source: clfs-sysroot/BOOK/final-system/common/coreutils.xml @ 9568bd5

Last change on this file since 9568bd5 was 9568bd5, checked in by Joe Ciccone <jciccone@…>, 15 years ago

Updated Glibc to 2.6 and GCC to 4.2.1.

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 37.5 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-coreutils" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="coreutils.html"?>
10
11  <title>Coreutils-&coreutils-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils">
14    <primary sortas="a-Coreutils">Coreutils</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <sect2 role="package">
18    <title/>
19
20    <para>The Coreutils package contains utilities for showing and setting the
21    basic system characteristics.</para>
22
23  </sect2>
24
25  <sect2 role="installation">
26    <title>Installation of Coreutils</title>
27
28    <para os="p1">Prevent Coreutils from installing binaries that will be
29    installed by other packages:</para>
30
31<screen os="p2"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-suppress-patch;</userinput></screen>
32
33    <para os="p3">A known issue with the <command>uname</command> program from
34    this package is that the <option>-p</option> switch always
35    returns <computeroutput>unknown</computeroutput>. The following patch
36    fixes this behavior for all architectures:</para>
37
38<screen os="p4"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&coreutils-uname-patch;</userinput></screen>
39
40    <para os="s1">The following command renames the internal implementation of
41    futimens to gl_futimens as newer versions of Glibc provide an incompatible
42    version:</para>
43
44<screen os="s2"><userinput>sed -i "s/futimens/gl_&amp;/" $(grep -lr futimens *)</userinput></screen>
45
46    <para os="aa">When the uname patch and the sed above were applied. The
47    source files for uname and touch were updated. Because they have a newer
48    timestamp then the man pages the <filename>Makefile</filename> is going to
49    try to regenerate the man pages. If executables for the target architecture
50    can not be executed by the host system, the build will fail. The following
51    command gives the two man pages a newer timestamp then their cooresponding
52    source files:</para>
53
54<screen os="ab"><userinput>touch man/uname.1 man/touch.1</userinput></screen>
55
56    <para os="a">Configure can not properly determine how to get free space
57    when cross-compiling, Without putting the following entry into
58    <filename>config.cache</filename> the <command>df</command> program will
59    not be built.</para>
60
61<screen os="b"><userinput>echo "fu_cv_sys_stat_statfs2_bsize=yes" &gt; config.cache</userinput></screen>
62
63    <para os="c">Now prepare Coreutils for compilation:</para>
64
65<screen os="d"><userinput>./configure --build=${CLFS_HOST} --host=${CLFS_TARGET} \
66    --prefix=/usr --cache-file=config.cache </userinput></screen>
67
68    <para os="e">Compile the package:</para>
69
70<screen os="f"><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
71
72    <para os="g">Install the package:</para>
73
74<screen os="h"><userinput>make DESTDIR=${CLFS} install</userinput></screen>
75
76    <para os="i">Move programs to the locations specified by the FHS:</para>
77
78<screen os="j"><userinput>mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/{cat,chgrp,chmod,chown,cp,date} ${CLFS}/bin
79mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/{dd,df,echo,false,hostname,ln,ls,mkdir} ${CLFS}/bin
80mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/{mknod,mv,pwd,rm,rmdir,stty,true,uname} ${CLFS}/bin
81mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/chroot ${CLFS}/usr/sbin</userinput></screen>
82
83    <para os="k">Other Coreutils programs are used by some of the scripts
84    in the CLFS-Bootscripts package. As <filename
85    class="directory">/usr</filename> may not be available during the early
86    stages of booting, those binaries need to be on the root partition:</para>
87
88<screen os="l"><userinput>mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/{[,basename,head,install,nice} ${CLFS}/bin
89mv -v ${CLFS}/usr/bin/{readlink,sleep,sync,test,touch} ${CLFS}/bin
90ln -svf ../../bin/install ${CLFS}/usr/bin</userinput></screen>
91
92  </sect2>
93
94  <sect2 id="contents-coreutils" role="content">
95    <title>Contents of Coreutils</title>
96
97    <segmentedlist>
98      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
99
100      <seglistitem>
101        <seg>[, base64, basename, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, cksum,
102        comm, cp, csplit, cut, date, dd, df, dir, dircolors, dirname, du,
103        echo, env, expand, expr, factor, false, fmt, fold, groups, head,
104        hostid, hostname, id, install, join, link, ln, logname, ls, md5sum,
105        mkdir, mkfifo, mknod, mv, nice, nl, nohup, od, paste, pathchk, pinky,
106        pr, printenv, printf, ptx, pwd, readlink, rm, rmdir, seq, sha1sum,
107        sha224sum, sha256sum, sha384sum, sha512sum, shred, shuf, sleep, sort,
108        split, stat, stty, sum, sync, tac, tail, tee, test, touch, tr, true,
109        tsort, tty, uname, unexpand, uniq, unlink, users, vdir, wc, who,
110        whoami, and yes</seg>
111      </seglistitem>
112    </segmentedlist>
113
114    <variablelist>
115      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
116      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
