source: patches/iputils-s20121221-fixes-1.patch @ 602f33a

clfs-2.1clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since 602f33a was 602f33a, checked in by William Harrington <kb0iic@…>, 7 years ago

Update IPutils to s20121221.

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 149.5 KB
  • iputils-s20121221

    Submitted By: William Harrington <kb0iic at cross-lfs dot org>
    Date: 2013-08-06
    Initial Package Version: s20121221
    Upstream Status: Unknown
    Origin: Unknown
    Description: Contains Fixes for Various Issues and Manpages
    
    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/Makefile iputils-s20121221/Makefile
    old new  
    22# Configuration
    33#
    44
    5 # CC
    6 CC=gcc
    75# Path to parent kernel include files directory
    86LIBC_INCLUDE=/usr/include
    97# Libraries
     
    3634
    3735# GNU TLS library for ping6 [yes|no|static]
    3836USE_GNUTLS=yes
    39 # Crypto library for ping6 [shared|static]
     37# Crypto library for ping6 [shared|static|no]
    4038USE_CRYPTO=shared
    4139# Resolv library for ping6 [yes|static]
    4240USE_RESOLV=yes
     
    4846
    4947# -------------------------------------
    5048# What a pity, all new gccs are buggy and -Werror does not work. Sigh.
    51 # CCOPT=-fno-strict-aliasing -Wstrict-prototypes -Wall -Werror -g
    52 CCOPT=-fno-strict-aliasing -Wstrict-prototypes -Wall -g
    53 CCOPTOPT=-O3
    54 GLIBCFIX=-D_GNU_SOURCE
    55 DEFINES=
     49# CFLAGS+=-fno-strict-aliasing -Wstrict-prototypes -Wall -Werror -g
     50CFLAGS?=-O3 -g
     51CFLAGS+=-fno-strict-aliasing -Wstrict-prototypes -Wall
     52CPPFLAGS+=-D_GNU_SOURCE
    5653LDLIB=
    5754
    5855FUNC_LIB = $(if $(filter static,$(1)),$(LDFLAG_STATIC) $(2) $(LDFLAG_DYNAMIC),$(2))
     
    6360        LIB_CRYPTO = $(call FUNC_LIB,$(USE_GNUTLS),$(LDFLAG_GNUTLS))
    6461        DEF_CRYPTO = -DUSE_GNUTLS
    6562else
     63ifneq ($(USE_CRYPTO),no)
    6664        LIB_CRYPTO = $(call FUNC_LIB,$(USE_CRYPTO),$(LDFLAG_CRYPTO))
     65        DEF_CRYPTO = -DUSE_OPENSSL
     66endif
    6767endif
    6868
    6969# USE_RESOLV: LIB_RESOLV
     
    110110IPV6_TARGETS=tracepath6 traceroute6 ping6
    111111TARGETS=$(IPV4_TARGETS) $(IPV6_TARGETS)
    112112
    113 CFLAGS=$(CCOPTOPT) $(CCOPT) $(GLIBCFIX) $(DEFINES)
    114113LDLIBS=$(LDLIB) $(ADDLIB)
    115114
    116115UNAME_N:=$(shell uname -n)
     
    129128        $(COMPILE.c) $< $(DEF_$(patsubst %.o,%,$@)) -S -o $@
    130129%.o: %.c
    131130        $(COMPILE.c) $< $(DEF_$(patsubst %.o,%,$@)) -o $@
     131LINK.o += $(CFLAGS)
    132132$(TARGETS): %: %.o
    133133        $(LINK.o) $^ $(LIB_$@) $(LDLIBS) -o $@
    134134
     
    149149DEF_ping_common = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN)
    150150DEF_ping  = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS)
    151151LIB_ping  = $(LIB_CAP) $(LIB_IDN)
    152 DEF_ping6 = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS) $(DEF_ENABLE_PING6_RTHDR)
     152DEF_ping6 = $(DEF_CAP) $(DEF_IDN) $(DEF_WITHOUT_IFADDRS) $(DEF_ENABLE_PING6_RTHDR) $(DEF_CRYPTO)
    153153LIB_ping6 = $(LIB_CAP) $(LIB_IDN) $(LIB_RESOLV) $(LIB_CRYPTO)
    154154
    155155ping: ping_common.o
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/arping.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/arping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "ARPING" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8arping \- send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-AbDfhqUV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] \fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Ping \fIdestination\fR on device \fIinterface\fR by ARP packets,
     16using source address \fIsource\fR.
     17.SH "OPTIONS"
     18.TP
     19\fB-A\fR
     20The same as \fB-U\fR, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     21of ARP REQUEST.
     22.TP
     23\fB-b\fR
     24Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally \fBarping\fR starts
     25from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     26.TP
     27\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     28Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ARP REQUEST
     29packets. With
     30\fIdeadline\fR
     31option, \fBarping\fR waits for
     32\fIcount\fR ARP REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     33.TP
     34\fB-D\fR
     35Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     36RFC2131, 4.4.1.
     37Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     38.TP
     39\fB-f\fR
     40Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     41.TP
     42\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
     43Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets.
     44.TP
     45\fB-h\fR
     46Print help page and exit.
     47.TP
     48\fB-q\fR
     49Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     50.TP
     51\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR
     52IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     53If this option is absent, source address is:
     54.RS
     55.TP 0.2i
     56\(bu
     57In DAD mode (with option \fB-D\fR) set to 0.0.0.0.
     58.TP 0.2i
     59\(bu
     60In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options \fB-U\fR or \fB-A\fR)
     61set to \fIdestination\fR.
     62.TP 0.2i
     63\(bu
     64Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     65.RE
     66.TP
     67\fB-U\fR
     68Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     69No replies are expected.
     70.TP
     71\fB-V\fR
     72Print version of the program and exit.
     73.TP
     74\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     75Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     76\fBarping\fR
     77exits regardless of how many
     78packets have been sent or received. In this case
     79\fBarping\fR
     80does not stop after
     81\fIcount\fR
     82packet are sent, it waits either for
     83\fIdeadline\fR
     84expire or until
     85\fIcount\fR
     86probes are answered.
     87.SH "SEE ALSO"
     88.PP
     89\fBping\fR(8),
     90\fBclockdiff\fR(8),
     91\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     92.SH "AUTHOR"
     93.PP
     94\fBarping\fR was written by
     95Alexey Kuznetsov
     96<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     97It is now maintained by
     98YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     99<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     100.SH "SECURITY"
     101.PP
     102\fBarping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     103to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     104because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.
     105.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     106.PP
     107\fBarping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     108and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     109http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/clockdiff.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/clockdiff.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "CLOCKDIFF" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8clockdiff \- measure clock difference between hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBclockdiff\fR [\fB-o\fR] [\fB-o1\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBclockdiff\fR Measures clock difference between us and
     16\fIdestination\fR with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     17[2]
     18packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     19[3]
     20option added to ICMP ECHO.
     21[1]
     22.SH "OPTIONS"
     23.TP
     24\fB-o\fR
     25Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     26messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     27ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris <2.4).
     28.TP
     29\fB-o1\fR
     30Slightly different form of \fB-o\fR, namely it uses three-term
     31IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     32What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     33\fB-o\fR is better for Linux.
     34.SH "WARNINGS"
     35.TP 0.2i
     36\(bu
     37Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     38by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     39.TP 0.2i
     40\(bu
     41Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris>2.4), when
     42run \fBxntpd\fR. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     43which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     44randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     45use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     46.TP 0.2i
     47\(bu
     48\fBclockdiff\fR shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     49.SH "SEE ALSO"
     50.PP
     51\fBping\fR(8),
     52\fBarping\fR(8),
     53\fBtracepath\fR(8).
     54.SH "REFERENCES"
     55.PP
     56[1] ICMP ECHO,
     57RFC0792, page 14.
     58.PP
     59[2] ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     60RFC0792, page 16.
     61.PP
     62[3] IP TIMESTAMP option,
     63RFC0791, 3.1, page 16.
     64.SH "AUTHOR"
     65.PP
     66\fBclockdiff\fR was compiled by
     67Alexey Kuznetsov
     68<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. It was based on code borrowed
     69from BSD \fBtimed\fR daemon.
     70It is now maintained by
     71YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     72<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75\fBclockdiff\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     76to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     77.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     78.PP
     79\fBclockdiff\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     80and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     81http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/index.html iputils-s20121221/doc/index.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="NEXT"
     10TITLE="ping"
     11HREF="r3.html"></HEAD
     12><BODY
     13CLASS="REFERENCE"
     14BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
     15TEXT="#000000"
     16LINK="#0000FF"
     17VLINK="#840084"
     18ALINK="#0000FF"
     19><DIV
     20CLASS="NAVHEADER"
     21><TABLE
     22SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
     23WIDTH="100%"
     24BORDER="0"
     25CELLPADDING="0"
     26CELLSPACING="0"
     27><TR
     28><TD
     29WIDTH="10%"
     30ALIGN="left"
     31VALIGN="bottom"
     32>&nbsp;</TD
     33><TD
     34WIDTH="80%"
     35ALIGN="center"
     36VALIGN="bottom"
     37></TD
     38><TD
     39WIDTH="10%"
     40ALIGN="right"
     41VALIGN="bottom"
     42><A
     43HREF="r3.html"
     44ACCESSKEY="N"
     45>Next</A
     46></TD
     47></TR
     48></TABLE
     49><HR
     50ALIGN="LEFT"
     51WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     52><DIV
     53CLASS="REFERENCE"
     54><A
     55NAME="INDEX"
     56></A
     57><DIV
     58CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
     59><H1
     60CLASS="TITLE"
     61>I. System Manager's Manual: iputils</H1
     62><DIV
     63CLASS="TOC"
     64><DL
     65><DT
     66><B
     67>Table of Contents</B
     68></DT
     69><DT
     70><A
     71HREF="r3.html"
     72>ping</A
     73>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DT
     74><DT
     75><A
     76HREF="r466.html"
     77>arping</A
     78>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DT
     79><DT
     80><A
     81HREF="r625.html"
     82>clockdiff</A
     83>&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DT
     84><DT
     85><A
     86HREF="r720.html"
     87>rarpd</A
     88>&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DT
     89><DT
     90><A
     91HREF="r819.html"
     92>tracepath</A
     93>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DT
     94><DT
     95><A
     96HREF="r918.html"
     97>traceroute6</A
     98>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DT
     99><DT
     100><A
     101HREF="r983.html"
     102>tftpd</A
     103>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DT
     104><DT
     105><A
     106HREF="r1056.html"
     107>ninfod</A
     108>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DT
     109><DT
     110><A
     111HREF="r1125.html"
     112>rdisc</A
     113>&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DT
     114><DT
     115><A
     116HREF="r1269.html"
     117>pg3</A
     118>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DT
     119></DL
     120></DIV
     121></DIV
     122></DIV
     123><DIV
     124CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     125><HR
     126ALIGN="LEFT"
     127WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     128SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
     129WIDTH="100%"
     130BORDER="0"
     131CELLPADDING="0"
     132CELLSPACING="0"
     133><TR
     134><TD
     135WIDTH="33%"
     136ALIGN="left"
     137VALIGN="top"
     138>&nbsp;</TD
     139><TD
     140WIDTH="34%"
     141ALIGN="center"
     142VALIGN="top"
     143>&nbsp;</TD
     144><TD
     145WIDTH="33%"
     146ALIGN="right"
     147VALIGN="top"
     148><A
     149HREF="r3.html"
     150ACCESSKEY="N"
     151>Next</A
     152></TD
     153></TR
     154><TR
     155><TD
     156WIDTH="33%"
     157ALIGN="left"
     158VALIGN="top"
     159>&nbsp;</TD
     160><TD
     161WIDTH="34%"
     162ALIGN="center"
     163VALIGN="top"
     164>&nbsp;</TD
     165><TD
     166WIDTH="33%"
     167ALIGN="right"
     168VALIGN="top"
     169>ping</TD
     170></TR
     171></TABLE
     172></DIV
     173></BODY
     174></HTML
     175>
     176 No newline at end of file
  • doc/iputils.html

