
3990+>
3991+expire or until
3992+<A
3993+HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
3994+><TT
3995+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
3996+><I
3997+>count</I
3998+></TT
3999+></A
4000+>
4001+probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
4002+  </P
4003+></DD
4004+><DT
4005+><CODE
4006+CLASS="OPTION"
4007+>-W <TT
4008+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4009+><I
4010+>timeout</I
4011+></TT
4012+></CODE
4013+></DT
4014+><DD
4015+><P
4016+>Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
4017+in absence of any responses, otherwise <B
4018+CLASS="COMMAND"
4019+>ping</B
4020+> waits for two RTTs.
4021+  </P
4022+></DD
4023+></DL
4024+></DIV
4025+><P
4026+>When using <B
4027+CLASS="COMMAND"
4028+>ping</B
4029+> for fault isolation, it should first be run
4030+on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
4031+and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
4032+``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
4033+If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
4034+loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
4035+in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
4036+When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
4037+if the program is terminated with a
4038+<CODE
4039+CLASS="CONSTANT"
4040+>SIGINT</CODE
4041+>, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
4042+can be obtained without termination of process with signal
4043+<CODE
4044+CLASS="CONSTANT"
4045+>SIGQUIT</CODE
4046+>.</P
4047+><P
4048+>If <B
4049+CLASS="COMMAND"
4050+>ping</B
4051+> does not receive any reply packets at all it will
4052+exit with code 1. If a packet
4053+<A
4054+HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
4055+><TT
4056+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4057+><I
4058+>count</I
4059+></TT
4060+></A
4061+>
4062+and
4063+<A
4064+HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
4065+><TT
4066+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4067+><I
4068+>deadline</I
4069+></TT
4070+></A
4071+>
4072+are both specified, and fewer than
4073+<A
4074+HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
4075+><TT
4076+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4077+><I
4078+>count</I
4079+></TT
4080+></A
4081+>
4082+packets are received by the time the
4083+<A
4084+HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
4085+><TT
4086+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4087+><I
4088+>deadline</I
4089+></TT
4090+></A
4091+>
4092+has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
4093+On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
4094+makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
4095+not.</P
4096+><P
4097+>This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
4098+management.
4099+Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
4100+<B
4101+CLASS="COMMAND"
4102+>ping</B
4103+> during normal operations or from automated scripts.</P
4104+></DIV
4105+><DIV
4106+CLASS="REFSECT1"
4107+><A
4108+NAME="AEN391"
4109+></A
4110+><H2
4111+>ICMP PACKET DETAILS</H2
4112+><P
4113+>An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
4114+An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
4115+of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
4116+When a <TT
4117+CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
4118+><I
4119+>packetsize</I
4120+></TT
4121+> is given, this indicated the size of this
4122+extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
4123+inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
4124+more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).</P
4125+><P
4126+>If the data space is at least of size of <CODE
4127+CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
4128+>struct timeval</CODE
4129+>
4130+<B
4131+CLASS="COMMAND"
4132+>ping</B
4133+> uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
4134+a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
4135+If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.</P
4136+></DIV
4137+><DIV
4138+CLASS="REFSECT1"
4139+><A
4140+NAME="AEN398"
4141+></A
4142+><H2
4143+>DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS</H2
4144+><P
4145+><B
4146+CLASS="COMMAND"
4147+>ping</B
4148+> will report duplicate and damaged packets.
4149+Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
4150+inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
4151+Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
4152+good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
4153+always be cause for alarm.</P
4154+><P
4155+>Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
4156+indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
4157+<B
4158+CLASS="COMMAND"
4159+>ping</B
4160+> packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).</P
4161+></DIV
4162+><DIV
4163+CLASS="REFSECT1"
4164+><A
4165+NAME="AEN404"
4166+></A
4167+><H2
4168+>TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS</H2
4169+><P
4170+>The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
4171+on the data contained in the data portion.
4172+Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
4173+networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
4174+In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
4175+that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
4176+zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
4177+It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
4178+example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
4179+at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
4180+what the controllers transmit can be complicated.</P
4181+><P
4182+>This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
4183+have to do a lot of testing to find it.
4184+If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
4185+across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
4186+similar length files.
4187+You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
4188+using the <CODE
4189+CLASS="OPTION"
4190+>-p</CODE
4191+> option of <B
4192+CLASS="COMMAND"
4193+>ping</B
4194+>.</P
4195+></DIV
4196+><DIV
4197+CLASS="REFSECT1"
4198+><A
4199+NAME="AEN410"
4200+></A
4201+><H2
4202+>TTL DETAILS</H2
4203+><P
4204+>The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
4205+that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
4206+In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
4207+the TTL field by exactly one.</P
4208+><P
4209+>The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
4210+packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
4211+(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).</P
4212+><P
4213+>The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
4214+the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
4215+This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
4216+with
4217+<SPAN
4218+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
4219+><SPAN
4220+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
4221+>telnet</SPAN
4222+>(1)</SPAN
4223+>
4224+or
4225+<SPAN
4226+CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
4227+><SPAN
4228+CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
4229+>ftp</SPAN
4230+>(1)</SPAN
4231+>.</P
4232+><P
4233+>In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
4234+When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
4235+with the TTL field in its response:</P
4236+><P
4237+></P
4238+><UL
4239+><LI
4240+><P
4241+>Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
4242+4.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
4243+will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
4244+ </P
4245+></LI
4246+><LI
4247+><P
4248+>Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
4249+In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
4250+number of routers in the path <SPAN
4251+CLASS="emphasis"
4252+><I
4253+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
4254+>from</I
4255+></SPAN
4256+>
4257+the remote system <SPAN
4258+CLASS="emphasis"
4259+><I
4260+CLASS="EMPHASIS"
4261+>to</I
4262+></SPAN
4263+> the <B
4264+CLASS="COMMAND"
4265+>ping</B
4266+>ing host.
4267+ </P
4268+></LI
4269+><LI
4270+><P
4271+>Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
4272+ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
4273+Others may use completely wild values.
4274+ </P
4275+></LI
4276+></UL
4277+></DIV
4278+><DIV
4279+CLASS="REFSECT1"
4280+><A
4281+NAME="AEN432"
4282+></A
4283+><H2
4284+>BUGS</H2
4285+><P
4286+></P
4287+><UL
4288+><LI
4289+><P
4290+>Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.