117      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
118
119      <varlistentry id="base64">
120        <term><command>base64</command></term>
121        <listitem>
122          <para>Base64 encode/decode data and print to standard output</para>
123          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils base64">
124            <primary sortas="b-base64">base64</primary>
125          </indexterm>
126        </listitem>
127      </varlistentry>
128
129      <varlistentry id="basename">
130        <term><command>basename</command></term>
131        <listitem>
132          <para>Strips any path and a given suffix from a file name</para>
133          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils basename">
134            <primary sortas="b-basename">basename</primary>
135          </indexterm>
136        </listitem>
137      </varlistentry>
138
139      <varlistentry id="cat">
140        <term><command>cat</command></term>
141        <listitem>
142          <para>Concatenates files to standard output</para>
143          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cat">
144            <primary sortas="b-cat">cat</primary>
145          </indexterm>
146        </listitem>
147      </varlistentry>
148
149      <varlistentry id="chgrp">
150        <term><command>chgrp</command></term>
151        <listitem>
152          <para>Changes the group ownership of files and directories</para>
153          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chgrp">
154            <primary sortas="b-chgrp">chgrp</primary>
155          </indexterm>
156        </listitem>
157      </varlistentry>
158
159      <varlistentry id="chmod">
160        <term><command>chmod</command></term>
161        <listitem>
162          <para>Changes the permissions of each file to the given mode; the mode
163          can be either a symbolic representation of the changes to make or an
164          octal number representing the new permissions</para>
165          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chmod">
166            <primary sortas="b-chmod">chmod</primary>
167          </indexterm>
168        </listitem>
169      </varlistentry>
170
171      <varlistentry id="chown">
172        <term><command>chown</command></term>
173        <listitem>
174          <para>Changes the user and/or group ownership of files and
175          directories</para>
176          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chown">
177            <primary sortas="b-chown">chown</primary>
178          </indexterm>
179        </listitem>
180      </varlistentry>
181
182      <varlistentry id="chroot">
183        <term><command>chroot</command></term>
184        <listitem>
185          <para>Runs a command with the specified directory as the
186          <filename class="directory">/</filename> directory</para>
187          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils chroot">
188            <primary sortas="b-chroot">chroot</primary>
189          </indexterm>
190        </listitem>
191      </varlistentry>
192
193      <varlistentry id="cksum">
194        <term><command>cksum</command></term>
195        <listitem>
196          <para>Prints the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum and the byte
197          counts of each specified file</para>
198          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cksum">
199            <primary sortas="b-cksum">cksum</primary>
200          </indexterm>
201        </listitem>
202      </varlistentry>
203
204      <varlistentry id="comm">
205        <term><command>comm</command></term>
206        <listitem>
207          <para>Compares two sorted files, outputting in three columns the lines
208          that are unique and the lines that are common</para>
209          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils comm">
210            <primary sortas="b-comm">comm</primary>
211          </indexterm>
212        </listitem>
213      </varlistentry>
214
215      <varlistentry id="cp">
216        <term><command>cp</command></term>
217        <listitem>
218          <para>Copies files</para>
219          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cp">
220            <primary sortas="b-cp">cp</primary>
221          </indexterm>
222        </listitem>
223      </varlistentry>
224
225      <varlistentry id="csplit">
226        <term><command>csplit</command></term>
227        <listitem>
228          <para>Splits a given file into several new files, separating them
229          according to given patterns or line numbers and outputting the byte
230          count of each new file</para>
231          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils csplit">
232            <primary sortas="b-csplit">csplit</primary>
233          </indexterm>
234        </listitem>
235      </varlistentry>
236
237      <varlistentry id="cut">
238        <term><command>cut</command></term>
239        <listitem>
240          <para>Prints sections of lines, selecting the parts according to given
241          fields or positions</para>
242          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils cut">
243            <primary sortas="b-cut">cut</primary>
244          </indexterm>
245        </listitem>
246      </varlistentry>
247
248      <varlistentry id="date">
249        <term><command>date</command></term>
250        <listitem>