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/iputils.html iputils-s20121221/doc/iputils.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>iputils: documentation directory</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"></HEAD
     9><BODY
     10CLASS="ARTICLE"
     11BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF"
     12TEXT="#000000"
     13LINK="#0000FF"
     14VLINK="#840084"
     15ALINK="#0000FF"
     16><DIV
     17CLASS="ARTICLE"
     18><DIV
     19CLASS="TITLEPAGE"
     20><H1
     21CLASS="TITLE"
     22><A
     23NAME="AEN2"
     24>iputils: documentation directory</A
     25></H1
     26><HR></DIV
     27><DIV
     28CLASS="TOC"
     29><DL
     30><DT
     31><B
     32>Table of Contents</B
     33></DT
     34><DT
     35>1. <A
     36HREF="#AEN4"
     37>Index</A
     38></DT
     39><DT
     40>2. <A
     41HREF="#AEN34"
     42>Historical notes</A
     43></DT
     44><DT
     45>3. <A
     46HREF="#AEN89"
     47>Installation notes</A
     48></DT
     49><DT
     50>4. <A
     51HREF="#AEN109"
     52>Availability</A
     53></DT
     54><DT
     55>5. <A
     56HREF="#AEN114"
     57>Copying</A
     58></DT
     59></DL
     60></DIV
     61><DIV
     62CLASS="SECT1"
     63><H2
     64CLASS="SECT1"
     65><A
     66NAME="AEN4"
     67>1. Index</A
     68></H2
     69><P
     70></P
     71><UL
     72><LI
     73><P
     74>  <A
     75HREF="ping.html"
     76TARGET="_top"
     77>ping, ping6</A
     78>.
     79 </P
     80></LI
     81><LI
     82><P
     83>  <A
     84HREF="arping.html"
     85TARGET="_top"
     86>arping</A
     87>.
     88 </P
     89></LI
     90><LI
     91><P
     92>  <A
     93HREF="clockdiff.html"
     94TARGET="_top"
     95>clockdiff</A
     96>.
     97 </P
     98></LI
     99><LI
     100><P
     101>  <A
     102HREF="rarpd.html"
     103TARGET="_top"
     104>rarpd</A
     105>.
     106 </P
     107></LI
     108><LI
     109><P
     110>  <A
     111HREF="tracepath.html"
     112TARGET="_top"
     113>tracepath, tracepath6</A
     114>.
     115 </P
     116></LI
     117><LI
     118><P
     119>  <A
     120HREF="traceroute6.html"
     121TARGET="_top"
     122>traceroute6</A
     123>.
     124 </P
     125></LI
     126><LI
     127><P
     128>  <A
     129HREF="rdisc.html"
     130TARGET="_top"
     131>rdisc</A
     132>.
     133 </P
     134></LI
     135><LI
     136><P
     137>  <A
     138HREF="tftpd.html"
     139TARGET="_top"
     140>tftpd</A
     141>.
     142 </P
     143></LI
     144><LI
     145><P
     146>  <A
     147HREF="pg3.html"
     148TARGET="_top"
     149>pg3, ipg, pgset</A
     150>.
     151 </P
     152></LI
     153></UL
     154></DIV
     155><DIV
     156CLASS="SECT1"
     157><HR><H2
     158CLASS="SECT1"
     159><A
     160NAME="AEN34"
     161>2. Historical notes</A
     162></H2
     163><P
     164>This package appeared as a desperate attempt to bring some life
     165to state of basic networking applets: <B
     166CLASS="COMMAND"
     167>ping</B
     168>, <B
     169CLASS="COMMAND"
     170>traceroute</B
     171>
     172etc. Though it was known that port of BSD <B
     173CLASS="COMMAND"
     174>ping</B
     175> to Linux
     176was basically broken, neither maintainers of well known (and superb)
     177Linux net-tools package nor maintainers of Linux distributions
     178worried about fixing well known bugs, which were reported in linux-kernel
     179and linux-net mail lists for ages, were identified and nevertheless
     180not repaired. So, one day 1001th resuming of the subject happened
     181to be the last straw to break camel's back, I just parsed my hard disks
     182and collected a set of utilities, which shared the following properties:</P
     183><P
     184></P
     185><UL
     186><LI
     187><P
     188>Small
     189 </P
     190></LI
     191><LI
     192><P
     193>Useful despite of this
     194 </P
     195></LI
     196><LI
     197><P
     198>I never seen it was made right
     199 </P
     200></LI
     201><LI
     202><P
     203>Not quite trivial
     204 </P
     205></LI
     206><LI
     207><P
     208>Demonstrating some important feature of Linux
     209 </P
     210></LI
     211><LI
     212><P
     213>The last but not the least, I use it more or less regularly
     214 </P
     215></LI
     216></UL
     217><P
     218>This utility set was not supposed to be a reference set or something like
     219that. Most of them were cloned from some originals:
     220<DIV
     221CLASS="INFORMALTABLE"
     222><P
     223></P
     224><A
     225NAME="AEN54"
     226></A
     227><TABLE
     228BORDER="1"
     229CLASS="CALSTABLE"
     230><COL><COL><TBODY
     231><TR
     232><TD
     233>ping</TD
     234><TD
     235>cloned of an ancient NetTools-B-xx</TD
     236></TR
     237><TR
     238><TD
     239>ping6</TD
     240><TD
     241>cloned of a very old Pedro's utility set</TD
     242></TR
     243><TR
     244><TD
     245>traceroute6</TD
     246><TD
     247>cloned of NRL Sep 96 distribution</TD
     248></TR
     249><TR
     250><TD
     251>rdisc</TD
     252><TD
     253>cloned of SUN in.rdisc</TD
     254></TR
     255><TR
     256><TD
     257>clockdiff</TD
     258><TD
     259>broken out of some BSD timed</TD
     260></TR
     261><TR
     262><TD
     263>tftpd</TD
     264><TD
     265>it is clone of some ancient NetKit package</TD
     266></TR
     267></TBODY
     268></TABLE
     269><P
     270></P
     271></DIV
     272></P
     273><P
     274>Also I added some utilities written from scratch, namely
     275<B
     276CLASS="COMMAND"
     277>tracepath</B
     278>, <B
     279CLASS="COMMAND"
     280>arping</B
     281> and later <B
     282CLASS="COMMAND"
     283>rarpd</B
     284>
     285(the last one does not satisfy all the criteria, I used it two or three
     286times).</P
     287><P
     288>Hesitated a bit I overcame temptation to add <B
     289CLASS="COMMAND"
     290>traceroute</B
     291>.
     292The variant released by LBNL to that time was mostly sane and bugs
     293in it were mostly not specific to Linux, but main reason was that
     294the latest version of LBNL <B
     295CLASS="COMMAND"
     296>traceroute</B
     297> was not
     298<SPAN
     299CLASS="emphasis"
     300><I
     301CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     302>small</I
     303></SPAN
     304>, it consisted of several files,
     305used a wicked (and failing with Linux :-)) autoconfiguration etc.
     306So, instead I assembled to iputils a simplistic <B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>tracepath</B
     309> utility
     310and IPv6 version of traceroute, and published my
     311<A
     312HREF="ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/lbl-tools"
     313TARGET="_top"
     314> patches</A
     315>.
     316to LBNL <B
     317CLASS="COMMAND"
     318>traceroute</B
     319> separately.<A
     320NAME="AEN86"
     321HREF="#FTN.AEN86"
     322><SPAN
     323CLASS="footnote"
     324>[1]</SPAN
     325></A
     326></P
     327></DIV
     328><DIV
     329CLASS="SECT1"
     330><HR><H2
     331CLASS="SECT1"
     332><A
     333NAME="AEN89"
     334>3. Installation notes</A
     335></H2
     336><P
     337><KBD
     338CLASS="USERINPUT"
     339>make</KBD
     340> to compile utilities. <KBD
     341CLASS="USERINPUT"
     342>make html</KBD
     343> to prepare
     344html documentation, <KBD
     345CLASS="USERINPUT"
     346>make man</KBD
     347> if you prefer man pages.
     348Nothing fancy, provided you have DocBook package installed.</P
     349><P
     350><KBD
     351CLASS="USERINPUT"
     352>make install</KBD
     353> installs <SPAN
     354CLASS="emphasis"
     355><I
     356CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     357>only</I
     358></SPAN
     359> HTML documentation
     360to <TT
     361CLASS="FILENAME"
     362>/usr/doc/iputils</TT
     363>. It even does not try
     364to install binaries and man pages. If you read historical
     365notes above, the reason should be evident. Most of utilities
     366intersect with utilities distributed in another packages, and
     367making such target rewriting existing installation would be a crime
     368from my side. The decision what variant of <B
     369CLASS="COMMAND"
     370>ping</B
     371> is preferred,
     372how to resolve the conflicts etc. is left to you or to person who
     373assembled an rpm. I vote for variant from <B
     374CLASS="COMMAND"
     375>iputils</B
     376> of course.</P
     377><P
     378>Anyway, select utilities which you like and install them to the places
     379which you prefer together with their man pages.</P
     380><P
     381>It is possible that compilation will fail, if you use some
     382funny Linux distribution mangling header files in some unexpected ways
     383(expected ones are the ways of redhat of course :-)).
     384I validate iputils against <A
     385HREF="http://www.asplinux.ru"
     386TARGET="_top"
     387>asplinux</A
     388>
     389distribution, which is inevitably followed by validity with respect
     390to <A
     391HREF="http://www.redhat.com"
     392TARGET="_top"
     393>redhat</A
     394>.
     395If your distribution is one of widely known ones, suse or debian,
     396it also will compile provided snapshot is elder than month or so and
     397someone reported all the problems, if they took place at all.</P
     398><P
     399><SPAN
     400CLASS="emphasis"
     401><I
     402CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     403>Anyway, please, do not abuse me complaining about some compilation problems
     404in any distribution different of asplinux or redhat.
     405If you have a fix, please, send it to
     406<A
     407HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     408TARGET="_top"
     409>me</A
     410>,
     411I will check that it does not break distributions mentioned above
     412and apply it. But I am not going to undertake any investigations,
     413bare reports are deemed to be routed to <TT
     414CLASS="FILENAME"
     415>/dev/null</TT
     416>.</I
     417></SPAN
     418></P
     419></DIV
     420><DIV
     421CLASS="SECT1"
     422><HR><H2
     423CLASS="SECT1"
     424><A
     425NAME="AEN109"
     426>4. Availability</A
     427></H2
     428><P
     429>The collection of documents is part of <TT
     430CLASS="FILENAME"
     431>iputils</TT
     432> package
     433and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     434<A
     435HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     436TARGET="_top"
     437>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     438>.</P
     439></DIV
     440><DIV
     441CLASS="SECT1"
     442><HR><H2
     443CLASS="SECT1"
     444><A
     445NAME="AEN114"
     446>5. Copying</A
     447></H2
     448><P
     449>Different files are copyrighted by different persons and organizations
     450and distributed under different licenses. For details look into corresponding
     451source files.</P
     452></DIV
     453></DIV
     454><H3
     455CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
     456>Notes</H3
     457><TABLE
     458BORDER="0"
     459CLASS="FOOTNOTES"
     460WIDTH="100%"
     461><TR
     462><TD
     463ALIGN="LEFT"
     464VALIGN="TOP"
     465WIDTH="5%"
     466><A
     467NAME="FTN.AEN86"
     468HREF="#AEN86"
     469><SPAN
     470CLASS="footnote"
     471>[1]</SPAN
     472></A
     473></TD
     474><TD
     475ALIGN="LEFT"
     476VALIGN="TOP"
     477WIDTH="95%"
     478><P
     479>This was mistake.
     480Due to this <B
     481CLASS="COMMAND"
     482>traceroute</B
     483> was in a sad state until recently.
     484Good news, redhat-7.2 seems to add these patches to their traceroute
     485rpm eventually. So, I think I will refrain of suicide for awhile.</P
     486></TD
     487></TR
     488></TABLE
     489></BODY
     490></HTML
     491>
     492 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ninfod.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/ninfod.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "NINFOD" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8ninfod \- Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBninfod\fR [\fB-dhv\fR] [\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR] [\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Responds to IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620) from clients.
     16Queries can be sent by various implementations of \fBping6\fR command.
     17.SH "OPTIONS"
     18.TP
     19\fB-a\fR
     20Debug mode.  Do not go background.
     21.TP
     22\fB-h\fR
     23Show help.
     24.TP
     25\fB-v\fR
     26Verbose mode.
     27.TP
     28\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR
     29Run as another user.
     30\fIuser\fR can either be username or user ID.
     31.TP
     32\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR
     33File for process-id storage.
     34\fIuser\fR is required to be able to create the file.
     35.SH "SEE ALSO"
     36.PP
     37\fBping\fR(8).
     38.SH "AUTHOR"
     39.PP
     40\fBninfod\fR was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.
     41.SH "COPYING"
     42.PP
     43
     44.nf
     45Copyright (C) 2012 YOSHIFUJI Hideaki.
     46Copyright (C) 2002 USAGI/WIDE Project.
     47All rights reserved.
     48
     49Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
     50modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
     51are met:
     521. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     53   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
     542. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
     55   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
     56   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
     573. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
     58   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
     59   without specific prior written permission.
     60
     61THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
     62ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
     63IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
     64ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
     65FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
     66DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
     67OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
     68HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
     69LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
     70OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
     71SUCH DAMAGE.
     72.fi
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/pg3.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/pg3.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PG3" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8pg3, ipg, pgset \- send stream of UDP packets
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBsource ipg\fR
     12
     13
     14\fBpg\fR
     15
     16
     17\fBpgset\fR \fB\fICOMMAND\fB\fR
     18
     19.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     20.PP
     21\fBipg\fR is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     22to \fBbash\fR. When sourced it loads module \fIpg3\fR and
     23exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     24are \fBpg\fR to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     25and \fBpgset\fR to setup packet generator.
     26.PP
     27\fBpgset\fR can send the following commands to module \fIpg3\fR:
     28.SH "COMMAND"
     29.TP
     30\fBodev \fIDEVICE\fB\fR
     31Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     32warning below.
     33.TP
     34\fBpkt_size \fIBYTES\fB\fR
     35Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     36MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     37and various paddings.
     38.TP
     39\fBfrags \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     40Each packet will contain \fINUMBER\fR of fragments.
     41Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     42fragmented buffers.
     43.TP
     44\fBcount \fINUMBER\fB\fR
     45Send stream of \fINUMBER\fR of packets and stop after this.
     46.TP
     47\fBipg \fITIME\fB\fR
     48Introduce artificial delay between packets of \fITIME\fR
     49microseconds.
     50.TP
     51\fBdst \fIIP_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     52Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     53Beware, never set this address at random. \fBpg3\fR is not a toy,
     54it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     55.TP
     56\fBdst \fIMAC_ADDRESS\fB\fR
     57Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     58Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     59by any node on LAN.
     60.TP
     61\fBstop\fR
     62Abort packet injection.
     63.SH "WARNING"
     64.PP
     65When output device is set to some random device different
     66of hardware Ethernet device, \fBpg3\fR will crash kernel.
     67.PP
     68Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     69which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.
     70.SH "AUTHOR"
     71.PP
     72\fBpg3\fR was written by Robert Olsson <robert.olsson@its.uu.se>.
     73.SH "SECURITY"
     74.PP
     75This can be used only by superuser.
     76.PP
     77This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     78even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     7960 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     80switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     81Use only in test lab environment.
     82.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     83.PP
     84\fBpg3\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     85and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     86http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/ping.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/ping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "PING" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8ping, ping6 \- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBping\fR [\fB-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-F \fIflowlabel\fB\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR] [\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_option\fB\fR] [\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR] [\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR] [\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR] [\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR] [\fB\fIhop\fB\fR\fI ...\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBping\fR uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     16datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     17ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     18header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary
     19number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.
     20.PP
     21\fBping6\fR is IPv6 version of \fBping\fR, and can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
     22Intermediate \fIhop\fRs may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).
     23.SH "OPTIONS"
     24.TP
     25\fB-a\fR
     26Audible ping.
     27.TP
     28\fB-A\fR
     29Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     30effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
     31is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     32On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     33.TP
     34\fB-b\fR
     35Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     36.TP
     37\fB-B\fR
     38Do not allow \fBping\fR to change source address of probes.
     39The address is bound to one selected when \fBping\fR starts.
     40.TP
     41\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR
     42Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ECHO_REQUEST
     43packets. With
     44\fIdeadline\fR
     45option, \fBping\fR waits for
     46\fIcount\fR ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     47.TP
     48\fB-d\fR
     49Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
     50Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     51.TP
     52\fB-D\fR
     53Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     54each line.
     55.TP
     56\fB-f\fR
     57Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     58while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     59This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     60If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     61outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     62whichever is more.
     63Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     64.TP
     65\fB-F \fIflow label\fB\fR
     66\fBping6\fR only.
     67Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
     68If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     69.TP
     70\fB-h\fR
     71Show help.
     72.TP
     73\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR
     74Wait \fIinterval\fR seconds between sending each packet.
     75The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     76or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     77to values less 0.2 seconds.
     78.TP
     79\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR
     80\fIinterface\fR is either an address, or an interface name.
     81If \fIinterface\fR is an address, it sets source address
     82to specified interface address.
     83If \fIinterface\fR in an interface name, it sets
     84source interface to specified interface.
     85For \fBping6\fR, when doing ping to a link-local scope
     86address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
     87\fIdestination\fR, or by this option) is required.
     88.TP
     89\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR
     90If \fIpreload\fR is specified,
     91\fBping\fR sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     92Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     93.TP
     94\fB-L\fR
     95Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     96destination is a multicast address.
     97.TP
     98\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR
     99use \fImark\fR to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     100for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     101routing to select specific outbound processing.
     102.TP
     103\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_opt\fB\fR
     104Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     105\fIpmtudisc_option\fR may be either \fIdo\fR
     106(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     107\fIwant\fR (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     108is large), or \fIdont\fR (do not set DF flag).
     109.TP
     110\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR
     111\fBping6\fR only.
     112Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     113.RS
     114.TP
     115\fBhelp\fR
     116Show help for NI support.
     117.RE
     118.RS
     119.TP
     120\fBname\fR
     121Queries for Node Names.
     122.RE
     123.RS
     124.TP
     125\fBipv6\fR
     126Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     127.RS
     128.TP
     129\fBipv6-global\fR
     130Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.
     131.RE
     132.RS
     133.TP
     134\fBipv6-sitelocal\fR
     135Request IPv6 site-local addresses.
     136.RE
     137.RS
     138.TP
     139\fBipv6-linklocal\fR
     140Request IPv6 link-local addresses.
     141.RE
     142.RS
     143.TP
     144\fBipv6-all\fR
     145Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.
     146.RE
     147.RE
     148.RS
     149.TP
     150\fBipv4\fR
     151Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     152.RS
     153.TP
     154\fBipv4-all\fR
     155Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.
     156.RE
     157.RE
     158.RS
     159.TP
     160\fBsubject-ipv6=\fIipv6addr\fB\fR
     161IPv6 subject address.
     162.RE
     163.RS
     164.TP
     165\fBsubject-ipv4=\fIipv4addr\fB\fR
     166IPv4 subject address.
     167.RE
     168.RS
     169.TP
     170\fBsubject-name=\fInodename\fB\fR
     171Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     172fully-qualified domain name is assumed.
     173.RE
     174.RS
     175.TP
     176\fBsubject-fqdn=\fInodename\fB\fR
     177Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     178always assumed.
     179.RE
     180.TP
     181\fB-n\fR
     182Numeric output only.
     183No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     184.TP
     185\fB-O\fR
     186Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
     187This is useful together with the timestamp \fB-D\fR to
     188log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
     189.TP
     190\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR
     191You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     192This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     193For example, \fB-p ff\fR will cause the sent packet
     194to be filled with all ones.
     195.TP
     196\fB-q\fR
     197Quiet output.
     198Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     199when finished.
     200.TP
     201\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR
     202Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
     203\fItos\fR can be decimal (\fBping\fR only) or hex number.
     204
     205In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
     206Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
     207data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
     208Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
     209
     210Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
     211as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
     212congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
     213(highest bits) for Precedence.
     214.TP
     215\fB-r\fR
     216Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     217interface.
     218If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     219This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     220that has no route through it provided the option \fB-I\fR is also
     221used.
     222.TP
     223\fB-R\fR
     224\fBping\fR only.
     225Record route.
     226Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     227packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     228Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     229Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     230.TP
     231\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR
     232Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     233The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     234data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     235.TP
     236\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR
     237Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     238not more than one packet.
     239.TP
     240\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR
     241\fBping\fR only.
     242Set the IP Time to Live.
     243.TP
     244\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR
     245Set special IP timestamp options.
     246\fItimestamp option\fR may be either
     247\fItsonly\fR (only timestamps),
     248\fItsandaddr\fR (timestamps and addresses) or
     249\fItsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]\fR
     250(timestamp prespecified hops).
     251.TP
     252\fB-U\fR
     253Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     254\fBping\fR
     255prints network round trip time, which can be different
     256f.e. due to DNS failures.
     257.TP
     258\fB-v\fR
     259Verbose output.
     260.TP
     261\fB-V\fR
     262Show version and exit.
     263.TP
     264\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR
     265Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     266\fBping\fR
     267exits regardless of how many
     268packets have been sent or received. In this case
     269\fBping\fR
     270does not stop after
     271\fIcount\fR
     272packet are sent, it waits either for
     273\fIdeadline\fR
     274expire or until
     275\fIcount\fR
     276probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     277.TP
     278\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR
     279Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     280in absence of any responses, otherwise \fBping\fR waits for two RTTs.
     281.PP
     282When using \fBping\fR for fault isolation, it should first be run
     283on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     284and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     285``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     286If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     287loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     288in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     289When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     290if the program is terminated with a
     291SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     292can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     293SIGQUIT.
     294.PP
     295If \fBping\fR does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     296exit with code 1. If a packet
     297\fIcount\fR
     298and
     299\fIdeadline\fR
     300are both specified, and fewer than
     301\fIcount\fR
     302packets are received by the time the
     303\fIdeadline\fR
     304has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     305On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     306makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     307not.
     308.PP
     309This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     310management.
     311Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     312\fBping\fR during normal operations or from automated scripts.
     313.SH "ICMP PACKET DETAILS"
     314.PP
     315An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     316An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     317of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     318When a \fIpacketsize\fR is given, this indicated the size of this
     319extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     320inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     321more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).
     322.PP
     323If the data space is at least of size of struct timeval
     324\fBping\fR uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     325a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     326If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.
     327.SH "DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS"
     328.PP
     329\fBping\fR will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     330Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     331inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     332Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     333good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     334always be cause for alarm.
     335.PP
     336Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     337indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     338\fBping\fR packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).
     339.SH "TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS"
     340.PP
     341The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     342on the data contained in the data portion.
     343Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     344networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     345In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     346that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     347zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     348It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     349example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     350at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     351what the controllers transmit can be complicated.
     352.PP
     353This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     354have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     355If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     356across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     357similar length files.
     358You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     359using the \fB-p\fR option of \fBping\fR.
     360.SH "TTL DETAILS"
     361.PP
     362The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     363that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     364In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     365the TTL field by exactly one.
     366.PP
     367The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     368packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     369(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).
     370.PP
     371The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     372the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     373This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     374with
     375\fBtelnet\fR(1)
     376or
     377\fBftp\fR(1).
     378.PP
     379In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
     380When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     381with the TTL field in its response:
     382.TP 0.2i
     383\(bu
     384Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     3854.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     386will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     387.TP 0.2i
     388\(bu
     389Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     390In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     391number of routers in the path \fBfrom\fR
     392the remote system \fBto\fR the \fBping\fRing host.
     393.TP 0.2i
     394\(bu
     395Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     396ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     397Others may use completely wild values.
     398.SH "BUGS"
     399.TP 0.2i
     400\(bu
     401Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     402.TP 0.2i
     403\(bu
     404The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     405RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     406There's not much that that can be done about this, however.
     407.TP 0.2i
     408\(bu
     409Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     410broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     411.SH "SEE ALSO"
     412.PP
     413\fBnetstat\fR(1),
     414\fBifconfig\fR(8).
     415.SH "HISTORY"
     416.PP
     417The \fBping\fR command appeared in 4.3BSD.
     418.PP
     419The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.
     420.SH "SECURITY"
     421.PP
     422\fBping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     423to be executed. It may be used as set-uid root.
     424.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     425.PP
     426\fBping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     427and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     428http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

