source: clfs-embedded/BOOK/cross-tools/common/binutils.xml @ 2804a96

Last change on this file since 2804a96 was 2804a96, checked in by Jim Gifford <clfs@…>, 14 years ago

Updates - Endian Check - GCC and Binutils Patch Updates

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-cross-tools-binutils" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="binutils.html"?>
10
11  <title>Cross Binutils-&binutils-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils">
14    <primary sortas="a-Binutils">Binutils</primary>
15    <secondary>cross tools</secondary>
16  </indexterm>
17
18  <sect2 role="package">
19    <title/>
20
21    <para>The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
22    tools for handling object files.</para>
23
24  </sect2>
25
26  <sect2 role="installation">
27    <title>Installation of Cross Binutils</title>
28
29    <para os="a">It is important that Binutils be the first package compiled
30    because both uClibc and GCC perform various tests on the available
31    linker and assembler to determine which of their own features to
32    enable.</para>
33
34    <para os="p1">The following patch contains a number of updates to the
35    &binutils-version; branch by the Binutils developers:</para>
36
37<screen os="p2"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&binutils-branch_update-patch;</userinput></screen>
38
39    <para os="p3">To make sure that the proper syntax is used for a couple of
40    tools, apply the following patch:</para>
41
42<screen os="p4"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&binutils-posix-patch;</userinput></screen>
43
44    <para os="b">The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the
45    source directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
46
47<screen os="c"><userinput>mkdir -v ../binutils-build
48cd ../binutils-build</userinput></screen>
49
50    <para os="d">Prepare Binutils for compilation:</para>
51
52<screen os="e"><userinput>../binutils-&binutils-version;/configure --prefix=${CLFS}/cross-tools \
53   --target=${CLFS_TARGET} --with-sysroot=${CLFS} --disable-nls \
54   --enable-shared --disable-multilib</userinput></screen>
55
56    <variablelist os="f">
57      <title>The meaning of the configure options:</title>
58
59      <varlistentry os="f1">
60        <term><parameter>--prefix=${CLFS}/cross-tools</parameter></term>
61        <listitem>
62          <para>This tells the configure script to prepare to install the
63          package in the <filename class="directory">${CLFS}/cross-tools</filename>
64          directory.</para>
65        </listitem>
66      </varlistentry>
67
68      <varlistentry os="f3">
69        <term><parameter>--target=${CLFS_TARGET}</parameter></term>
70        <listitem>
71          <para>When used with --host, this creates a cross-architecture
72          executable that creates files for ${CLFS_TARGET} but runs on
73          the host system.</para>
74        </listitem>
75      </varlistentry>
76
77      <varlistentry os="f4">
78        <term><parameter>--with-sysroot=${CLFS}</parameter></term>
79        <listitem>
80          <para>This tells configure that ${CLFS} is going to be the root
81          of our system. It will now use the specified sysroot, ${CLFS}, as
82          a prefix of the default search paths.</para>
83        </listitem>
84      </varlistentry>
85
86      <varlistentry os="f5">
87        <term><parameter>--disable-nls</parameter></term>
88        <listitem>
89          <para>This disables internationalization as i18n is not needed for the
90          cross-compile tools.</para>
91        </listitem>
92      </varlistentry>
93
94      <varlistentry os="f6">
95        <term><parameter>--enable-shared</parameter></term>
96        <listitem>
97          <para>Enable the creation of the shared libraries.</para>
98        </listitem>
99      </varlistentry>
100
101      <varlistentry os="f7">
102        <term><parameter>--disable-multilib</parameter></term>
103        <listitem>
104          <para>This option disables the building of a multilib
105          capable binutils.</para>
106        </listitem>
107      </varlistentry>
108
109    </variablelist>
110
111    <para os="g">Compile the package:</para>
112
113<screen os="h"><userinput>make configure-host
114make</userinput></screen>
115
116    <variablelist os="i">
117      <title>The meaning of the make options:</title>
118
119      <varlistentry os="i1">
120        <term><parameter>configure-host</parameter></term>
121        <listitem>
122          <para>This checks the host environment and makes sure all the
123          necessary tools are available to compile Binutils.</para>
124        </listitem>
125      </varlistentry>
126
127    </variablelist>
128
129    <para os="j">Install the package:</para>
130
131<screen os="k"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
132
133    <para os="l">Copy the <filename class="headerfile">libiberty.h</filename> file to
134    <filename class="directory">${CLFS}/usr/include</filename> directory:</para>
135
136<screen os="m"><userinput>cp -v ../binutils-&binutils-version;/include/libiberty.h ${CLFS}/usr/include</userinput></screen>
137
138  </sect2>
139
140  <sect2 id="contents-binutils" role="content">
141    <title>Contents of Binutils</title>
142
143    <segmentedlist>
144      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
145      <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
146
147      <seglistitem>
148        <seg>addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, gprof, ld, nm, objcopy, objdump,
149        ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip</seg>
150        <seg>libiberty.a, libbfd.[a,so], and libopcodes.[a,so]</seg>
151      </seglistitem>
152    </segmentedlist>
153
154    <variablelist>
155      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
156      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
157      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
158
159      <varlistentry id="addr2line">
160        <term><command>addr2line</command></term>
161        <listitem>
162          <para>Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers;
163          given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
164          information in the executable to determine which source file and line
165          number are associated with the address</para>
166          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils addr2line">
167            <primary sortas="b-addr2line">addr2line</primary>
168          </indexterm>
169        </listitem>
170      </varlistentry>
171
172      <varlistentry id="ar">
173        <term><command>ar</command></term>
174        <listitem>
175          <para>Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives</para>
176          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils ar">
177            <primary sortas="b-ar">ar</primary>
178          </indexterm>