251          <para>Displays the current time in the given format, or sets the
252          system date</para>
253          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils date">
254            <primary sortas="b-date">date</primary>
255          </indexterm>
256        </listitem>
257      </varlistentry>
258
259      <varlistentry id="dd">
260        <term><command>dd</command> </term>
261        <listitem>
262          <para>Copies a file using the given block size and count, while
263          optionally performing conversions on it</para>
264          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dd">
265            <primary sortas="b-dd">dd</primary>
266          </indexterm>
267        </listitem>
268      </varlistentry>
269
270      <varlistentry id="df">
271        <term><command>df</command></term>
272        <listitem>
273          <para>Reports the amount of disk space available (and used) on all
274          mounted file systems, or only on the file systems holding the selected
275          files</para>
276          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils df">
277            <primary sortas="b-df">df</primary>
278          </indexterm>
279        </listitem>
280      </varlistentry>
281
282      <varlistentry id="dir">
283        <term><command>dir</command></term>
284        <listitem>
285          <para>Lists the contents of each given directory (the same as
286          the <command>ls</command> command)</para>
287          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dir">
288            <primary sortas="b-dir">dir</primary>
289          </indexterm>
290        </listitem>
291      </varlistentry>
292
293      <varlistentry id="dircolors">
294        <term><command>dircolors</command></term>
295        <listitem>
296          <para>Outputs commands to set the <envar>LS_COLOR</envar>
297          environment variable to change the color scheme used by
298          <command>ls</command></para>
299          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dircolors">
300            <primary sortas="b-dircolors">dircolors</primary>
301          </indexterm>
302        </listitem>
303      </varlistentry>
304
305      <varlistentry id="dirname">
306        <term><command>dirname</command></term>
307        <listitem>
308          <para>Strips the non-directory suffix from a file name</para>
309          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils dirname">
310            <primary sortas="b-dirname">dirname</primary>
311          </indexterm>
312        </listitem>
313      </varlistentry>
314
315      <varlistentry id="du">
316        <term><command>du</command></term>
317        <listitem>
318          <para>Reports the amount of disk space used by the current directory,
319          by each of the given directories (including all subdirectories) or by
320          each of the given files</para>
321          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils du">
322            <primary sortas="b-du">du</primary>
323          </indexterm>
324        </listitem>
325      </varlistentry>
326
327      <varlistentry id="echo">
328        <term><command>echo</command></term>
329        <listitem>
330          <para>Displays the given strings</para>
331          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils echo">
332            <primary sortas="b-echo">echo</primary>
333          </indexterm>
334        </listitem>
335      </varlistentry>
336
337      <varlistentry id="env">
338        <term><command>env</command></term>
339        <listitem>
340          <para>Runs a command in a modified environment</para>
341          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils env">
342            <primary sortas="b-env">env</primary>
343          </indexterm>
344        </listitem>
345      </varlistentry>
346
347      <varlistentry id="expand">
348        <term><command>expand</command></term>
349        <listitem>
350          <para>Converts tabs to spaces</para>
351          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expand">
352            <primary sortas="b-expand">expand</primary>
353          </indexterm>
354        </listitem>
355      </varlistentry>
356
357      <varlistentry id="expr">
358        <term><command>expr</command></term>
359        <listitem>
360          <para>Evaluates expressions</para>
361          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils expr">
362            <primary sortas="b-expr">expr</primary>
363          </indexterm>
364        </listitem>
365      </varlistentry>
366
367      <varlistentry id="factor">
368        <term><command>factor</command></term>
369        <listitem>
370          <para>Prints the prime factors of all specified integer numbers</para>
371          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils factor">
372            <primary sortas="b-factor">factor</primary>
373          </indexterm>
374        </listitem>
375      </varlistentry>
376
377      <varlistentry id="false">
378        <term><command>false</command></term>
379        <listitem>
380          <para>Does nothing, unsuccessfully; it always exits with a status code
381          indicating failure</para>
382          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils false">
383            <primary sortas="b-false">false</primary>
384          </indexterm>
385        </listitem>
386      </varlistentry>
387
388      <varlistentry id="fmt">
389        <term><command>fmt</command></term>