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     33><TR
     34><TH
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     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
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     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="NINFOD"
     71></A
     72>ninfod</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1061"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>ninfod&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1064"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>ninfod</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-dhv</CODE
     95>] [-p <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>pidfile</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-u <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>user</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN1073"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115>Responds to <A
     116HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4620.txt"
     117TARGET="_top"
     118>IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620)</A
     119> from clients.
     120Queries can be sent by various implementations of <B
     121CLASS="COMMAND"
     122>ping6</B
     123> command.</P
     124></DIV
     125><DIV
     126CLASS="REFSECT1"
     127><A
     128NAME="AEN1078"
     129></A
     130><H2
     131>OPTIONS</H2
     132><P
     133></P
     134><DIV
     135CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     136><DL
     137><DT
     138><CODE
     139CLASS="OPTION"
     140>-a</CODE
     141></DT
     142><DD
     143><P
     144>Debug mode.  Do not go background.
     145  </P
     146></DD
     147><DT
     148><CODE
     149CLASS="OPTION"
     150>-h</CODE
     151></DT
     152><DD
     153><P
     154>Show help.
     155  </P
     156></DD
     157><DT
     158><CODE
     159CLASS="OPTION"
     160>-v</CODE
     161></DT
     162><DD
     163><P
     164>Verbose mode.
     165  </P
     166></DD
     167><DT
     168><CODE
     169CLASS="OPTION"
     170>-u <TT
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     172><I
     173>user</I
     174></TT
     175></CODE
     176></DT
     177><DD
     178><P
     179>Run as another user.
     180<TT
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     182><I
     183>user</I
     184></TT
     185> can either be username or user ID.
     186  </P
     187></DD
     188><DT
     189><CODE
     190CLASS="OPTION"
     191>-p <TT
     192CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     193><I
     194>pidfile</I
     195></TT
     196></CODE
     197></DT
     198><DD
     199><P
     200>File for process-id storage.
     201<TT
     202CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     203><I
     204>user</I
     205></TT
     206> is required to be able to create the file.
     207  </P
     208></DD
     209></DL
     210></DIV
     211></DIV
     212><DIV
     213CLASS="REFSECT1"
     214><A
     215NAME="AEN1110"
     216></A
     217><H2
     218>SEE ALSO</H2
     219><P
     220><A
     221HREF="r3.html"
     222><SPAN
     223CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     224><SPAN
     225CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     226>ping</SPAN
     227>(8)</SPAN
     228></A
     229>.</P
     230></DIV
     231><DIV
     232CLASS="REFSECT1"
     233><A
     234NAME="AEN1117"
     235></A
     236><H2
     237>AUTHOR</H2
     238><P
     239><B
     240CLASS="COMMAND"
     241>ninfod</B
     242> was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.</P
     243></DIV
     244><DIV
     245CLASS="REFSECT1"
     246><A
     247NAME="AEN1121"
     248></A
     249><H2
     250>COPYING</H2
     251><P
     252><P
     253CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
     254>Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2012&nbsp;YOSHIFUJI&nbsp;Hideaki.<br>
     255Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2002&nbsp;USAGI/WIDE&nbsp;Project.<br>
     256All&nbsp;rights&nbsp;reserved.<br>
     257<br>
     258Redistribution&nbsp;and&nbsp;use&nbsp;in&nbsp;source&nbsp;and&nbsp;binary&nbsp;forms,&nbsp;with&nbsp;or&nbsp;without<br>
     259modification,&nbsp;are&nbsp;permitted&nbsp;provided&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;conditions<br>
     260are&nbsp;met:<br>
     2611.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;of&nbsp;source&nbsp;code&nbsp;must&nbsp;retain&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
     262&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer.<br>
     2632.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;in&nbsp;binary&nbsp;form&nbsp;must&nbsp;reproduce&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br>
     264&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer&nbsp;in&nbsp;the<br>
     265&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;documentation&nbsp;and/or&nbsp;other&nbsp;materials&nbsp;provided&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;distribution.<br>
     2663.&nbsp;Neither&nbsp;the&nbsp;name&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;project&nbsp;nor&nbsp;the&nbsp;names&nbsp;of&nbsp;its&nbsp;contributors<br>
     267&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;may&nbsp;be&nbsp;used&nbsp;to&nbsp;endorse&nbsp;or&nbsp;promote&nbsp;products&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;this&nbsp;software<br>
     268&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;without&nbsp;specific&nbsp;prior&nbsp;written&nbsp;permission.<br>
     269<br>
     270THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE&nbsp;IS&nbsp;PROVIDED&nbsp;BY&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;AND&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;``AS&nbsp;IS''&nbsp;AND<br>
     271ANY&nbsp;EXPRESS&nbsp;OR&nbsp;IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES,&nbsp;INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;THE<br>
     272IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES&nbsp;OF&nbsp;MERCHANTABILITY&nbsp;AND&nbsp;FITNESS&nbsp;FOR&nbsp;A&nbsp;PARTICULAR&nbsp;PURPOSE<br>
     273ARE&nbsp;DISCLAIMED.&nbsp;&nbsp;IN&nbsp;NO&nbsp;EVENT&nbsp;SHALL&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;BE&nbsp;LIABLE<br>
     274FOR&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;DIRECT,&nbsp;INDIRECT,&nbsp;INCIDENTAL,&nbsp;SPECIAL,&nbsp;EXEMPLARY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONSEQUENTIAL<br>
     275DAMAGES&nbsp;(INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;PROCUREMENT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;SUBSTITUTE&nbsp;GOODS<br>
     276OR&nbsp;SERVICES;&nbsp;LOSS&nbsp;OF&nbsp;USE,&nbsp;DATA,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;PROFITS;&nbsp;OR&nbsp;BUSINESS&nbsp;INTERRUPTION)<br>
     277HOWEVER&nbsp;CAUSED&nbsp;AND&nbsp;ON&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;THEORY&nbsp;OF&nbsp;LIABILITY,&nbsp;WHETHER&nbsp;IN&nbsp;CONTRACT,&nbsp;STRICT<br>
     278LIABILITY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;TORT&nbsp;(INCLUDING&nbsp;NEGLIGENCE&nbsp;OR&nbsp;OTHERWISE)&nbsp;ARISING&nbsp;IN&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;WAY<br>
     279OUT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;USE&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE,&nbsp;EVEN&nbsp;IF&nbsp;ADVISED&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;POSSIBILITY&nbsp;OF<br>
     280SUCH&nbsp;DAMAGE.</P
     281></P
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     5>rdisc</TITLE
     6><META
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     34><TH
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
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     45HREF="r1056.html"
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     47>Prev</A
     48></TD
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     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="RDISC"
     71></A
     72>rdisc</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN1130"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rdisc&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN1133"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>rdisc</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-abdfrstvV</CODE
     95>] [-p <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>preference</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-T <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>max_interval</I
     104></TT
     105>] [<TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>send_address</I
     109></TT
     110>] [<TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>receive_address</I
     114></TT
     115>]</P
     116></DIV
     117><DIV
     118CLASS="REFSECT1"
     119><A
     120NAME="AEN1146"
     121></A
     122><H2
     123>DESCRIPTION</H2
     124><P
     125><B
     126CLASS="COMMAND"
     127>rdisc</B
     128> implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     129<B
     130CLASS="COMMAND"
     131>rdisc</B
     132> is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     133routing tables with default routes. </P
     134><P
     135><B
     136CLASS="COMMAND"
     137>rdisc</B
     138> listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     139(or <TT
     140CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     141><I
     142>receive_address</I
     143></TT
     144> provided it is given)
     145for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     146messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     147with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     148the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     149and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     150for each one of them.</P
     151><P
     152>Optionally, <B
     153CLASS="COMMAND"
     154>rdisc</B
     155> can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     156themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     157to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     158(or <TT
     159CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     160><I
     161>send_address</I
     162></TT
     163> provided it is given)
     164when it is started.</P
     165><P
     166>A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     167no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     168timer expires before a new
     169<SPAN
     170CLASS="emphasis"
     171><I
     172CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     173>advertise</I
     174></SPAN
     175> message is received from the router.
     176The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     177<SPAN
     178CLASS="emphasis"
     179><I
     180CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     181>advertise</I
     182></SPAN
     183>
     184message with the preference being maximally negative.</P
     185><P
     186>Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     187and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e <B
     188CLASS="COMMAND"
     189>gated</B
     190>.
     191Or, <B
     192CLASS="COMMAND"
     193>rdisc</B
     194> can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.</P
     195></DIV
     196><DIV
     197CLASS="REFSECT1"
     198><A
     199NAME="AEN1163"
     200></A
     201><H2
     202>OPTIONS</H2
     203><P
     204></P
     205><DIV
     206CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     207><DL
     208><DT
     209><CODE
     210CLASS="OPTION"
     211>-a</CODE
     212></DT
     213><DD
     214><P
     215>Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     216<SPAN
     217CLASS="emphasis"
     218><I
     219CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     220>advertise</I
     221></SPAN
     222> messages.
     223Normally <B
     224CLASS="COMMAND"
     225>rdisc</B
     226> only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     227tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     228  </P
     229></DD
     230><DT
     231><CODE
     232CLASS="OPTION"
     233>-b</CODE
     234></DT
     235><DD
     236><P
     237>Opposite to <CODE
     238CLASS="OPTION"
     239>-a</CODE
     240>, i.e. install only router with the best
     241preference value. It is default behaviour.
     242  </P
     243></DD
     244><DT
     245><CODE
     246CLASS="OPTION"
     247>-d</CODE
     248></DT
     249><DD
     250><P
     251>Send debugging messages to syslog.
     252  </P
     253></DD
     254><DT
     255><CODE
     256CLASS="OPTION"
     257>-f</CODE
     258></DT
     259><DD
     260><P
     261>Run <B
     262CLASS="COMMAND"
     263>rdisc</B
     264> forever even if no routers are found.
     265Normally <B
     266CLASS="COMMAND"
     267>rdisc</B
     268> gives up if it has not received any
     269<SPAN
     270CLASS="emphasis"
     271><I
     272CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     273>advertise</I
     274></SPAN
     275> message after after soliciting three times,
     276in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     277If <CODE
     278CLASS="OPTION"
     279>-f</CODE
     280> is not specified in the first form then
     281<CODE
     282CLASS="OPTION"
     283>-s</CODE
     284> must be specified.
     285  </P
     286></DD
     287><DT
     288><CODE
     289CLASS="OPTION"
     290>-r</CODE
     291></DT
     292><DD
     293><P
     294>Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     295  </P
     296></DD
     297><DT
     298><CODE
     299CLASS="OPTION"
     300>-s</CODE
     301></DT
     302><DD
     303><P
     304>Send three <SPAN
     305CLASS="emphasis"
     306><I
     307CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     308>solicitation</I
     309></SPAN
     310> messages initially to quickly discover
     311the routers when the system is booted.
     312When <CODE
     313CLASS="OPTION"
     314>-s</CODE
     315> is specified <B
     316CLASS="COMMAND"
     317>rdisc</B
     318>
     319exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     320This can be overridden with the <CODE
     321CLASS="OPTION"
     322>-f</CODE
     323> option.
     324  </P
     325></DD
     326><DT
     327><CODE
     328CLASS="OPTION"
     329>-p <TT
     330CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     331><I
     332>preference</I
     333></TT
     334></CODE
     335></DT
     336><DD
     337><P
     338>Set preference in advertisement.
     339Available only with -r option.
     340  </P
     341></DD
     342><DT
     343><CODE
     344CLASS="OPTION"
     345>-T <TT
     346CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     347><I
     348>max_interval</I
     349></TT
     350></CODE
     351></DT
     352><DD
     353><P
     354>Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs.
     355Available only with -r option.
     356  </P
     357></DD
     358><DT
     359><CODE
     360CLASS="OPTION"
     361>-t</CODE
     362></DT
     363><DD
     364><P
     365>Test mode. Do not go to background.
     366  </P
     367></DD
     368><DT
     369><CODE
     370CLASS="OPTION"
     371>-v</CODE
     372></DT
     373><DD
     374><P
     375>Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     376  </P
     377></DD
     378><DT
     379><CODE
     380CLASS="OPTION"
     381>-V</CODE
     382></DT
     383><DD
     384><P
     385>Print version and exit.
     386  </P
     387></DD
     388></DL
     389></DIV
     390></DIV
     391><DIV
     392CLASS="REFSECT1"
     393><A
     394NAME="AEN1235"
     395></A
     396><H2
     397>HISTORY</H2
     398><P
     399>This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     400notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     401<A
     402HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     403TARGET="_top"
     404>Alexey Kuznetsov
     405&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     406>.
     407It is now maintained by
     408<A
     409HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     410TARGET="_top"
     411>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     412&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     413>.</P
     414></DIV
     415><DIV
     416CLASS="REFSECT1"
     417><A
     418NAME="AEN1240"
     419></A
     420><H2
     421>SEE ALSO</H2
     422><P
     423><SPAN
     424CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     425><SPAN
     426CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     427>icmp</SPAN
     428>(7)</SPAN
     429>,
     430<SPAN
     431CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     432><SPAN
     433CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     434>inet</SPAN
     435>(7)</SPAN
     436>,
     437<A
     438HREF="r3.html"
     439><SPAN
     440CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     441><SPAN
     442CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     443>ping</SPAN
     444>(8)</SPAN
     445></A
     446>.</P
     447></DIV
     448><DIV
     449CLASS="REFSECT1"
     450><A
     451NAME="AEN1253"
     452></A
     453><H2
     454>REFERENCES</H2
     455><P
     456>Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     457<A
     458HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1256.txt"
     459TARGET="_top"
     460>RFC1256</A
     461>, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     462Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.</P
     463></DIV
     464><DIV
     465CLASS="REFSECT1"
     466><A
     467NAME="AEN1257"
     468></A
     469><H2
     470>SECURITY</H2
     471><P
     472><B
     473CLASS="COMMAND"
     474>rdisc</B
     475> requires <CODE
     476CLASS="CONSTANT"
     477>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     478> to listen
     479and send ICMP messages and capability <CODE
     480CLASS="CONSTANT"
     481>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     482>
     483to update routing tables. </P
     484></DIV
     485><DIV
     486CLASS="REFSECT1"
     487><A
     488NAME="AEN1263"
     489></A
     490><H2
     491>AVAILABILITY</H2
     492><P
     493><B
     494CLASS="COMMAND"
     495>rdisc</B
     496> is part of <TT
     497CLASS="FILENAME"
     498>iputils</TT
     499> package
     500and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     501<A
     502HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     503TARGET="_top"
     504>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     505>.</P
     506></DIV
     507><DIV
     508CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     509><HR
     510ALIGN="LEFT"
     511WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     512SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     526></TD
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     534>Home</A
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     537WIDTH="33%"
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     546><TR
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     548WIDTH="33%"
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     551>ninfod</TD
     552><TD
     553WIDTH="34%"
     554ALIGN="center"
     555VALIGN="top"
     556>&nbsp;</TD
     557><TD
     558WIDTH="33%"
     559ALIGN="right"
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     561>pg3</TD
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     568 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r1269.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r1269.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>pg3</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
     9REL="HOME"
     10TITLE="System Manager's Manual: iputils"
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     19LINK="#0000FF"
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     22><DIV
     23CLASS="NAVHEADER"
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     25SUMMARY="Header navigation table"
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     33ALIGN="center"
     34>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     35></TR
     36><TR
     37><TD
     38WIDTH="10%"
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     40VALIGN="bottom"
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     42HREF="r1125.html"
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     44>Prev</A
     45></TD
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     55>&nbsp;</TD
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     58><HR
     59ALIGN="LEFT"
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     61><H1
     62><A
     63NAME="PG3"
     64></A
     65>pg3</H1
     66><DIV
     67CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     68><A
     69NAME="AEN1274"
     70></A
     71><H2
     72>Name</H2
     73>pg3, ipg, pgset&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DIV
     74><DIV
     75CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     76><A
     77NAME="AEN1277"
     78></A
     79><H2
     80>Synopsis</H2
     81><P
     82><B
     83CLASS="COMMAND"
     84>source ipg</B
     85> </P
     86><P
     87><B
     88CLASS="COMMAND"
     89>pg</B
     90> </P
     91><P
     92><B
     93CLASS="COMMAND"
     94>pgset</B
     95>  {<TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>COMMAND</I
     99></TT
     100>}</P
     101></DIV
     102><DIV
     103CLASS="REFSECT1"
     104><A
     105NAME="AEN1286"
     106></A
     107><H2
     108>DESCRIPTION</H2
     109><P
     110><B
     111CLASS="COMMAND"
     112>ipg</B
     113> is not a program, it is script which should be sourced
     114to <B
     115CLASS="COMMAND"
     116>bash</B
     117>. When sourced it loads module <TT
     118CLASS="FILENAME"
     119>pg3</TT
     120> and
     121exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros
     122are <B
     123CLASS="COMMAND"
     124>pg</B
     125> to start packet injection and to get the results of run;
     126and <B
     127CLASS="COMMAND"
     128>pgset</B
     129> to setup packet generator.</P
     130><P
     131><B
     132CLASS="COMMAND"
     133>pgset</B
     134> can send the following commands to module <TT
     135CLASS="FILENAME"
     136>pg3</TT
     137>:</P
     138></DIV
     139><DIV
     140CLASS="REFSECT1"
     141><A
     142NAME="AEN1297"
     143></A
     144><H2
     145>COMMAND</H2
     146><P
     147></P
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     150><DL
     151><DT
     152><CODE
     153CLASS="OPTION"
     154>odev <TT
     155CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     156><I
     157>DEVICE</I
     158></TT
     159></CODE
     160></DT
     161><DD
     162><P
     163>Name of Ethernet device to test. See
     164<A
     165HREF="r1269.html#PG3.WARNING"
     166>warning</A
     167> below.
     168  </P
     169></DD
     170><DT
     171><CODE
     172CLASS="OPTION"
     173>pkt_size <TT
     174CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     175><I
     176>BYTES</I
     177></TT
     178></CODE
     179></DT
     180><DD
     181><P
     182>Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP,
     183MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS
     184and various paddings.
     185  </P
     186></DD
     187><DT
     188><CODE
     189CLASS="OPTION"
     190>frags <TT
     191CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     192><I
     193>NUMBER</I
     194></TT
     195></CODE
     196></DT
     197><DD
     198><P
     199>Each packet will contain <TT
     200CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     201><I
     202>NUMBER</I
     203></TT
     204> of fragments.
     205Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support
     206fragmented buffers.
     207  </P
     208></DD
     209><DT
     210><CODE
     211CLASS="OPTION"
     212>count <TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>NUMBER</I
     216></TT
     217></CODE
     218></DT
     219><DD
     220><P
     221>Send stream of <TT
     222CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     223><I
     224>NUMBER</I
     225></TT
     226> of packets and stop after this.
     227  </P
     228></DD
     229><DT
     230><CODE
     231CLASS="OPTION"
     232>ipg <TT
     233CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     234><I
     235>TIME</I
     236></TT
     237></CODE
     238></DT
     239><DD
     240><P
     241>Introduce artificial delay between packets of <TT
     242CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     243><I
     244>TIME</I
     245></TT
     246>
     247microseconds.
     248  </P
     249></DD
     250><DT
     251><CODE
     252CLASS="OPTION"
     253>dst <TT
     254CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     255><I
     256>IP_ADDRESS</I
     257></TT
     258></CODE
     259></DT
     260><DD
     261><P
     262>Select IP destination where the stream is sent to.
     263Beware, never set this address at random. <B
     264CLASS="COMMAND"
     265>pg3</B
     266> is not a toy,
     267it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0.
     268  </P
     269></DD
     270><DT
     271><CODE
     272CLASS="OPTION"
     273>dst <TT
     274CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     275><I
     276>MAC_ADDRESS</I
     277></TT
     278></CODE
     279></DT
     280><DD
     281><P
     282>Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to.
     283Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received
     284by any node on LAN.
     285  </P
     286></DD
     287><DT
     288><CODE
     289CLASS="OPTION"
     290>stop</CODE
     291></DT
     292><DD
     293><P
     294>Abort packet injection.
     295  </P
     296></DD
     297></DL
     298></DIV
     299></DIV
     300><DIV
     301CLASS="REFSECT1"
     302><A
     303NAME="PG3.WARNING"
     304></A
     305><H2
     306>WARNING</H2
     307><P
     308>When output device is set to some random device different
     309of hardware Ethernet device, <B
     310CLASS="COMMAND"
     311>pg3</B
     312> will crash kernel.</P
     313><P
     314>Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices,
     315which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.</P
     316></DIV
     317><DIV
     318CLASS="REFSECT1"
     319><A
     320NAME="AEN1357"
     321></A
     322><H2
     323>AUTHOR</H2
     324><P
     325><B
     326CLASS="COMMAND"
     327>pg3</B
     328> was written by <A
     329HREF="mailto:robert.olsson@its.uu.se"
     330TARGET="_top"
     331>Robert Olsson &lt;robert.olsson@its.uu.se&gt;</A
     332>.</P
     333></DIV
     334><DIV
     335CLASS="REFSECT1"
     336><A
     337NAME="AEN1362"
     338></A
     339><H2
     340>SECURITY</H2
     341><P
     342>This can be used only by superuser.</P
     343><P
     344>This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled
     345even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with
     34660 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream
     347switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode.
     348Use only in test lab environment.</P
     349></DIV
     350><DIV
     351CLASS="REFSECT1"
     352><A
     353NAME="AEN1366"
     354></A
     355><H2
     356>AVAILABILITY</H2
     357><P
     358><B
     359CLASS="COMMAND"
     360>pg3</B
     361> is part of <TT
     362CLASS="FILENAME"
     363>iputils</TT
     364> package
     365and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     366<A
     367HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     368TARGET="_top"
     369>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     370>.</P
     371></DIV
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     373CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     374><HR
     375ALIGN="LEFT"
     376WIDTH="100%"><TABLE
     377SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     409WIDTH="33%"
     410ALIGN="left"
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     412>rdisc</TD
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  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r3.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r3.html
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     3><HEAD
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     5>ping</TITLE
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     33><TR
     34><TH
     35COLSPAN="3"
     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="index.html"
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     47>Prev</A
     48></TD
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     63></TR
     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="PING"
     71></A
     72>ping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN8"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>ping, ping6&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN11"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>ping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-F <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>flowlabel</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-i <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>interval</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-I <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>interface</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-l <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>preload</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-m <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>mark</I
     124></TT
     125>] [-M <TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>pmtudisc_option</I
     129></TT
     130>] [-N <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>nodeinfo_option</I
     134></TT
     135>] [-w <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>deadline</I
     139></TT
     140>] [-W <TT
     141CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     142><I
     143>timeout</I
     144></TT
     145>] [-p <TT
     146CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     147><I
     148>pattern</I
     149></TT
     150>] [-Q <TT
     151CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     152><I
     153>tos</I
     154></TT
     155>] [-s <TT
     156CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     157><I
     158>packetsize</I
     159></TT
     160>] [-S <TT
     161CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     162><I
     163>sndbuf</I
     164></TT
     165>] [-t <TT
     166CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     167><I
     168>ttl</I
     169></TT
     170>] [-T <TT
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     172><I
     173>timestamp option</I
     174></TT
     175>] [<TT
     176CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     177><I
     178>hop</I
     179></TT
     180>...] {<TT
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     182><I
     183>destination</I
     184></TT
     185>}</P
     186></DIV
     187><DIV
     188CLASS="REFSECT1"
     189><A
     190NAME="AEN52"
     191></A
     192><H2
     193>DESCRIPTION</H2
     194><P
     195><B
     196CLASS="COMMAND"
     197>ping</B
     198> uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST
     199datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway.
     200ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP
     201header, followed by a <CODE
     202CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     203>struct timeval</CODE
     204> and then an arbitrary
     205number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.</P
     206><P
     207><B
     208CLASS="COMMAND"
     209>ping6</B
     210> is IPv6 version of <B
     211CLASS="COMMAND"
     212>ping</B
     213>, and can also send Node Information Queries (RFC4620).
     214Intermediate <TT
     215CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     216><I
     217>hop</I
     218></TT
     219>s may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).</P
     220></DIV
     221><DIV
     222CLASS="REFSECT1"
     223><A
     224NAME="AEN61"
     225></A
     226><H2
     227>OPTIONS</H2
     228><P
     229></P
     230><DIV
     231CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     232><DL
     233><DT
     234><CODE
     235CLASS="OPTION"
     236>-a</CODE
     237></DT
     238><DD
     239><P
     240>Audible ping.
     241  </P
     242></DD
     243><DT
     244><CODE
     245CLASS="OPTION"
     246>-A</CODE
     247></DT
     248><DD
     249><P
     250>Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that
     251effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe
     252is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user.
     253On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode. 
     254  </P
     255></DD
     256><DT
     257><CODE
     258CLASS="OPTION"
     259>-b</CODE
     260></DT
     261><DD
     262><P
     263>Allow pinging a broadcast address.
     264  </P
     265></DD
     266><DT
     267><CODE
     268CLASS="OPTION"
     269>-B</CODE
     270></DT
     271><DD
     272><P
     273>Do not allow <B
     274CLASS="COMMAND"
     275>ping</B
     276> to change source address of probes.
     277The address is bound to one selected when <B
     278CLASS="COMMAND"
     279>ping</B
     280> starts.
     281  </P
     282></DD
     283><DT
     284><CODE
     285CLASS="OPTION"
     286><A
     287NAME="PING.COUNT"
     288></A
     289>-c <TT
     290CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     291><I
     292>count</I
     293></TT
     294></CODE
     295></DT
     296><DD
     297><P
     298>Stop after sending <TT
     299CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     300><I
     301>count</I
     302></TT
     303> ECHO_REQUEST
     304packets. With
     305<A
     306HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     307><TT
     308CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     309><I
     310>deadline</I
     311></TT
     312></A
     313>
     314option, <B
     315CLASS="COMMAND"
     316>ping</B
     317> waits for
     318<TT
     319CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     320><I
     321>count</I
     322></TT
     323> ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     324  </P
     325></DD
     326><DT
     327><CODE
     328CLASS="OPTION"
     329>-d</CODE
     330></DT
     331><DD
     332><P
     333>Set the <CODE
     334CLASS="CONSTANT"
     335>SO_DEBUG</CODE
     336> option on the socket being used.
     337Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.
     338  </P
     339></DD
     340><DT
     341><CODE
     342CLASS="OPTION"
     343>-D</CODE
     344></DT
     345><DD
     346><P
     347>Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before
     348each line.
     349  </P
     350></DD
     351><DT
     352><CODE
     353CLASS="OPTION"
     354>-f</CODE
     355></DT
     356><DD
     357><P
     358>Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed,
     359while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.
     360This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.
     361If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and
     362outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second,
     363whichever is more.
     364Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval.
     365  </P
     366></DD
     367><DT
     368><CODE
     369CLASS="OPTION"
     370>-F <TT
     371CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     372><I
     373>flow label</I
     374></TT
     375></CODE
     376></DT
     377><DD
     378><P
     379><B
     380CLASS="COMMAND"
     381>ping6</B
     382> only.
     383Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets.
     384If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label.
     385  </P
     386></DD
     387><DT
     388><CODE
     389CLASS="OPTION"
     390>-h</CODE
     391></DT
     392><DD
     393><P
     394>Show help.
     395  </P
     396></DD
     397><DT
     398><CODE
     399CLASS="OPTION"
     400>-i <TT
     401CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     402><I
     403>interval</I
     404></TT
     405></CODE
     406></DT
     407><DD
     408><P
     409>Wait <TT
     410CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     411><I
     412>interval</I
     413></TT
     414> seconds between sending each packet.
     415The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally,
     416or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval
     417to values less 0.2 seconds.
     418  </P
     419></DD
     420><DT
     421><CODE
     422CLASS="OPTION"
     423>-I <TT
     424CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     425><I
     426>interface</I
     427></TT
     428></CODE
     429></DT
     430><DD
     431><P
     432><TT
     433CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     434><I
     435>interface</I
     436></TT
     437> is either an address, or an interface name.
     438If <TT
     439CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     440><I
     441>interface</I
     442></TT
     443> is an address, it sets source address
     444to specified interface address.
     445If <TT
     446CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     447><I
     448>interface</I
     449></TT
     450> in an interface name, it sets
     451source interface to specified interface.
     452For <B
     453CLASS="COMMAND"
     454>ping6</B
     455>, when doing ping to a link-local scope
     456address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in
     457<TT
     458CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     459><I
     460>destination</I
     461></TT
     462>, or by this option) is required.
     463  </P
     464></DD
     465><DT
     466><CODE
     467CLASS="OPTION"
     468>-l <TT
     469CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     470><I
     471>preload</I
     472></TT
     473></CODE
     474></DT
     475><DD
     476><P
     477>If <TT
     478CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     479><I
     480>preload</I
     481></TT
     482> is specified,
     483<B
     484CLASS="COMMAND"
     485>ping</B
     486> sends that many packets not waiting for reply.
     487Only the super-user may select preload more than 3.
     488  </P
     489></DD
     490><DT
     491><CODE
     492CLASS="OPTION"
     493>-L</CODE
     494></DT
     495><DD
     496><P
     497>Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping
     498destination is a multicast address.
     499  </P
     500></DD
     501><DT
     502><CODE
     503CLASS="OPTION"
     504>-m <TT
     505CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     506><I
     507>mark</I
     508></TT
     509></CODE
     510></DT
     511><DD
     512><P
     513>use <TT
     514CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     515><I
     516>mark</I
     517></TT
     518> to tag the packets going out. This is useful
     519for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy
     520routing to select specific outbound processing.
     521  </P
     522></DD
     523><DT
     524><CODE
     525CLASS="OPTION"
     526>-M <TT
     527CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     528><I
     529>pmtudisc_opt</I
     530></TT
     531></CODE
     532></DT
     533><DD
     534><P
     535>Select Path MTU Discovery strategy.
     536<TT
     537CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     538><I
     539>pmtudisc_option</I
     540></TT
     541> may be either <TT
     542CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     543><I
     544>do</I
     545></TT
     546>
     547(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),
     548<TT
     549CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     550><I
     551>want</I
     552></TT
     553> (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size
     554is large), or <TT
     555CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     556><I
     557>dont</I
     558></TT
     559> (do not set DF flag).
     560  </P
     561></DD
     562><DT
     563><CODE
     564CLASS="OPTION"
     565>-N <TT
     566CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     567><I
     568>nodeinfo_option</I
     569></TT
     570></CODE
     571></DT
     572><DD
     573><P
     574><B
     575CLASS="COMMAND"
     576>ping6</B
     577> only.
     578Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request.
     579   <P
     580></P
     581><DIV
     582CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     583><DL
     584><DT
     585><CODE
     586CLASS="OPTION"
     587>help</CODE
     588></DT
     589><DD
     590><P
     591>Show help for NI support.</P
     592></DD
     593></DL
     594></DIV
     595>
     596   <P
     597></P
     598><DIV
     599CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     600><DL
     601><DT
     602><CODE
     603CLASS="OPTION"
     604>name</CODE
     605></DT
     606><DD
     607><P
     608>Queries for Node Names.</P
     609></DD
     610></DL
     611></DIV
     612>
     613   <P
     614></P
     615><DIV
     616CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     617><DL
     618><DT
     619><CODE
     620CLASS="OPTION"
     621>ipv6</CODE
     622></DT
     623><DD
     624><P
     625>Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags.
     626      <P
     627></P
     628><DIV
     629CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     630><DL
     631><DT
     632><CODE
     633CLASS="OPTION"
     634>ipv6-global</CODE
     635></DT
     636><DD
     637><P
     638>Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.</P
     639></DD
     640></DL
     641></DIV
     642>
     643      <P
     644></P
     645><DIV
     646CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     647><DL
     648><DT
     649><CODE
     650CLASS="OPTION"
     651>ipv6-sitelocal</CODE
     652></DT
     653><DD
     654><P
     655>Request IPv6 site-local addresses.</P
     656></DD
     657></DL
     658></DIV
     659>
     660      <P
     661></P
     662><DIV
     663CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     664><DL
     665><DT
     666><CODE
     667CLASS="OPTION"
     668>ipv6-linklocal</CODE
     669></DT
     670><DD
     671><P
     672>Request IPv6 link-local addresses.</P
     673></DD
     674></DL
     675></DIV
     676>
     677      <P
     678></P
     679><DIV
     680CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     681><DL
     682><DT
     683><CODE
     684CLASS="OPTION"
     685>ipv6-all</CODE
     686></DT
     687><DD
     688><P
     689>Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     690></DD
     691></DL
     692></DIV
     693>
     694     </P
     695></DD
     696></DL
     697></DIV
     698>
     699   <P
     700></P
     701><DIV
     702CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     703><DL
     704><DT
     705><CODE
     706CLASS="OPTION"
     707>ipv4</CODE
     708></DT
     709><DD
     710><P
     711>Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag.
     712      <P
     713></P
     714><DIV
     715CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     716><DL
     717><DT
     718><CODE
     719CLASS="OPTION"
     720>ipv4-all</CODE
     721></DT
     722><DD
     723><P
     724>Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.</P
     725></DD
     726></DL
     727></DIV
     728>
     729     </P
     730></DD
     731></DL
     732></DIV
     733>
     734   <P
     735></P
     736><DIV
     737CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     738><DL
     739><DT
     740><CODE
     741CLASS="OPTION"
     742>subject-ipv6=<TT
     743CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     744><I
     745>ipv6addr</I
     746></TT
     747></CODE
     748></DT
     749><DD
     750><P
     751>IPv6 subject address.</P
     752></DD
     753></DL
     754></DIV
     755>
     756   <P
     757></P
     758><DIV
     759CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     760><DL
     761><DT
     762><CODE
     763CLASS="OPTION"
     764>subject-ipv4=<TT
     765CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     766><I
     767>ipv4addr</I
     768></TT
     769></CODE
     770></DT
     771><DD
     772><P
     773>IPv4 subject address.</P
     774></DD
     775></DL
     776></DIV
     777>
     778   <P
     779></P
     780><DIV
     781CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     782><DL
     783><DT
     784><CODE
     785CLASS="OPTION"
     786>subject-name=<TT
     787CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     788><I
     789>nodename</I
     790></TT
     791></CODE
     792></DT
     793><DD
     794><P
     795>Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot,
     796        fully-qualified domain name is assumed.</P
     797></DD
     798></DL
     799></DIV
     800>
     801   <P
     802></P
     803><DIV
     804CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     805><DL
     806><DT
     807><CODE
     808CLASS="OPTION"
     809>subject-fqdn=<TT
     810CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     811><I
     812>nodename</I
     813></TT
     814></CODE
     815></DT
     816><DD
     817><P
     818>Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is
     819        always assumed.</P
     820></DD
     821></DL
     822></DIV
     823>
     824  </P
     825></DD
     826><DT
     827><CODE
     828CLASS="OPTION"
     829>-n</CODE
     830></DT
     831><DD
     832><P
     833>Numeric output only.
     834No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
     835  </P
     836></DD
     837><DT
     838><CODE
     839CLASS="OPTION"
     840>-O</CODE
     841></DT
     842><DD
     843><P
     844>Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet.
     845This is useful together with the timestamp <CODE
     846CLASS="OPTION"
     847>-D</CODE
     848> to
     849log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers.
     850  </P
     851></DD
     852><DT
     853><CODE