179        </listitem>
180      </varlistentry>
181
182      <varlistentry id="as">
183        <term><command>as</command></term>
184        <listitem>
185          <para>An assembler that assembles the output of <command>gcc</command>
186          into object files</para>
187          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils as">
188            <primary sortas="b-as">as</primary>
189          </indexterm>
190        </listitem>
191      </varlistentry>
192
193      <varlistentry id="c-filt">
194        <term><command>c++filt</command></term>
195        <listitem>
196          <para>Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
197          overloaded functions from clashing</para>
198          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils c-filt">
199            <primary sortas="b-c++filt">c++filt</primary>
200          </indexterm>
201        </listitem>
202      </varlistentry>
203
204      <varlistentry id="gprof">
205        <term><command>gprof</command></term>
206        <listitem>
207          <para>Displays call graph profile data</para>
208          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils gprof">
209            <primary sortas="b-gprof">gprof</primary>
210          </indexterm>
211        </listitem>
212      </varlistentry>
213
214      <varlistentry id="ld">
215        <term><command>ld</command></term>
216        <listitem>
217          <para>A linker that combines a number of object and archive files
218          into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol
219          references</para>
220          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils ld">
221            <primary sortas="b-ld">ld</primary>
222          </indexterm>
223        </listitem>
224      </varlistentry>
225
226      <varlistentry id="nm">
227        <term><command>nm</command></term>
228        <listitem>
229          <para>Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file</para>
230          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils nm">
231            <primary sortas="b-nm">nm</primary>
232          </indexterm>
233        </listitem>
234      </varlistentry>
235
236      <varlistentry id="objdump">
237        <term><command>objdump</command></term>
238        <listitem>
239          <para>Displays information about the given object file, with options
240          controlling the particular information to display; the information
241          shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
242          tools</para>
243          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils objdump">
244            <primary sortas="b-objdump">objdump</primary>
245          </indexterm>
246        </listitem>
247      </varlistentry>
248
249      <varlistentry id="ranlib">
250        <term><command>ranlib</command></term>
251        <listitem>
252          <para>Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it
253          in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive
254          members that are relocatable object files</para>
255          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils ranlib">
256            <primary sortas="b-ranlib">ranlib</primary>
257          </indexterm>
258        </listitem>
259      </varlistentry>
260
261      <varlistentry id="readelf">
262        <term><command>readelf</command></term>
263        <listitem>
264          <para>Displays information about ELF type binaries</para>
265          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils readelf">
266            <primary sortas="b-readelf">readelf</primary>
267          </indexterm>
268        </listitem>
269      </varlistentry>
270
271      <varlistentry id="size">
272        <term><command>size</command></term>
273        <listitem>
274          <para>Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given
275          object files</para>
276          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils size">
277            <primary sortas="b-size">size</primary>
278          </indexterm>
279        </listitem>
280      </varlistentry>
281
282      <varlistentry id="strings">
283        <term><command>strings</command></term>
284        <listitem>
285          <para>Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable
286          characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to
287          four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from
288          the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files,
289          it scans the entire file</para>
290          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils strings">
291            <primary sortas="b-strings">strings</primary>
292          </indexterm>
293        </listitem>
294      </varlistentry>
295
296      <varlistentry id="strip">
297        <term><command>strip</command></term>
298        <listitem>
299          <para>Discards symbols from object files</para>
300          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils strip">
301            <primary sortas="b-strip">strip</primary>
302          </indexterm>
303        </listitem>
304      </varlistentry>
305
306      <varlistentry id="libiberty">
307        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libiberty</filename></term>
308        <listitem>
309          <para>Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including
310          <command>getopt</command>, <command>obstack</command>,
311          <command>strerror</command>, <command>strtol</command>, and
312          <command>strtoul</command></para>
313          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils libiberty">
314            <primary sortas="c-libiberty">libiberty</primary>
315          </indexterm>
316        </listitem>
317      </varlistentry>
318
319      <varlistentry id="libbfd">
320        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libbfd</filename></term>
321        <listitem>
322          <para>The Binary File Descriptor library</para>
323          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils libbfd">
324            <primary sortas="c-libbfd">libbfd</primary>
325          </indexterm>
326        </listitem>
327      </varlistentry>
328
329      <varlistentry id="libopcodes">
330        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libopcodes</filename></term>
331        <listitem>
332          <para>A library for dealing with opcodes&mdash;the <quote>readable
333          text</quote> versions of instructions for the processor;
334          it is used for building utilities like
335          <command>objdump</command>.</para>
336          <indexterm zone="ch-cross-tools-binutils libopcodes">
337            <primary sortas="c-libopcodes">libopcodes</primary>
338          </indexterm>
339        </listitem>
340      </varlistentry>
341
342    </variablelist>
343
344  </sect2>
345
346</sect1>
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