390        <listitem>
391          <para>Reformats the paragraphs in the given files</para>
392          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fmt">
393            <primary sortas="b-fmt">fmt</primary>
394          </indexterm>
395        </listitem>
396      </varlistentry>
397
398      <varlistentry id="fold">
399        <term><command>fold</command></term>
400        <listitem>
401          <para>Wraps the lines in the given files</para>
402          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils fold">
403            <primary sortas="b-fold">fold</primary>
404          </indexterm>
405        </listitem>
406      </varlistentry>
407
408      <varlistentry id="groups">
409        <term><command>groups</command></term>
410        <listitem>
411          <para>Reports a user's group memberships</para>
412          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils groups">
413            <primary sortas="b-groups">groups</primary>
414          </indexterm>
415        </listitem>
416      </varlistentry>
417
418      <varlistentry id="head">
419        <term><command>head</command></term>
420        <listitem>
421          <para>Prints the first ten lines (or the given number of lines)
422          of each given file</para>
423          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils head">
424            <primary sortas="b-head">head</primary>
425          </indexterm>
426        </listitem>
427      </varlistentry>
428
429      <varlistentry id="hostid">
430        <term><command>hostid</command></term>
431        <listitem>
432          <para>Reports the numeric identifier (in hexadecimal) of the host</para>
433          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostid">
434            <primary sortas="b-hostid">hostid</primary>
435          </indexterm>
436        </listitem>
437      </varlistentry>
438
439      <varlistentry id="hostname">
440        <term><command>hostname</command></term>
441        <listitem>
442          <para>Reports or sets the name of the host</para>
443          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils hostname">
444            <primary sortas="b-hostname">hostname</primary>
445          </indexterm>
446        </listitem>
447      </varlistentry>
448
449      <varlistentry id="id">
450        <term><command>id</command></term>
451        <listitem>
452          <para>Reports the effective user ID, group ID, and group memberships
453          of the current user or specified user</para>
454          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils id">
455            <primary sortas="b-id">id</primary>
456          </indexterm>
457        </listitem>
458      </varlistentry>
459
460      <varlistentry id="install">
461        <term><command>install</command> </term>
462        <listitem>
463          <para>Copies files while setting their permission modes and, if
464          possible, their owner and group</para>
465          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils install">
466            <primary sortas="b-install">install</primary>
467          </indexterm>
468        </listitem>
469      </varlistentry>
470
471      <varlistentry id="join">
472        <term><command>join</command></term>
473        <listitem>
474          <para>Joins the lines that have identical join fields from two
475          separate files</para>
476          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils join">
477            <primary sortas="b-join">join</primary>
478          </indexterm>
479        </listitem>
480      </varlistentry>
481
482      <varlistentry id="link">
483        <term><command>link</command></term>
484        <listitem>
485          <para>Creates a hard link with the given name to a file</para>
486          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils link">
487            <primary sortas="b-link">link</primary>
488          </indexterm>
489        </listitem>
490      </varlistentry>
491
492      <varlistentry id="ln">
493        <term><command>ln</command></term>
494        <listitem>
495          <para>Makes hard links or soft (symbolic) links between files</para>
496          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ln">
497            <primary sortas="b-ln">ln</primary>
498          </indexterm>
499        </listitem>
500      </varlistentry>
501
502      <varlistentry id="logname">
503        <term><command>logname</command></term>
504        <listitem>
505          <para>Reports the current user's login name</para>
506          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils logname">
507            <primary sortas="b-logname">logname</primary>
508          </indexterm>
509        </listitem>
510      </varlistentry>
511
512      <varlistentry id="ls">
513        <term><command>ls</command></term>
514        <listitem>
515          <para>Lists the contents of each given directory</para>
516          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ls">
517            <primary sortas="b-ls">ls</primary>
518          </indexterm>
519        </listitem>
520      </varlistentry>
521
522      <varlistentry id="md5sum">
523        <term><command>md5sum</command></term>
524        <listitem>
525          <para>Reports or checks Message Digest 5 (MD5) checksums</para>
526          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils md5sum">
527            <primary sortas="b-md5sum">md5sum</primary>