     854CLASS="OPTION"
     855>-p <TT
     856CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     857><I
     858>pattern</I
     859></TT
     860></CODE
     861></DT
     862><DD
     863><P
     864>You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send.
     865This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network.
     866For example, <CODE
     867CLASS="OPTION"
     868>-p ff</CODE
     869> will cause the sent packet
     870to be filled with all ones.
     871  </P
     872></DD
     873><DT
     874><CODE
     875CLASS="OPTION"
     876>-q</CODE
     877></DT
     878><DD
     879><P
     880>Quiet output.
     881Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
     882when finished.
     883  </P
     884></DD
     885><DT
     886><CODE
     887CLASS="OPTION"
     888>-Q <TT
     889CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     890><I
     891>tos</I
     892></TT
     893></CODE
     894></DT
     895><DD
     896><P
     897>       Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams.
     898        <TT
     899CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     900><I
     901>tos</I
     902></TT
     903> can be decimal (<B
     904CLASS="COMMAND"
     905>ping</B
     906> only) or hex number.
     907        </P
     908><P
     909>       In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated
     910        Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate
     911        data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services
     912        Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN.
     913        </P
     914><P
     915>       Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted
     916        as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as
     917        congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7
     918        (highest bits) for Precedence.
     919   </P
     920></DD
     921><DT
     922><CODE
     923CLASS="OPTION"
     924>-r</CODE
     925></DT
     926><DD
     927><P
     928>Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached
     929interface.
     930If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned.
     931This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface
     932that has no route through it provided the option <CODE
     933CLASS="OPTION"
     934>-I</CODE
     935> is also
     936used.
     937  </P
     938></DD
     939><DT
     940><CODE
     941CLASS="OPTION"
     942>-R</CODE
     943></DT
     944><DD
     945><P
     946><B
     947CLASS="COMMAND"
     948>ping</B
     949> only.
     950Record route.
     951Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST
     952packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets.
     953Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes.
     954Many hosts ignore or discard this option.
     955  </P
     956></DD
     957><DT
     958><CODE
     959CLASS="OPTION"
     960>-s <TT
     961CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     962><I
     963>packetsize</I
     964></TT
     965></CODE
     966></DT
     967><DD
     968><P
     969>Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent. 
     970The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP
     971data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.
     972  </P
     973></DD
     974><DT
     975><CODE
     976CLASS="OPTION"
     977>-S <TT
     978CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     979><I
     980>sndbuf</I
     981></TT
     982></CODE
     983></DT
     984><DD
     985><P
     986>Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer
     987not more than one packet.
     988  </P
     989></DD
     990><DT
     991><CODE
     992CLASS="OPTION"
     993>-t <TT
     994CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     995><I
     996>ttl</I
     997></TT
     998></CODE
     999></DT
     1000><DD
     1001><P
     1002><B
     1003CLASS="COMMAND"
     1004>ping</B
     1005> only.
     1006Set the IP Time to Live.
     1007  </P
     1008></DD
     1009><DT
     1010><CODE
     1011CLASS="OPTION"
     1012>-T <TT
     1013CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1014><I
     1015>timestamp option</I
     1016></TT
     1017></CODE
     1018></DT
     1019><DD
     1020><P
     1021>Set special IP timestamp options.
     1022<TT
     1023CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1024><I
     1025>timestamp option</I
     1026></TT
     1027> may be either
     1028<TT
     1029CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1030><I
     1031>tsonly</I
     1032></TT
     1033> (only timestamps),
     1034<TT
     1035CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1036><I
     1037>tsandaddr</I
     1038></TT
     1039> (timestamps and addresses) or
     1040<TT
     1041CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1042><I
     1043>tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]</I
     1044></TT
     1045>
     1046(timestamp prespecified hops).
     1047  </P
     1048></DD
     1049><DT
     1050><CODE
     1051CLASS="OPTION"
     1052>-U</CODE
     1053></DT
     1054><DD
     1055><P
     1056>Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally
     1057<B
     1058CLASS="COMMAND"
     1059>ping</B
     1060>
     1061prints network round trip time, which can be different
     1062f.e. due to DNS failures.
     1063  </P
     1064></DD
     1065><DT
     1066><CODE
     1067CLASS="OPTION"
     1068>-v</CODE
     1069></DT
     1070><DD
     1071><P
     1072>Verbose output.
     1073  </P
     1074></DD
     1075><DT
     1076><CODE
     1077CLASS="OPTION"
     1078>-V</CODE
     1079></DT
     1080><DD
     1081><P
     1082>Show version and exit.
     1083  </P
     1084></DD
     1085><DT
     1086><CODE
     1087CLASS="OPTION"
     1088><A
     1089NAME="PING.DEADLINE"
     1090></A
     1091>-w <TT
     1092CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1093><I
     1094>deadline</I
     1095></TT
     1096></CODE
     1097></DT
     1098><DD
     1099><P
     1100>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     1101<B
     1102CLASS="COMMAND"
     1103>ping</B
     1104>
     1105exits regardless of how many
     1106packets have been sent or received. In this case
     1107<B
     1108CLASS="COMMAND"
     1109>ping</B
     1110>
     1111does not stop after
     1112<A
     1113HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1114><TT
     1115CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1116><I
     1117>count</I
     1118></TT
     1119></A
     1120>
     1121packet are sent, it waits either for
     1122<A
     1123HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1124><TT
     1125CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1126><I
     1127>deadline</I
     1128></TT
     1129></A
     1130>
     1131expire or until
     1132<A
     1133HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1134><TT
     1135CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1136><I
     1137>count</I
     1138></TT
     1139></A
     1140>
     1141probes are answered or for some error notification from network.   
     1142  </P
     1143></DD
     1144><DT
     1145><CODE
     1146CLASS="OPTION"
     1147>-W <TT
     1148CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1149><I
     1150>timeout</I
     1151></TT
     1152></CODE
     1153></DT
     1154><DD
     1155><P
     1156>Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout
     1157in absence of any responses, otherwise <B
     1158CLASS="COMMAND"
     1159>ping</B
     1160> waits for two RTTs.
     1161  </P
     1162></DD
     1163></DL
     1164></DIV
     1165><P
     1166>When using <B
     1167CLASS="COMMAND"
     1168>ping</B
     1169> for fault isolation, it should first be run
     1170on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up
     1171and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be
     1172``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.
     1173If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet
     1174loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used
     1175in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers.
     1176When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or
     1177if the program is terminated with a
     1178<CODE
     1179CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1180>SIGINT</CODE
     1181>, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics
     1182can be obtained without termination of process with signal
     1183<CODE
     1184CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1185>SIGQUIT</CODE
     1186>.</P
     1187><P
     1188>If <B
     1189CLASS="COMMAND"
     1190>ping</B
     1191> does not receive any reply packets at all it will
     1192exit with code 1. If a packet
     1193<A
     1194HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1195><TT
     1196CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1197><I
     1198>count</I
     1199></TT
     1200></A
     1201>
     1202and
     1203<A
     1204HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1205><TT
     1206CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1207><I
     1208>deadline</I
     1209></TT
     1210></A
     1211>
     1212are both specified, and fewer than
     1213<A
     1214HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT"
     1215><TT
     1216CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1217><I
     1218>count</I
     1219></TT
     1220></A
     1221>
     1222packets are received by the time the
     1223<A
     1224HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE"
     1225><TT
     1226CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1227><I
     1228>deadline</I
     1229></TT
     1230></A
     1231>
     1232has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.
     1233On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This
     1234makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or
     1235not.</P
     1236><P
     1237>This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and
     1238management.
     1239Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use
     1240<B
     1241CLASS="COMMAND"
     1242>ping</B
     1243> during normal operations or from automated scripts.</P
     1244></DIV
     1245><DIV
     1246CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1247><A
     1248NAME="AEN391"
     1249></A
     1250><H2
     1251>ICMP PACKET DETAILS</H2
     1252><P
     1253>An IP header without options is 20 bytes.
     1254An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth
     1255of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data.
     1256When a <TT
     1257CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     1258><I
     1259>packetsize</I
     1260></TT
     1261> is given, this indicated the size of this
     1262extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received
     1263inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes
     1264more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).</P
     1265><P
     1266>If the data space is at least of size of <CODE
     1267CLASS="STRUCTNAME"
     1268>struct timeval</CODE
     1269>
     1270<B
     1271CLASS="COMMAND"
     1272>ping</B
     1273> uses the beginning bytes of this space to include
     1274a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times.
     1275If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.</P
     1276></DIV
     1277><DIV
     1278CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1279><A
     1280NAME="AEN398"
     1281></A
     1282><H2
     1283>DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS</H2
     1284><P
     1285><B
     1286CLASS="COMMAND"
     1287>ping</B
     1288> will report duplicate and damaged packets.
     1289Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by
     1290inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
     1291Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a
     1292good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not
     1293always be cause for alarm.</P
     1294><P
     1295>Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often
     1296indicate broken hardware somewhere in the
     1297<B
     1298CLASS="COMMAND"
     1299>ping</B
     1300> packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).</P
     1301></DIV
     1302><DIV
     1303CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1304><A
     1305NAME="AEN404"
     1306></A
     1307><H2
     1308>TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS</H2
     1309><P
     1310>The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
     1311on the data contained in the data portion.
     1312Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into
     1313networks and remain undetected for long periods of time.
     1314In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something
     1315that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all
     1316zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros.
     1317It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for
     1318example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is
     1319at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and
     1320what the controllers transmit can be complicated.</P
     1321><P
     1322>This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
     1323have to do a lot of testing to find it.
     1324If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent
     1325across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other
     1326similar length files.
     1327You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test
     1328using the <CODE
     1329CLASS="OPTION"
     1330>-p</CODE
     1331> option of <B
     1332CLASS="COMMAND"
     1333>ping</B
     1334>.</P
     1335></DIV
     1336><DIV
     1337CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1338><A
     1339NAME="AEN410"
     1340></A
     1341><H2
     1342>TTL DETAILS</H2
     1343><P
     1344>The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers
     1345that the packet can go through before being thrown away.
     1346In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement
     1347the TTL field by exactly one.</P
     1348><P
     1349>The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP
     1350packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values
     1351(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).</P
     1352><P
     1353>The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set
     1354the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255.
     1355This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them
     1356with
     1357<SPAN
     1358CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1359><SPAN
     1360CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1361>telnet</SPAN
     1362>(1)</SPAN
     1363>
     1364or
     1365<SPAN
     1366CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1367><SPAN
     1368CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1369>ftp</SPAN
     1370>(1)</SPAN
     1371>.</P
     1372><P
     1373>In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives.
     1374When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things
     1375with the TTL field in its response:</P
     1376><P
     1377></P
     1378><UL
     1379><LI
     1380><P
     1381>Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the
     13824.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet
     1383will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
     1384 </P
     1385></LI
     1386><LI
     1387><P
     1388>Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do.
     1389In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the
     1390number of routers in the path <SPAN
     1391CLASS="emphasis"
     1392><I
     1393CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1394>from</I
     1395></SPAN
     1396>
     1397the remote system <SPAN
     1398CLASS="emphasis"
     1399><I
     1400CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     1401>to</I
     1402></SPAN
     1403> the <B
     1404CLASS="COMMAND"
     1405>ping</B
     1406>ing host.
     1407 </P
     1408></LI
     1409><LI
     1410><P
     1411>Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for
     1412ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60.
     1413Others may use completely wild values.
     1414 </P
     1415></LI
     1416></UL
     1417></DIV
     1418><DIV
     1419CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1420><A
     1421NAME="AEN432"
     1422></A
     1423><H2
     1424>BUGS</H2
     1425><P
     1426></P
     1427><UL
     1428><LI
     1429><P
     1430>Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option.
     1431 </P
     1432></LI
     1433><LI
     1434><P
     1435>The maximum IP header length is too small for options like
     1436RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful.
     1437There's not much that that can be done about this, however.
     1438 </P
     1439></LI
     1440><LI
     1441><P
     1442>Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the
     1443broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions.
     1444 </P
     1445></LI
     1446></UL
     1447></DIV
     1448><DIV
     1449CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1450><A
     1451NAME="AEN441"
     1452></A
     1453><H2
     1454>SEE ALSO</H2
     1455><P
     1456><SPAN
     1457CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1458><SPAN
     1459CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1460>netstat</SPAN
     1461>(1)</SPAN
     1462>,
     1463<SPAN
     1464CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     1465><SPAN
     1466CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     1467>ifconfig</SPAN
     1468>(8)</SPAN
     1469>.</P
     1470></DIV
     1471><DIV
     1472CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1473><A
     1474NAME="AEN450"
     1475></A
     1476><H2
     1477>HISTORY</H2
     1478><P
     1479>The <B
     1480CLASS="COMMAND"
     1481>ping</B
     1482> command appeared in 4.3BSD.</P
     1483><P
     1484>The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.</P
     1485></DIV
     1486><DIV
     1487CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1488><A
     1489NAME="AEN455"
     1490></A
     1491><H2
     1492>SECURITY</H2
     1493><P
     1494><B
     1495CLASS="COMMAND"
     1496>ping</B
     1497> requires <CODE
     1498CLASS="CONSTANT"
     1499>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     1500> capability
     1501to be executed. It may be used as set-uid root.</P
     1502></DIV
     1503><DIV
     1504CLASS="REFSECT1"
     1505><A
     1506NAME="AEN460"
     1507></A
     1508><H2
     1509>AVAILABILITY</H2
     1510><P
     1511><B
     1512CLASS="COMMAND"
     1513>ping</B
     1514> is part of <TT
     1515CLASS="FILENAME"
     1516>iputils</TT
     1517> package
     1518and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     1519<A
     1520HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     1521TARGET="_top"
     1522>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     1523>.</P
     1524></DIV
     1525><DIV
     1526CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
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     1528ALIGN="LEFT"
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     1530SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     1569>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TD
     1570><TD
     1571WIDTH="34%"
     1572ALIGN="center"
     1573VALIGN="top"
     1574>&nbsp;</TD
     1575><TD
     1576WIDTH="33%"
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     1579>arping</TD
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     1585>
     1586 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r466.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r466.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
     2<HTML
     3><HEAD
     4><TITLE
     5>arping</TITLE
     6><META
     7NAME="GENERATOR"
     8CONTENT="Modular DocBook HTML Stylesheet Version 1.79"><LINK
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     33><TR
     34><TH
     35COLSPAN="3"
     36ALIGN="center"
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
     39><TR
     40><TD
     41WIDTH="10%"
     42ALIGN="left"
     43VALIGN="bottom"
     44><A
     45HREF="r3.html"
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     47>Prev</A
     48></TD
     49><TD
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     63></TR
     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="ARPING"
     71></A
     72>arping</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN471"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>arping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN474"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-AbDfhqUV</CODE
     95>] [-c <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>count</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-w <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>deadline</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-s <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>source</I
     109></TT
     110>] {-I <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>interface</I
     114></TT
     115>} {<TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>destination</I
     119></TT
     120>}</P
     121></DIV
     122><DIV
     123CLASS="REFSECT1"
     124><A
     125NAME="AEN489"
     126></A
     127><H2
     128>DESCRIPTION</H2
     129><P
     130>Ping <TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>destination</I
     134></TT
     135> on device <TT
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     137><I
     138>interface</I
     139></TT
     140> by ARP packets,
     141using source address <TT
     142CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     143><I
     144>source</I
     145></TT
     146>.</P
     147></DIV
     148><DIV
     149CLASS="REFSECT1"
     150><A
     151NAME="AEN495"
     152></A
     153><H2
     154>OPTIONS</H2
     155><P
     156></P
     157><DIV
     158CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     159><DL
     160><DT
     161><CODE
     162CLASS="OPTION"
     163>-A</CODE
     164></DT
     165><DD
     166><P
     167>The same as <CODE
     168CLASS="OPTION"
     169>-U</CODE
     170>, but ARP REPLY packets used instead
     171of ARP REQUEST.
     172  </P
     173></DD
     174><DT
     175><CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-b</CODE
     178></DT
     179><DD
     180><P
     181>Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally <B
     182CLASS="COMMAND"
     183>arping</B
     184> starts
     185from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received.
     186  </P
     187></DD
     188><DT
     189><CODE
     190CLASS="OPTION"
     191><A
     192NAME="ARPING.COUNT"
     193></A
     194>-c <TT
     195CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     196><I
     197>count</I
     198></TT
     199></CODE
     200></DT
     201><DD
     202><P
     203>Stop after sending <TT
     204CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     205><I
     206>count</I
     207></TT
     208> ARP REQUEST
     209packets. With
     210<A
     211HREF="r466.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     212><TT
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     214><I
     215>deadline</I
     216></TT
     217></A
     218>
     219option, <B
     220CLASS="COMMAND"
     221>arping</B
     222> waits for
     223<TT
     224CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     225><I
     226>count</I
     227></TT
     228> ARP REPLY packets, until the timeout expires.
     229  </P
     230></DD
     231><DT
     232><CODE
     233CLASS="OPTION"
     234>-D</CODE
     235></DT
     236><DD
     237><P
     238>Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See
     239<A
     240HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt"
     241TARGET="_top"
     242>RFC2131, 4.4.1</A
     243>.
     244Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received
     245  </P
     246></DD
     247><DT
     248><CODE
     249CLASS="OPTION"
     250>-f</CODE
     251></DT
     252><DD
     253><P
     254>Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive.
     255  </P
     256></DD
     257><DT
     258><CODE
     259CLASS="OPTION"
     260><A
     261NAME="OPT.INTERFACE"
     262></A
     263>-I <TT
     264CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     265><I
     266>interface</I
     267></TT
     268></CODE
     269></DT
     270><DD
     271><P
     272>Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets.
     273  </P
     274></DD
     275><DT
     276><CODE
     277CLASS="OPTION"
     278>-h</CODE
     279></DT
     280><DD
     281><P
     282>Print help page and exit.
     283  </P
     284></DD
     285><DT
     286><CODE
     287CLASS="OPTION"
     288>-q</CODE
     289></DT
     290><DD
     291><P
     292>Quiet output. Nothing is displayed.
     293  </P
     294></DD
     295><DT
     296><CODE
     297CLASS="OPTION"
     298><A
     299NAME="OPT.SOURCE"
     300></A
     301>-s <TT
     302CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     303><I
     304>source</I
     305></TT
     306></CODE
     307></DT
     308><DD
     309><P
     310>IP source address to use in ARP packets.
     311If this option is absent, source address is:
     312   <P
     313></P
     314><UL
     315><LI
     316><P
     317>In DAD mode (with option <CODE
     318CLASS="OPTION"
     319>-D</CODE
     320>) set to 0.0.0.0.
     321    </P
     322></LI
     323><LI
     324><P
     325>In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options <CODE
     326CLASS="OPTION"
     327>-U</CODE
     328> or <CODE
     329CLASS="OPTION"
     330>-A</CODE
     331>)
     332set to <TT
     333CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     334><I
     335>destination</I
     336></TT
     337>.
     338    </P
     339></LI
     340><LI
     341><P
     342>Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables.
     343    </P
     344></LI
     345></UL
     346>
     347  </P
     348></DD
     349><DT
     350><CODE
     351CLASS="OPTION"
     352>-U</CODE
     353></DT
     354><DD
     355><P
     356>Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches.
     357No replies are expected.
     358  </P
     359></DD
     360><DT
     361><CODE
     362CLASS="OPTION"
     363>-V</CODE
     364></DT
     365><DD
     366><P
     367>Print version of the program and exit.
     368  </P
     369></DD
     370><DT
     371><CODE
     372CLASS="OPTION"
     373><A
     374NAME="ARPING.DEADLINE"
     375></A
     376>-w <TT
     377CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     378><I
     379>deadline</I
     380></TT
     381></CODE
     382></DT
     383><DD
     384><P
     385>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before
     386<B
     387CLASS="COMMAND"
     388>arping</B
     389>
     390exits regardless of how many
     391packets have been sent or received. In this case
     392<B
     393CLASS="COMMAND"
     394>arping</B
     395>
     396does not stop after
     397<A
     398HREF="r466.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     399><TT
     400CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     401><I
     402>count</I
     403></TT
     404></A
     405>
     406packet are sent, it waits either for
     407<A
     408HREF="r466.html#ARPING.DEADLINE"
     409><TT
     410CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     411><I
     412>deadline</I
     413></TT
     414></A
     415>
     416expire or until
     417<A
     418HREF="r466.html#ARPING.COUNT"
     419><TT
     420CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     421><I
     422>count</I
     423></TT
     424></A
     425>
     426probes are answered.
     427  </P
     428></DD
     429></DL
     430></DIV
     431></DIV
     432><DIV
     433CLASS="REFSECT1"
     434><A
     435NAME="AEN593"
     436></A
     437><H2
     438>SEE ALSO</H2
     439><P
     440><A
     441HREF="r3.html"
     442><SPAN
     443CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     444><SPAN
     445CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     446>ping</SPAN
     447>(8)</SPAN
     448></A
     449>,
     450<A
     451HREF="r625.html"
     452><SPAN
     453CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     454><SPAN
     455CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     456>clockdiff</SPAN
     457>(8)</SPAN
     458></A
     459>,
     460<A
     461HREF="r819.html"
     462><SPAN
     463CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     464><SPAN
     465CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     466>tracepath</SPAN
     467>(8)</SPAN
     468></A
     469>.</P
     470></DIV
     471><DIV
     472CLASS="REFSECT1"
     473><A
     474NAME="AEN608"
     475></A
     476><H2
     477>AUTHOR</H2
     478><P
     479><B
     480CLASS="COMMAND"
     481>arping</B
     482> was written by
     483<A
     484HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     485TARGET="_top"
     486>Alexey Kuznetsov
     487&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     488>.
     489It is now maintained by
     490<A
     491HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     492TARGET="_top"
     493>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     494&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     495>.</P
     496></DIV
     497><DIV
     498CLASS="REFSECT1"
     499><A
     500NAME="AEN614"
     501></A
     502><H2
     503>SECURITY</H2
     504><P
     505><B
     506CLASS="COMMAND"
     507>arping</B
     508> requires <CODE
     509CLASS="CONSTANT"
     510>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     511> capability
     512to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root,
     513because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.</P
     514></DIV
     515><DIV
     516CLASS="REFSECT1"
     517><A
     518NAME="AEN619"
     519></A
     520><H2
     521>AVAILABILITY</H2
     522><P
     523><B
     524CLASS="COMMAND"
     525>arping</B
     526> is part of <TT
     527CLASS="FILENAME"
     528>iputils</TT
     529> package
     530and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     531<A
     532HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     533TARGET="_top"
     534>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     535>.</P
     536></DIV
     537><DIV
     538CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     539><HR
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     542SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     574></TD
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     582><TD
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     584ALIGN="center"
     585VALIGN="top"
     586>&nbsp;</TD
     587><TD
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     598 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r625.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r625.html
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="CLOCKDIFF"
     71></A
     72>clockdiff</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN630"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>clockdiff&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN633"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>clockdiff</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-o</CODE
     95>] [<CODE
     96CLASS="OPTION"
     97>-o1</CODE
     98>] {<TT
     99CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     100><I
     101>destination</I
     102></TT
     103>}</P
     104></DIV
     105><DIV
     106CLASS="REFSECT1"
     107><A
     108NAME="AEN642"
     109></A
     110><H2
     111>DESCRIPTION</H2
     112><P
     113><B
     114CLASS="COMMAND"
     115>clockdiff</B
     116> Measures clock difference between us and
     117<TT
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     119><I
     120>destination</I
     121></TT
     122> with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP
     123<A
     124HREF="r625.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     125>[2]</A
     126>
     127packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option
     128<A
     129HREF="r625.html#CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     130>[3]</A
     131>
     132option added to ICMP ECHO.
     133<A
     134HREF="r625.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     135>[1]</A
     136></P
     137></DIV
     138><DIV
     139CLASS="REFSECT1"
     140><A
     141NAME="AEN650"
     142></A
     143><H2
     144>OPTIONS</H2
     145><P
     146></P
     147><DIV
     148CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     149><DL
     150><DT
     151><CODE
     152CLASS="OPTION"
     153>-o</CODE
     154></DT
     155><DD
     156><P
     157>Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP
     158messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support
     159ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris &lt;2.4).
     160  </P
     161></DD
     162><DT
     163><CODE
     164CLASS="OPTION"
     165>-o1</CODE
     166></DT
     167><DD
     168><P
     169>Slightly different form of <CODE
     170CLASS="OPTION"
     171>-o</CODE
     172>, namely it uses three-term
     173IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one.
     174What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly,
     175<CODE
     176CLASS="OPTION"
     177>-o</CODE
     178> is better for Linux.
     179  </P
     180></DD
     181></DL
     182></DIV
     183></DIV
     184><DIV
     185CLASS="REFSECT1"
     186><A
     187NAME="AEN665"
     188></A
     189><H2
     190>WARNINGS</H2
     191><P
     192></P
     193><UL
     194><LI
     195><P
     196>Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed
     197by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless.
     198 </P
     199></LI
     200><LI
     201><P
     202>Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris&gt;2.4), when
     203run <B
     204CLASS="COMMAND"
     205>xntpd</B
     206>. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source,
     207which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps
     208randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can
     209use NTP in this case, which is even better.
     210 </P
     211></LI
     212><LI
     213><P
     214><B
     215CLASS="COMMAND"
     216>clockdiff</B
     217> shows difference in time modulo 24 days.
     218 </P
     219></LI
     220></UL
     221></DIV
     222><DIV
     223CLASS="REFSECT1"
     224><A
     225NAME="AEN676"
     226></A
     227><H2
     228>SEE ALSO</H2
     229><P
     230><A
     231HREF="r3.html"
     232><SPAN
     233CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     234><SPAN
     235CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     236>ping</SPAN
     237>(8)</SPAN
     238></A
     239>,
     240<A
     241HREF="r466.html"
     242><SPAN
     243CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     244><SPAN
     245CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     246>arping</SPAN
     247>(8)</SPAN
     248></A
     249>,
     250<A
     251HREF="r819.html"
     252><SPAN
     253CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     254><SPAN
     255CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     256>tracepath</SPAN
     257>(8)</SPAN
     258></A
     259>.</P
     260></DIV
     261><DIV
     262CLASS="REFSECT1"
     263><A
     264NAME="AEN691"
     265></A
     266><H2
     267>REFERENCES</H2
     268><P
     269>[1] <A
     270NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO"
     271></A
     272>ICMP ECHO,
     273<A
     274HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt"
     275TARGET="_top"
     276>RFC0792, page 14</A
     277>.</P
     278><P
     279>[2] <A
     280NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP"
     281></A
     282>ICMP TIMESTAMP,
     283<A
     284HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt"
     285TARGET="_top"
     286>RFC0792, page 16</A
     287>.</P
     288><P
     289>[3] <A
     290NAME="CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP"
     291></A
     292>IP TIMESTAMP option,
     293<A
     294HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt"
     295TARGET="_top"
     296>RFC0791, 3.1, page 16</A
     297>.</P
     298></DIV
     299><DIV
     300CLASS="REFSECT1"
     301><A
     302NAME="AEN702"
     303></A
     304><H2
     305>AUTHOR</H2
     306><P
     307><B
     308CLASS="COMMAND"
     309>clockdiff</B
     310> was compiled by
     311<A
     312HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     313TARGET="_top"
     314>Alexey Kuznetsov
     315&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     316>. It was based on code borrowed
     317from BSD <B
     318CLASS="COMMAND"
     319>timed</B
     320> daemon.
     321It is now maintained by
     322<A
     323HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     324TARGET="_top"
     325>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     326&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     327>.</P
     328></DIV
     329><DIV
     330CLASS="REFSECT1"
     331><A
     332NAME="AEN709"
     333></A
     334><H2
     335>SECURITY</H2
     336><P
     337><B
     338CLASS="COMMAND"
     339>clockdiff</B
     340> requires <CODE
     341CLASS="CONSTANT"
     342>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     343> capability
     344to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     345></DIV
     346><DIV
     347CLASS="REFSECT1"
     348><A
     349NAME="AEN714"
     350></A
     351><H2
     352>AVAILABILITY</H2
     353><P
     354><B
     355CLASS="COMMAND"
     356>clockdiff</B
     357> is part of <TT
     358CLASS="FILENAME"
     359>iputils</TT
     360> package
     361and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     362<A
     363HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     364TARGET="_top"
     365>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     366>.</P
     367></DIV
     368><DIV
     369CLASS="NAVFOOTER"
     370><HR
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     373SUMMARY="Footer navigation table"
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     429 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/r720.html iputils-s20121221/doc/r720.html
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
     38></TR
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     40><TD
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     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="RARPD"
     71></A
     72>rarpd</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN725"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>rarpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN728"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>arping</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-aAvde</CODE
     95>] [-b <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>bootdir</I
     99></TT
     100>] [<TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>interface</I
     104></TT
     105>]</P
     106></DIV
     107><DIV
     108CLASS="REFSECT1"
     109><A
     110NAME="AEN737"
     111></A
     112><H2
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2
     114><P
     115>Listens
     116<A
     117HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc903.txt"
     118TARGET="_top"
     119>RARP</A
     120>
     121requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     122is found in <TT
     123CLASS="FILENAME"
     124>/etc/ethers</TT
     125> database and
     126obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     127for attached network, <B
     128CLASS="COMMAND"
     129>rarpd</B
     130> answers to client with RARPD
     131reply carrying an IP address.</P
     132><P
     133>To allow multiple boot servers on the network <B
     134CLASS="COMMAND"
     135>rarpd</B
     136>
     137optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     138It should have form <KBD
     139CLASS="USERINPUT"
     140>Hexadecimal_IP.ARCH</KBD
     141>, f.e. to load
     142sparc 193.233.7.98 <TT
     143CLASS="FILENAME"
     144>C1E90762.SUN4M</TT
     145> is linked to
     146an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory <TT
     147CLASS="FILENAME"
     148>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     149>.</P
     150></DIV
     151><DIV
     152CLASS="REFSECT1"
     153><A
     154NAME="AEN748"
     155></A
     156><H2
     157>WARNING</H2
     158><P
     159>This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     160<A
     161HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc951.txt"
     162TARGET="_top"
     163>BOOTP</A
     164>
     165and later
     166<A
     167HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt"
     168TARGET="_top"
     169>DHCP</A
     170> protocols.
     171However, some clients really still need this to boot.</P
     172></DIV
     173><DIV
     174CLASS="REFSECT1"
     175><A
     176NAME="AEN753"
     177></A
     178><H2
     179>OPTIONS</H2
     180><P
     181></P
     182><DIV
     183CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     184><DL
     185><DT
     186><CODE
     187CLASS="OPTION"
     188>-a</CODE
     189></DT
     190><DD
     191><P
     192>Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     193option, its function is overridden with <TT
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     195><I
     196>interface</I
     197></TT
     198>
     199argument. It should not be used.
     200  </P
     201></DD
     202><DT
     203><CODE
     204CLASS="OPTION"
     205>-A</CODE
     206></DT
     207><DD
     208><P
     209>Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     210use ARP by some unknown reason.
     211  </P
     212></DD
     213><DT
     214><CODE
     215CLASS="OPTION"
     216>-v</CODE
     217></DT
     218><DD
     219><P
     220>Be verbose.
     221  </P
     222></DD
     223><DT
     224><CODE
     225CLASS="OPTION"
     226>-d</CODE
     227></DT
     228><DD
     229><P
     230>Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     231  </P
     232></DD
     233><DT
     234><CODE
     235CLASS="OPTION"
     236>-e</CODE
     237></DT
     238><DD
     239><P
     240>Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     241resolves to a valid IP address using <TT
     242CLASS="FILENAME"
     243>/etc/ethers</TT
     244>
     245database and DNS.
     246  </P
     247></DD
     248><DT
     249><CODE
     250CLASS="OPTION"
     251>-b <TT
     252CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     253><I
     254>bootdir</I
     255></TT
     256></CODE
     257></DT
     258><DD
     259><P
     260>TFTP boot directory. Default is <TT
     261CLASS="FILENAME"
     262>/etc/tftpboot</TT
     263>
     264  </P
     265></DD
     266></DL
     267></DIV
     268></DIV
     269><DIV
     270CLASS="REFSECT1"
     271><A
     272NAME="AEN790"
     273></A
     274><H2
     275>SEE ALSO</H2
     276><P
     277><A
     278HREF="r466.html"
     279><SPAN
     280CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     281><SPAN
     282CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     283>arping</SPAN
     284>(8)</SPAN
     285></A
     286>,
     287<A
     288HREF="r983.html"
     289><SPAN
     290CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     291><SPAN
     292CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     293>tftpd</SPAN
     294>(8)</SPAN
     295></A
     296>.</P
     297></DIV
     298><DIV
     299CLASS="REFSECT1"
     300><A
     301NAME="AEN801"
     302></A
     303><H2
     304>AUTHOR</H2
     305><P
     306><B
     307CLASS="COMMAND"
     308>rarpd</B
     309> was written by
     310<A
     311HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     312TARGET="_top"
     313>Alexey Kuznetsov
     314&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     315>.
     316It is now maintained by
     317<A
     318HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net"
     319TARGET="_top"
     320>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     321&lt;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&gt;</A
     322>.</P
     323></DIV
     324><DIV
     325CLASS="REFSECT1"
     326><A
     327NAME="AEN807"
     328></A
     329><H2
     330>SECURITY</H2
     331><P
     332><B
     333CLASS="COMMAND"
     334>rarpd</B
     335> requires <CODE
     336CLASS="CONSTANT"
     337>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     338> capability
     339to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs <CODE
     340CLASS="CONSTANT"
     341>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE
     342>
     343to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     344but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     345are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     346not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     347are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.</P
     348></DIV
     349><DIV
     350CLASS="REFSECT1"
     351><A
     352NAME="AEN813"
     353></A
     354><H2
     355>AVAILABILITY</H2
     356><P
     357><B
     358CLASS="COMMAND"
     359>rarpd</B
     360> is part of <TT
     361CLASS="FILENAME"
     362>iputils</TT
     363> package
     364and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     365<A
     366HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     367TARGET="_top"
     368>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     369>.</P
     370></DIV
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  • iputils-s20121221

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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH
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     39><TR
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     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TRACEPATH"
     71></A
     72>tracepath</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN824"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tracepath, tracepath6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN827"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tracepath</B
     92>  [-n] [-b] [-l <TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>pktlen</I
     96></TT
     97>] [-p <TT
     98CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     99><I
     100>port</I
     101></TT
     102>] {<TT
     103CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     104><I
     105>destination</I
     106></TT
     107>}</P
     108></DIV
     109><DIV
     110CLASS="REFSECT1"
     111><A
     112NAME="AEN838"
     113></A
     114><H2
     115>DESCRIPTION</H2
     116><P
     117>It traces path to <TT
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     119><I
     120>destination</I
     121></TT
     122> discovering MTU along this path.
     123It uses UDP port <TT
     124CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     125><I
     126>port</I
     127></TT
     128> or some random port.
     129It is similar to <B
     130CLASS="COMMAND"
     131>traceroute</B
     132>, only does not require superuser
     133privileges and has no fancy options.</P
     134><P
     135><B
     136CLASS="COMMAND"
     137>tracepath6</B
     138> is good replacement for <B
     139CLASS="COMMAND"
     140>traceroute6</B
     141>
     142and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     143The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     144IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages.
     145Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     146For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     147of UDP ports to maintain trace history.</P
     148></DIV
     149><DIV
     150CLASS="REFSECT1"
     151><A
     152NAME="AEN847"
     153></A
     154><H2
     155>OPTIONS</H2
     156><P
     157></P
     158><DIV
     159CLASS="VARIABLELIST"
     160><DL
     161><DT
     162><CODE
     163CLASS="OPTION"
     164>-n</CODE
     165></DT
     166><DD
     167><P
     168>Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     169  </P
     170></DD
     171><DT
     172><CODE
     173CLASS="OPTION"
     174>-b</CODE
     175></DT
     176><DD
     177><P
     178>Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     179  </P
     180></DD
     181><DT
     182><CODE
     183CLASS="OPTION"
     184>-l</CODE
     185></DT
     186><DD
     187><P
     188>Sets the initial packet length to <TT
     189CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     190><I
     191>pktlen</I
     192></TT
     193> instead of
     19465535 for <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>tracepath</B
     197> or 128000 for <B
     198CLASS="COMMAND"
     199>tracepath6</B
     200>.
     201  </P
     202></DD
     203><DT
     204><CODE
     205CLASS="OPTION"
     206>-p</CODE
     207></DT
     208><DD
     209><P
     210>Sets the initial destination port to use.
     211  </P
     212></DD
     213></DL
     214></DIV
     215></DIV
     216><DIV
     217CLASS="REFSECT1"
     218><A
     219NAME="AEN873"
     220></A
     221><H2
     222>OUTPUT</H2
     223><P
     224><P
     225CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT"
     226>root@mops:~&nbsp;#&nbsp;tracepath6&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2<br>
     227&nbsp;1?:&nbsp;[LOCALHOST]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1500<br>
     228&nbsp;1:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.411ms<br>
     229&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;asymm&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.390ms&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480<br>
     230&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;463.514ms&nbsp;reached<br>
     231&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Resume:&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480&nbsp;hops&nbsp;2&nbsp;back&nbsp;2</P
     232></P
     233><P
     234>The first column shows <TT
     235CLASS="LITERAL"
     236>TTL</TT
     237> of the probe, followed by colon.
     238Usually value of <TT
     239CLASS="LITERAL"
     240>TTL</TT
     241> is obtained from reply from network,
     242but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     243we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.</P
     244><P
     245>The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     246It is either address of router or word <TT
     247CLASS="LITERAL"
     248>[LOCALHOST]</TT
     249>, if
     250the probe was not sent to the network.</P
     251><P
     252>The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     253the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     254Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     255If the path is asymmetric
     256or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     257between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     258following keyword <TT
     259CLASS="LITERAL"
     260>async</TT
     261>. This information is not reliable.
     262F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     263with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.</P
     264><P
     265>The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     266it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     267guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     268different when the path is asymmetric.</P
     269></DIV
     270><DIV
     271CLASS="REFSECT1"
     272><A
     273NAME="AEN885"
     274></A
     275><H2
     276>SEE ALSO</H2
     277><P
     278><SPAN
     279CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     280><SPAN
     281CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     282>traceroute</SPAN
     283>(8)</SPAN
     284>,
     285<A
     286HREF="r918.html"
     287><SPAN
     288CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     289><SPAN
     290CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     291>traceroute6</SPAN
     292>(8)</SPAN
     293></A
     294>,
     295<A
     296HREF="r3.html"
     297><SPAN
     298CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     299><SPAN
     300CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     301>ping</SPAN
     302>(8)</SPAN
     303></A
     304>.</P
     305></DIV
     306><DIV
     307CLASS="REFSECT1"
     308><A
     309NAME="AEN899"
     310></A
     311><H2
     312>AUTHOR</H2
     313><P
     314><B
     315CLASS="COMMAND"
     316>tracepath</B
     317> was written by
     318<A
     319HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     320TARGET="_top"
     321>Alexey Kuznetsov
     322&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     323>.</P
     324></DIV
     325><DIV
     326CLASS="REFSECT1"
     327><A
     328NAME="AEN904"
     329></A
     330><H2
     331>SECURITY</H2
     332><P
     333>No security issues.</P
     334><P
     335>This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     336<B
     337CLASS="COMMAND"
     338>tracepath</B
     339> is not a privileged program, unlike
     340<B
     341CLASS="COMMAND"
     342>traceroute</B
     343>, <B
     344CLASS="COMMAND"
     345>ping</B
     346> and other beasts of this kind.
     347<B
     348CLASS="COMMAND"
     349>tracepath</B
     350> may be executed by everyone who has some access
     351to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     352using given port.</P
     353></DIV
     354><DIV
     355CLASS="REFSECT1"
     356><A
     357NAME="AEN912"
     358></A
     359><H2
     360>AVAILABILITY</H2
     361><P
     362><B
     363CLASS="COMMAND"
     364>tracepath</B
     365> is part of <TT
     366CLASS="FILENAME"
     367>iputils</TT
     368> package
     369and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     370<A
     371HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     372TARGET="_top"
     373>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     374>.</P
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     425>&nbsp;</TD
     426><TD
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  • iputils-s20121221