528          </indexterm>
529        </listitem>
530      </varlistentry>
531
532      <varlistentry id="mkdir">
533        <term><command>mkdir</command></term>
534        <listitem>
535          <para>Creates directories with the given names</para>
536          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkdir">
537            <primary sortas="b-mkdir">mkdir</primary>
538          </indexterm>
539        </listitem>
540      </varlistentry>
541
542      <varlistentry id="mkfifo">
543        <term><command>mkfifo</command></term>
544        <listitem>
545          <para>Creates First-In, First-Outs (FIFOs), a <quote>named
546          pipe</quote> in UNIX parlance, with the given names</para>
547          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mkfifo">
548            <primary sortas="b-mkfifo">mkfifo</primary>
549          </indexterm>
550        </listitem>
551      </varlistentry>
552
553      <varlistentry id="mknod">
554        <term><command>mknod</command></term>
555        <listitem>
556          <para>Creates device nodes with the given names; a device node is a
557          character special file, a block special file, or a FIFO</para>
558          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mknod">
559            <primary sortas="b-mknod">mknod</primary>
560          </indexterm>
561        </listitem>
562      </varlistentry>
563
564      <varlistentry id="mv">
565        <term><command>mv</command></term>
566        <listitem>
567          <para>Moves or renames files or directories</para>
568          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils mv">
569            <primary sortas="b-mv">mv</primary>
570          </indexterm>
571        </listitem>
572      </varlistentry>
573
574      <varlistentry id="nice">
575        <term><command>nice</command></term>
576        <listitem>
577          <para>Runs a program with modified scheduling priority</para>
578          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nice">
579            <primary sortas="b-nice">nice</primary>
580          </indexterm>
581        </listitem>
582      </varlistentry>
583
584      <varlistentry id="nl">
585        <term><command>nl</command></term>
586        <listitem>
587          <para>Numbers the lines from the given files</para>
588          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nl">
589            <primary sortas="b-nl">nl</primary>
590          </indexterm>
591        </listitem>
592      </varlistentry>
593
594      <varlistentry id="nohup">
595        <term><command>nohup</command></term>
596        <listitem>
597          <para>Runs a command immune to hangups, with its output redirected to
598          a log file</para>
599          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils nohup">
600            <primary sortas="b-nohup">nohup</primary>
601          </indexterm>
602        </listitem>
603      </varlistentry>
604
605      <varlistentry id="od">
606        <term><command>od</command></term>
607        <listitem>
608          <para>Dumps files in octal and other formats</para>
609          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils od">
610            <primary sortas="b-od">od</primary>
611          </indexterm>
612        </listitem>
613      </varlistentry>
614
615      <varlistentry id="paste">
616        <term><command>paste</command></term>
617        <listitem>
618          <para>Merges the given files, joining sequentially corresponding lines
619          side by side, separated by tab characters</para>
620          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils paste">
621            <primary sortas="b-paste">paste</primary>
622          </indexterm>
623        </listitem>
624      </varlistentry>
625
626      <varlistentry id="pathchk">
627        <term><command>pathchk</command></term>
628        <listitem>
629          <para>Checks if file names are valid or portable</para>
630          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pathchk">
631            <primary sortas="b-pathchk">pathchk</primary>
632          </indexterm>
633        </listitem>
634      </varlistentry>
635
636      <varlistentry id="pinky">
637        <term><command>pinky</command></term>
638        <listitem>
639          <para>Is a lightweight finger client; it reports some information
640          about the given users</para>
641          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pinky">
642            <primary sortas="b-pinky">pinky</primary>
643          </indexterm>
644        </listitem>
645      </varlistentry>
646
647      <varlistentry id="pr">
648        <term><command>pr</command></term>
649        <listitem>
650          <para>Paginates and columnates files for printing</para>
651          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pr">
652            <primary sortas="b-pr">pr</primary>
653          </indexterm>
654        </listitem>
655      </varlistentry>
656
657      <varlistentry id="printenv">
658        <term><command>printenv</command></term>
659        <listitem>
660          <para>Prints the environment</para>
661          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printenv">
662            <primary sortas="b-printenv">printenv</primary>
663          </indexterm>
664        </listitem>
665      </varlistentry>
666
667      <varlistentry id="printf">
668        <term><command>printf</command></term>
669        <listitem>