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     68><H1
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     70NAME="TRACEROUTE6"
     71></A
     72>traceroute6</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN923"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>traceroute6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN926"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>traceroute6</B
     92>  [<CODE
     93CLASS="OPTION"
     94>-dnrvV</CODE
     95>] [-i <TT
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     97><I
     98>interface</I
     99></TT
     100>] [-m <TT
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     102><I
     103>max_ttl</I
     104></TT
     105>] [-p <TT
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     107><I
     108>port</I
     109></TT
     110>] [-q <TT
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     112><I
     113>max_probes</I
     114></TT
     115>] [-s <TT
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     117><I
     118>source</I
     119></TT
     120>] [-w <TT
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     122><I
     123>wait time</I
     124></TT
     125>] {<TT
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     127><I
     128>destination</I
     129></TT
     130>} [<TT
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     132><I
     133>size</I
     134></TT
     135>]</P
     136></DIV
     137><DIV
     138CLASS="REFSECT1"
     139><A
     140NAME="AEN947"
     141></A
     142><H2
     143>DESCRIPTION</H2
     144><P
     145>Description can be found in
     146<SPAN
     147CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     148><SPAN
     149CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     150>traceroute</SPAN
     151>(8)</SPAN
     152>,
     153all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     154the description from there.</P
     155></DIV
     156><DIV
     157CLASS="REFSECT1"
     158><A
     159NAME="AEN953"
     160></A
     161><H2
     162>SEE ALSO</H2
     163><P
     164><SPAN
     165CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     166><SPAN
     167CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     168>traceroute</SPAN
     169>(8)</SPAN
     170>,
     171<SPAN
     172CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     173><SPAN
     174CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     175>tracepath</SPAN
     176>(8)</SPAN
     177>,
     178<SPAN
     179CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     180><SPAN
     181CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     182>ping</SPAN
     183>(8)</SPAN
     184>.</P
     185></DIV
     186><DIV
     187CLASS="REFSECT1"
     188><A
     189NAME="AEN965"
     190></A
     191><H2
     192>HISTORY</H2
     193><P
     194>This program has long history. Author of <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>traceroute</B
     197>
     198is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     199based on a port of <B
     200CLASS="COMMAND"
     201>traceroute</B
     202> to IPv6 published
     203in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     204to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     205<A
     206HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru"
     207TARGET="_top"
     208>Alexey Kuznetsov
     209&lt;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&gt;</A
     210>. And eventually entered
     211<B
     212CLASS="COMMAND"
     213>iputils</B
     214> package.</P
     215></DIV
     216><DIV
     217CLASS="REFSECT1"
     218><A
     219NAME="AEN972"
     220></A
     221><H2
     222>SECURITY</H2
     223><P
     224><B
     225CLASS="COMMAND"
     226>tracepath6</B
     227> requires <CODE
     228CLASS="CONSTANT"
     229>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE
     230> capability
     231to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P
     232></DIV
     233><DIV
     234CLASS="REFSECT1"
     235><A
     236NAME="AEN977"
     237></A
     238><H2
     239>AVAILABILITY</H2
     240><P
     241><B
     242CLASS="COMMAND"
     243>traceroute6</B
     244> is part of <TT
     245CLASS="FILENAME"
     246>iputils</TT
     247> package
     248and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     249<A
     250HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     251TARGET="_top"
     252>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     253>.</P
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     48></TD
     49><TD
     50WIDTH="80%"
     51ALIGN="center"
     52VALIGN="bottom"
     53></TD
     54><TD
     55WIDTH="10%"
     56ALIGN="right"
     57VALIGN="bottom"
     58><A
     59HREF="r1056.html"
     60ACCESSKEY="N"
     61>Next</A
     62></TD
     63></TR
     64></TABLE
     65><HR
     66ALIGN="LEFT"
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV
     68><H1
     69><A
     70NAME="TFTPD"
     71></A
     72>tftpd</H1
     73><DIV
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV"
     75><A
     76NAME="AEN988"
     77></A
     78><H2
     79>Name</H2
     80>tftpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DIV
     81><DIV
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV"
     83><A
     84NAME="AEN991"
     85></A
     86><H2
     87>Synopsis</H2
     88><P
     89><B
     90CLASS="COMMAND"
     91>tftpd</B
     92>  {<TT
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     94><I
     95>directory</I
     96></TT
     97>}</P
     98></DIV
     99><DIV
     100CLASS="REFSECT1"
     101><A
     102NAME="AEN996"
     103></A
     104><H2
     105>DESCRIPTION</H2
     106><P
     107><B
     108CLASS="COMMAND"
     109>tftpd</B
     110> is a server which supports the DARPA
     111Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     112(<A
     113HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1350.txt"
     114TARGET="_top"
     115>RFC1350</A
     116>).
     117The TFTP server is started
     118by <SPAN
     119CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     120><SPAN
     121CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     122>inetd</SPAN
     123>(8)</SPAN
     124>.</P
     125><P
     126><TT
     127CLASS="REPLACEABLE"
     128><I
     129>directory</I
     130></TT
     131> is required argument; if it is not given
     132<B
     133CLASS="COMMAND"
     134>tftpd</B
     135> aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     136via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting <B
     137CLASS="COMMAND"
     138>tftpd</B
     139> to this directory.
     140File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     141administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.</P
     142><P
     143>It is in difference of variants of <B
     144CLASS="COMMAND"
     145>tftpd</B
     146> usually distributed
     147with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     148file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     149default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     150behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     151to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     152And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     153it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients. </P
     154><P
     155>In the case when <B
     156CLASS="COMMAND"
     157>tftpd</B
     158> is used together with
     159<A
     160HREF="r720.html"
     161><SPAN
     162CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     163><SPAN
     164CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     165>rarpd</SPAN
     166>(8)</SPAN
     167></A
     168>,
     169tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     170that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     171its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     172conventions. See
     173<A
     174HREF="r720.html"
     175><SPAN
     176CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     177><SPAN
     178CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     179>rarpd</SPAN
     180>(8)</SPAN
     181></A
     182>
     183for more details.</P
     184></DIV
     185><DIV
     186CLASS="REFSECT1"
     187><A
     188NAME="AEN1020"
     189></A
     190><H2
     191>SECURITY</H2
     192><P
     193>TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     194Due to this capital flaw <B
     195CLASS="COMMAND"
     196>tftpd</B
     197> is not able to restrict
     198access to files and will allow only publically readable
     199files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     200exist and are publically writable.</P
     201><P
     202>Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP <SPAN
     203CLASS="emphasis"
     204><I
     205CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     206>must not</I
     207></SPAN
     208>
     209contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     210to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     211such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     212publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     213<SPAN
     214CLASS="emphasis"
     215><I
     216CLASS="EMPHASIS"
     217>unencrypted</I
     218></SPAN
     219> passwords and may contain some information
     220about the network, which you were not going to make public.</P
     221><P
     222>The <B
     223CLASS="COMMAND"
     224>tftpd</B
     225> server should be executed by <B
     226CLASS="COMMAND"
     227>inetd</B
     228>
     229with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     230access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     231as superuser occasionally, <B
     232CLASS="COMMAND"
     233>tftpd</B
     234> drops its UID and GID
     235to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     236However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     237for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.</P
     238></DIV
     239><DIV
     240CLASS="REFSECT1"
     241><A
     242NAME="AEN1031"
     243></A
     244><H2
     245>SEE ALSO</H2
     246><P
     247><A
     248HREF="r720.html"
     249><SPAN
     250CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     251><SPAN
     252CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     253>rarpd</SPAN
     254>(8)</SPAN
     255></A
     256>,
     257<SPAN
     258CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     259><SPAN
     260CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     261>tftp</SPAN
     262>(1)</SPAN
     263>,
     264<SPAN
     265CLASS="CITEREFENTRY"
     266><SPAN
     267CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE"
     268>inetd</SPAN
     269>(8)</SPAN
     270>.</P
     271></DIV
     272><DIV
     273CLASS="REFSECT1"
     274><A
     275NAME="AEN1044"
     276></A
     277><H2
     278>HISTORY</H2
     279><P
     280>The <B
     281CLASS="COMMAND"
     282>tftpd</B
     283> command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     284is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).</P
     285><P
     286>It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     287(<CODE
     288CLASS="CONSTANT"
     289>MSG_CONFIRM</CODE
     290>) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     291not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     292However, this is full functional and can be used in production.</P
     293></DIV
     294><DIV
     295CLASS="REFSECT1"
     296><A
     297NAME="AEN1050"
     298></A
     299><H2
     300>AVAILABILITY</H2
     301><P
     302><B
     303CLASS="COMMAND"
     304>tftpd</B
     305> is part of <TT
     306CLASS="FILENAME"
     307>iputils</TT
     308> package
     309and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     310<A
     311HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2"
     312TARGET="_top"
     313>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A
     314>.</P
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     342ACCESSKEY="H"
     343>Home</A
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     346WIDTH="33%"
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     355><TR
     356><TD
     357WIDTH="33%"
     358ALIGN="left"
     359VALIGN="top"
     360>traceroute6</TD
     361><TD
     362WIDTH="34%"
     363ALIGN="center"
     364VALIGN="top"
     365>&nbsp;</TD
     366><TD
     367WIDTH="33%"
     368ALIGN="right"
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     377 No newline at end of file
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/rarpd.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/rarpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RARPD" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rarpd \- answer RARP REQUESTs
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-aAvde\fR] [\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR] [\fB\fIinterface\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Listens
     16RARP
     17requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client
     18is found in \fI/etc/ethers\fR database and
     19obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate
     20for attached network, \fBrarpd\fR answers to client with RARPD
     21reply carrying an IP address.
     22.PP
     23To allow multiple boot servers on the network \fBrarpd\fR
     24optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory.
     25It should have form \fBHexadecimal_IP.ARCH\fR, f.e. to load
     26sparc 193.233.7.98 \fIC1E90762.SUN4M\fR is linked to
     27an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR.
     28.SH "WARNING"
     29.PP
     30This facility is deeply obsoleted by
     31BOOTP
     32and later
     33DHCP protocols.
     34However, some clients really still need this to boot.
     35.SH "OPTIONS"
     36.TP
     37\fB-a\fR
     38Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal
     39option, its function is overridden with \fIinterface\fR
     40argument. It should not be used.
     41.TP
     42\fB-A\fR
     43Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients
     44use ARP by some unknown reason.
     45.TP
     46\fB-v\fR
     47Be verbose.
     48.TP
     49\fB-d\fR
     50Debug mode. Do not go to background.
     51.TP
     52\fB-e\fR
     53Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address
     54resolves to a valid IP address using \fI/etc/ethers\fR
     55database and DNS.
     56.TP
     57\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR
     58TFTP boot directory. Default is \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR
     59.SH "SEE ALSO"
     60.PP
     61\fBarping\fR(8),
     62\fBtftpd\fR(8).
     63.SH "AUTHOR"
     64.PP
     65\fBrarpd\fR was written by
     66Alexey Kuznetsov
     67<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     68It is now maintained by
     69YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     70<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     71.SH "SECURITY"
     72.PP
     73\fBrarpd\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     74to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs CAP_NET_ADMIN
     75to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required,
     76but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that
     77are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is
     78not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002
     79are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.
     80.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     81.PP
     82\fBrarpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     83and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     84http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/rdisc.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/rdisc.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "RDISC" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8rdisc \- network router discovery daemon
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBrdisc\fR [\fB-abdfrstvV\fR] [\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR] [\fB\fIsend_address\fB\fR] [\fB\fIreceive_address\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBrdisc\fR implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol.
     16\fBrdisc\fR is invoked at boot time to populate the network
     17routing tables with default routes.
     18.PP
     19\fBrdisc\fR listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address
     20(or \fIreceive_address\fR provided it is given)
     21for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received
     22messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses
     23with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses
     24the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers
     25and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table
     26for each one of them.
     27.PP
     28Optionally, \fBrdisc\fR can avoid waiting for routers to announce
     29themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages
     30to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address
     31(or \fIsend_address\fR provided it is given)
     32when it is started.
     33.PP
     34A timer is associated with each router address and the address will
     35no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the
     36timer expires before a new
     37\fBadvertise\fR message is received from the router.
     38The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an
     39\fBadvertise\fR
     40message with the preference being maximally negative.
     41.PP
     42Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS
     43and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e \fBgated\fR.
     44Or, \fBrdisc\fR can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     45.SH "OPTIONS"
     46.TP
     47\fB-a\fR
     48Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their
     49\fBadvertise\fR messages.
     50Normally \fBrdisc\fR only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing
     51tables) the router or routers with the highest preference.
     52.TP
     53\fB-b\fR
     54Opposite to \fB-a\fR, i.e. install only router with the best
     55preference value. It is default behaviour.
     56.TP
     57\fB-d\fR
     58Send debugging messages to syslog.
     59.TP
     60\fB-f\fR
     61Run \fBrdisc\fR forever even if no routers are found.
     62Normally \fBrdisc\fR gives up if it has not received any
     63\fBadvertise\fR message after after soliciting three times,
     64in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code.
     65If \fB-f\fR is not specified in the first form then
     66\fB-s\fR must be specified.
     67.TP
     68\fB-r\fR
     69Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.
     70.TP
     71\fB-s\fR
     72Send three \fBsolicitation\fR messages initially to quickly discover
     73the routers when the system is booted.
     74When \fB-s\fR is specified \fBrdisc\fR
     75exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers.
     76This can be overridden with the \fB-f\fR option.
     77.TP
     78\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR
     79Set preference in advertisement.
     80Available only with -r option.
     81.TP
     82\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR
     83Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs.
     84Available only with -r option.
     85.TP
     86\fB-t\fR
     87Test mode. Do not go to background.
     88.TP
     89\fB-v\fR
     90Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog.
     91.TP
     92\fB-V\fR
     93Print version and exit.
     94.SH "HISTORY"
     95.PP
     96This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright
     97notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by
     98Alexey Kuznetsov
     99<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     100It is now maintained by
     101YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
     102<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>.
     103.SH "SEE ALSO"
     104.PP
     105\fBicmp\fR(7),
     106\fBinet\fR(7),
     107\fBping\fR(8).
     108.SH "REFERENCES"
     109.PP
     110Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages",
     111RFC1256, Network Information Center, SRI International,
     112Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.
     113.SH "SECURITY"
     114.PP
     115\fBrdisc\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW to listen
     116and send ICMP messages and capability CAP_NET_ADMIN
     117to update routing tables.
     118.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     119.PP
     120\fBrdisc\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     121and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     122http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/tftpd.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/tftpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TFTPD" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tftpd \- Trivial File Transfer Protocol server
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtftpd\fR \fB\fIdirectory\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15\fBtftpd\fR is a server which supports the DARPA
     16Trivial File Transfer Protocol
     17(RFC1350).
     18The TFTP server is started
     19by \fBinetd\fR(8).
     20.PP
     21\fIdirectory\fR is required argument; if it is not given
     22\fBtftpd\fR aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested
     23via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting \fBtftpd\fR to this directory.
     24File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however
     25administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.
     26.PP
     27It is in difference of variants of \fBtftpd\fR usually distributed
     28with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match
     29file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random
     30default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to
     31behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected
     32to know something about layout of filesystem on server host.
     33And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem,
     34it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients.
     35.PP
     36In the case when \fBtftpd\fR is used together with
     37\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     38tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected
     39that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding
     40its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems
     41conventions. See
     42\fBrarpd\fR(8)
     43for more details.
     44.SH "SECURITY"
     45.PP
     46TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication.
     47Due to this capital flaw \fBtftpd\fR is not able to restrict
     48access to files and will allow only publically readable
     49files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already
     50exist and are publically writable.
     51.PP
     52Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP \fBmust not\fR
     53contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed
     54to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain
     55such information as rule, however you should think twice before
     56publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain
     57\fBunencrypted\fR passwords and may contain some information
     58about the network, which you were not going to make public.
     59.PP
     60The \fBtftpd\fR server should be executed by \fBinetd\fR
     61with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal
     62access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed
     63as superuser occasionally, \fBtftpd\fR drops its UID and GID
     64to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect.
     65However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible
     66for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.
     67.SH "SEE ALSO"
     68.PP
     69\fBrarpd\fR(8),
     70\fBtftp\fR(1),
     71\fBinetd\fR(8).
     72.SH "HISTORY"
     73.PP
     74The \fBtftpd\fR command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils
     75is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).
     76.PP
     77It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature
     78(MSG_CONFIRM) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients
     79not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted.
     80However, this is full functional and can be used in production.
     81.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     82.PP
     83\fBtftpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     84and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     85http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/tracepath.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/tracepath.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEPATH" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8tracepath, tracepath6 \- traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtracepath\fR [\fB-n\fR] [\fB-b\fR] [\fB-l \fIpktlen\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15It traces path to \fIdestination\fR discovering MTU along this path.
     16It uses UDP port \fIport\fR or some random port.
     17It is similar to \fBtraceroute\fR, only does not require superuser
     18privileges and has no fancy options.
     19.PP
     20\fBtracepath6\fR is good replacement for \fBtraceroute6\fR
     21and classic example of application of Linux error queues.
     22The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial
     23IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages.
     24Probably, it will change, when they will be updated.
     25For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range
     26of UDP ports to maintain trace history.
     27.SH "OPTIONS"
     28.TP
     29\fB-n\fR
     30Print primarily IP addresses numerically.
     31.TP
     32\fB-b\fR
     33Print both of host names and IP addresses.
     34.TP
     35\fB-l\fR
     36Sets the initial packet length to \fIpktlen\fR instead of
     3765535 for \fBtracepath\fR or 128000 for \fBtracepath6\fR.
     38.TP
     39\fB-p\fR
     40Sets the initial destination port to use.
     41.SH "OUTPUT"
     42.PP
     43
     44.nf
     45root@mops:~ # tracepath6 3ffe:2400:0:109::2
     46 1?: [LOCALHOST]                              pmtu 1500
     47 1:  dust.inr.ac.ru                   0.411ms
     48 2:  dust.inr.ac.ru        asymm  1   0.390ms pmtu 1480
     49 2:  3ffe:2400:0:109::2               463.514ms reached
     50     Resume: pmtu 1480 hops 2 back 2
     51.fi
     52.PP
     53The first column shows TTL of the probe, followed by colon.
     54Usually value of TTL is obtained from reply from network,
     55but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and
     56we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.
     57.PP
     58The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe.
     59It is either address of router or word [LOCALHOST], if
     60the probe was not sent to the network.
     61.PP
     62The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to
     63the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT.
     64Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes.
     65If the path is asymmetric
     66or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference
     67between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown
     68following keyword async. This information is not reliable.
     69F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe
     70with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.
     71.PP
     72The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination,
     73it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our
     74guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be
     75different when the path is asymmetric.
     76.SH "SEE ALSO"
     77.PP
     78\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     79\fBtraceroute6\fR(8),
     80\fBping\fR(8).
     81.SH "AUTHOR"
     82.PP
     83\fBtracepath\fR was written by
     84Alexey Kuznetsov
     85<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>.
     86.SH "SECURITY"
     87.PP
     88No security issues.
     89.PP
     90This lapidary deserves to be elaborated.
     91\fBtracepath\fR is not a privileged program, unlike
     92\fBtraceroute\fR, \fBping\fR and other beasts of this kind.
     93\fBtracepath\fR may be executed by everyone who has some access
     94to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination
     95using given port.
     96.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     97.PP
     98\fBtracepath\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     99and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     100http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • doc/traceroute6.8