670          <para>Prints the given arguments according to the given format, much
671          like the C printf function</para>
672          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils printf">
673            <primary sortas="b-printf">printf</primary>
674          </indexterm>
675        </listitem>
676      </varlistentry>
677
678      <varlistentry id="ptx">
679        <term><command>ptx</command></term>
680        <listitem>
681          <para>Produces a permuted index from the contents of the given files,
682          with each keyword in its context</para>
683          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils ptx">
684            <primary sortas="b-ptx">ptx</primary>
685          </indexterm>
686        </listitem>
687      </varlistentry>
688
689      <varlistentry id="pwd">
690        <term><command>pwd</command></term>
691        <listitem>
692          <para>Reports the name of the current working directory</para>
693          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils pwd">
694            <primary sortas="b-pwd">pwd</primary>
695          </indexterm>
696        </listitem>
697      </varlistentry>
698
699      <varlistentry id="readlink">
700        <term><command>readlink</command></term>
701        <listitem>
702          <para>Reports the value of the given symbolic link</para>
703          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils readlink">
704            <primary sortas="b-readlink">readlink</primary>
705          </indexterm>
706        </listitem>
707      </varlistentry>
708
709      <varlistentry id="rm">
710        <term><command>rm</command></term>
711        <listitem>
712          <para>Removes files or directories</para>
713          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rm">
714            <primary sortas="b-rm">rm</primary>
715          </indexterm>
716        </listitem>
717      </varlistentry>
718
719      <varlistentry id="rmdir">
720        <term><command>rmdir</command></term>
721        <listitem>
722          <para>Removes directories if they are empty</para>
723          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils rmdir">
724            <primary sortas="b-rmdir">rmdir</primary>
725          </indexterm>
726        </listitem>
727      </varlistentry>
728
729      <varlistentry id="seq">
730        <term><command>seq</command></term>
731        <listitem>
732          <para>Prints a sequence of numbers within a given range and with a
733          given increment</para>
734          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils seq">
735            <primary sortas="b-seq">seq</primary>
736          </indexterm>
737        </listitem>
738      </varlistentry>
739
740      <varlistentry id="sha1sum">
741        <term><command>sha1sum</command></term>
742        <listitem>
743          <para>Prints or checks 160-bit Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1)
744          checksums</para>
745          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha1sum">
746            <primary sortas="b-sha1sum">sha1sum</primary>
747          </indexterm>
748        </listitem>
749      </varlistentry>
750
751      <varlistentry id="sha224sum">
752        <term><command>sha224sum</command></term>
753        <listitem>
754          <para>Prints or checks SHA224 checksums</para>
755          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha224sum">
756            <primary sortas="b-sha224sum">sha224sum</primary>
757          </indexterm>
758        </listitem>
759      </varlistentry>
760
761      <varlistentry id="sha256sum">
762        <term><command>sha256sum</command></term>
763        <listitem>
764          <para>Prints or checks SHA256 checksums</para>
765          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha256sum">
766            <primary sortas="b-sha256sum">sha256sum</primary>
767          </indexterm>
768        </listitem>
769      </varlistentry>
770
771      <varlistentry id="sha384sum">
772        <term><command>sha384sum</command></term>
773        <listitem>
774          <para>Prints or checks SHA384 checksums</para>
775          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha384sum">
776            <primary sortas="b-sha384sum">sha384sum</primary>
777          </indexterm>
778        </listitem>
779      </varlistentry>
780
781      <varlistentry id="sha512sum">
782        <term><command>sha512sum</command></term>
783        <listitem>
784          <para>Prints or checks SHA512 checksums</para>
785          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sha512sum">
786            <primary sortas="b-sha512sum">sha512sum</primary>
787          </indexterm>
788        </listitem>
789      </varlistentry>
790
791      <varlistentry id="shred">
792        <term><command>shred</command></term>
793        <listitem>
794          <para>Overwrites the given files repeatedly with complex patterns,
795          making it difficult to recover the data</para>
796          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shred">
797            <primary sortas="b-shred">shred</primary>
798          </indexterm>
799        </listitem>
800      </varlistentry>
801
802      <varlistentry id="shuf">
803        <term><command>shuf</command></term>
804        <listitem>
805          <para>Write a random permutation of the input lines to standard output or a file</para>
806          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils shuf">