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/doc/traceroute6.8 iputils-s20121221/doc/traceroute6.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at:
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>.
     6.TH "TRACEROUTE6" "8" "04 January 2013" "iputils-121221" "System Manager's Manual: iputils"
     7.SH NAME
     8traceroute6 \- traces path to a network host
     9.SH SYNOPSIS
     10
     11\fBtraceroute6\fR [\fB-dnrvV\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_ttl\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] [\fB-q \fImax_probes\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIwait time\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR [\fB\fIsize\fB\fR]
     12
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION"
     14.PP
     15Description can be found in
     16\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     17all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy
     18the description from there.
     19.SH "SEE ALSO"
     20.PP
     21\fBtraceroute\fR(8),
     22\fBtracepath\fR(8),
     23\fBping\fR(8).
     24.SH "HISTORY"
     25.PP
     26This program has long history. Author of \fBtraceroute\fR
     27is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is
     28based on a port of \fBtraceroute\fR to IPv6 published
     29in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported
     30to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by   
     31Alexey Kuznetsov
     32<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. And eventually entered
     33\fBiputils\fR package.
     34.SH "SECURITY"
     35.PP
     36\fBtracepath6\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability
     37to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.
     38.SH "AVAILABILITY"
     39.PP
     40\fBtraceroute6\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package
     41and the latest versions are  available in source form at
     42http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2.
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/ping6.c iputils-s20121221/ping6.c
    old new  
    168168
    169169#ifdef USE_GNUTLS
    170170# include <gnutls/openssl.h>
    171 #else
     171# define USE_CRYPTO
     172#elif defined USE_OPENSSL
    172173# include <openssl/md5.h>
     174# define USE_CRYPTO
    173175#endif
    174176
    175177/* Node Information query */
     