807            <primary sortas="b-shuf">shuf</primary>
808          </indexterm>
809        </listitem>
810      </varlistentry>
811
812      <varlistentry id="sleep">
813        <term><command>sleep</command></term>
814        <listitem>
815          <para>Pauses for the given amount of time</para>
816          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sleep">
817            <primary sortas="b-sleep">sleep</primary>
818          </indexterm>
819        </listitem>
820      </varlistentry>
821
822      <varlistentry id="sort">
823        <term><command>sort</command></term>
824        <listitem>
825          <para>Sorts the lines from the given files</para>
826          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sort">
827            <primary sortas="b-sort">sort</primary>
828          </indexterm>
829        </listitem>
830      </varlistentry>
831
832      <varlistentry id="split">
833        <term><command>split</command></term>
834        <listitem>
835          <para>Splits the given file into pieces, by size or by number of
836          lines</para>
837          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils split">
838            <primary sortas="b-split">split</primary>
839          </indexterm>
840        </listitem>
841      </varlistentry>
842
843      <varlistentry id="stat">
844        <term><command>stat</command></term>
845        <listitem>
846          <para>Displays file or filesystem status</para>
847          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stat">
848            <primary sortas="b-stat">stat</primary>
849          </indexterm>
850        </listitem>
851      </varlistentry>
852
853      <varlistentry id="stty">
854        <term><command>stty</command></term>
855        <listitem>
856          <para>Sets or reports terminal line settings</para>
857          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils stty">
858            <primary sortas="b-stty">stty</primary>
859          </indexterm>
860        </listitem>
861      </varlistentry>
862
863      <varlistentry id="sum">
864        <term><command>sum</command></term>
865        <listitem>
866          <para>Prints checksum and block counts for each given file</para>
867          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sum">
868            <primary sortas="b-sum">sum</primary>
869          </indexterm>
870        </listitem>
871      </varlistentry>
872
873      <varlistentry id="sync">
874        <term><command>sync</command></term>
875        <listitem>
876          <para>Flushes file system buffers; it forces changed blocks to disk
877          and updates the super block</para>
878          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils sync">
879            <primary sortas="b-sync">sync</primary>
880          </indexterm>
881        </listitem>
882      </varlistentry>
883
884      <varlistentry id="tac">
885        <term><command>tac</command></term>
886        <listitem>
887          <para>Concatenates the given files in reverse</para>
888          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tac">
889            <primary sortas="b-tac">tac</primary>
890          </indexterm>
891        </listitem>
892      </varlistentry>
893
894      <varlistentry id="tail">
895        <term><command>tail</command></term>
896        <listitem>
897          <para>Prints the last ten lines (or the given number of lines) of each
898          given file</para>
899          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tail">
900            <primary sortas="b-tail">tail</primary>
901          </indexterm>
902        </listitem>
903      </varlistentry>
904
905      <varlistentry id="tee">
906        <term><command>tee</command></term>
907        <listitem>
908          <para>Reads from standard input while writing both to standard output
909          and to the given files</para>
910          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tee">
911            <primary sortas="b-tee">tee</primary>
912          </indexterm>
913        </listitem>
914      </varlistentry>
915
916      <varlistentry id="test">
917        <term><command>test</command> or <command>[</command></term>
918        <listitem>
919          <para>Compares values and checks file types</para>
920          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils test">
921            <primary sortas="b-test">test</primary>
922          </indexterm>
923        </listitem>
924      </varlistentry>
925
926      <varlistentry id="touch">
927        <term><command>touch</command></term>
928        <listitem>
929          <para>Changes file timestamps, setting the access and modification
930          times of the given files to the current time; files that do not exist
931          are created with zero length</para>
932          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils touch">
933            <primary sortas="b-touch">touch</primary>
934          </indexterm>
935        </listitem>
936      </varlistentry>
937
938      <varlistentry id="tr">
939        <term><command>tr</command></term>
940        <listitem>
941          <para>Translates, squeezes, and deletes the given characters from
942          standard input</para>
943          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tr">
944            <primary sortas="b-tr">tr</primary>
945          </indexterm>
946        </listitem>
947      </varlistentry>
948
949      <varlistentry id="true">
950        <term><command>true</command></term>
951        <listitem>
952          <para>Does nothing, successfully; it always exits with a status code
953          indicating success</para>
954          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils true">
955            <primary sortas="b-true">true</primary>
956          </indexterm>
957        </listitem>
958      </varlistentry>
959
960      <varlistentry id="tsort">
961        <term><command>tsort</command></term>
962        <listitem>
963          <para>Performs a topological sort; it writes a completely ordered list
964          according to the partial ordering in a given file</para>
965          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tsort">
966            <primary sortas="b-tsort">tsort</primary>
967          </indexterm>
968        </listitem>
969      </varlistentry>
970
971      <varlistentry id="tty">
972        <term><command>tty</command></term>
973        <listitem>
974          <para>Reports the file name of the terminal connected to standard
975          input</para>
976          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils tty">
977            <primary sortas="b-tty">tty</primary>
978          </indexterm>
979        </listitem>
980      </varlistentry>
981
982      <varlistentry id="uname">
983        <term><command>uname</command></term>
984        <listitem>
985          <para>Reports system information</para>
986          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uname">
987            <primary sortas="b-uname">uname</primary>
988          </indexterm>
989        </listitem>
990      </varlistentry>
991
992      <varlistentry id="unexpand">
993        <term><command>unexpand</command></term>
994        <listitem>
995          <para>Converts spaces to tabs</para>
996          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unexpand">
997            <primary sortas="b-unexpand">unexpand</primary>
998          </indexterm>
999        </listitem>
1000      </varlistentry>
1001
1002      <varlistentry id="uniq">
1003        <term><command>uniq</command></term>
1004        <listitem>
1005          <para>Discards all but one of successive identical lines</para>
1006          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils uniq">
1007            <primary sortas="b-uniq">uniq</primary>
1008          </indexterm>
1009        </listitem>
1010      </varlistentry>
1011
1012      <varlistentry id="unlink">
1013        <term><command>unlink</command></term>
1014        <listitem>
1015          <para>Removes the given file</para>
1016          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils unlink">
1017            <primary sortas="b-unlink">unlink</primary>
1018          </indexterm>
1019        </listitem>
1020      </varlistentry>
1021
1022      <varlistentry id="users">
1023        <term><command>users</command></term>
1024        <listitem>
1025          <para>Reports the names of the users currently logged on</para>
1026          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils users">
1027            <primary sortas="b-users">users</primary>
1028          </indexterm>
1029        </listitem>
1030      </varlistentry>
1031
1032      <varlistentry id="vdir">
1033        <term><command>vdir</command></term>
1034        <listitem>
1035          <para>Is the same as <command>ls -l</command></para>
1036          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils vdir">
1037            <primary sortas="b-vdir">vdir</primary>
1038          </indexterm>
1039        </listitem>
1040      </varlistentry>
1041
1042      <varlistentry id="wc">
1043        <term><command>wc</command></term>
1044        <listitem>
1045          <para>Reports the number of lines, words, and bytes for each given
1046          file, as well as a total line when more than one file is given</para>
1047          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils wc">
1048            <primary sortas="b-wc">wc</primary>
1049          </indexterm>
1050        </listitem>
1051      </varlistentry>
1052
1053      <varlistentry id="who">
1054        <term><command>who</command></term>
1055        <listitem>
1056          <para>Reports who is logged on</para>
1057          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils who">
1058            <primary sortas="b-who">who</primary>
1059          </indexterm>
1060        </listitem>
1061      </varlistentry>
1062
1063      <varlistentry id="whoami">
1064        <term><command>whoami</command></term>
1065        <listitem>
1066          <para>Reports the user name associated with the current effective
1067          user ID</para>
1068          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils whoami">
1069            <primary sortas="b-whoami">whoami</primary>
1070          </indexterm>
1071        </listitem>
1072      </varlistentry>
1073
1074      <varlistentry id="yes">
1075        <term><command>yes</command></term>
1076        <listitem>
1077          <para>Repeatedly outputs <quote>y</quote> or a given string until
1078          killed</para>
1079          <indexterm zone="ch-system-coreutils yes">
1080            <primary sortas="b-yes">yes</primary>
1081          </indexterm>
1082        </listitem>
1083      </varlistentry>
1084
1085    </variablelist>
1086
1087  </sect2>
1088
1089</sect1>
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