    326328#if !PING6_NONCE_MEMORY
    327329static int niquery_nonce(__u8 *nonce, int fill)
    328330{
     331# ifdef USE_CRYPTO
    329332        static __u8 digest[MD5_DIGEST_LENGTH];
    330333        static int seq = -1;
    331334
     
    348351                        return -1;
    349352                return ntohsp((__u16 *)nonce);
    350353        }
     354# else
     355        fprintf(stderr, "ping6: function not available; crypto disabled\n");
     356        exit(3);
     357# endif
    351358}
    352359#endif
    353360
     
    502509
    503510static int niquery_option_subject_name_handler(int index, const char *arg)
    504511{
     512#ifdef USE_CRYPTO
    505513        static char nigroup_buf[INET6_ADDRSTRLEN + 1 + IFNAMSIZ];
    506514        unsigned char *dnptrs[2], **dpp, **lastdnptr;
    507515        int n;
     
    627635        free(idn);
    628636        free(name);
    629637        exit(1);
     638#else
     639        fprintf(stderr, "ping6: function not available; crypto disabled\n");
     640        exit(3);
     641#endif
    630642}
    631643
    632644int niquery_option_help_handler(int index, const char *arg)
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/tracepath.c iputils-s20121221/tracepath.c
    old new  
    7373
    7474void print_host(const char *a, const char *b, int both)
    7575{
    76         int plen = 0;
    77         printf("%s", a);
    78         plen = strlen(a);
    79         if (both) {
    80                 printf(" (%s)", b);
    81                 plen += strlen(b) + 3;
    82         }
     76        int plen;
     77        plen = printf("%s", a);
     78        if (both)
     79                plen += printf(" (%s)", b);
    8380        if (plen >= HOST_COLUMN_SIZE)
    8481                plen = HOST_COLUMN_SIZE - 1;
    8582        printf("%*s", HOST_COLUMN_SIZE - plen, "");
  • iputils-s20121221

    diff -Naur iputils-s20121221.orig/tracepath6.c iputils-s20121221/tracepath6.c
    old new  
    8686
    8787void print_host(const char *a, const char *b, int both)
    8888{
    89         int plen = 0;
    90         printf("%s", a);
    91         plen = strlen(a);
    92         if (both) {
    93                 printf(" (%s)", b);
    94                 plen += strlen(b) + 3;
    95         }
     89        int plen;
     90        plen = printf("%s", a);
     91        if (both)
     92                plen += printf(" (%s)", b);
    9693        if (plen >= HOST_COLUMN_SIZE)
    9794                plen = HOST_COLUMN_SIZE - 1;
    9895        printf("%*s", HOST_COLUMN_SIZE - plen, "");
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