source: boot/common/pwdgroup.xml @ b18d234

Last change on this file since b18d234 was b18d234, checked in by Chris Staub <chris@…>, 13 years ago

Removed extraneous text from pwdgroup.xml

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 7.3 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
9  <?dbhtml filename="pwdgroup.html"?>
10
11  <title>Creating the passwd, group, and log Files</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
14    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/passwd">${LFS}/etc/passwd</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
18    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/group">${LFS}/etc/group</primary>
19  </indexterm>
20
21  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
22    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/run/utmp">${LFS}/var/run/utmp</primary>
23  </indexterm>
24
25  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
26    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/btmp">${LFS}/var/log/btmp</primary>
27  </indexterm>
28
29  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
30    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/lastlog">${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</primary>
31  </indexterm>
32
33  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
34    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/wtmp">${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</primary>
35  </indexterm>
36
37  <para>In order for user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to
38  be able to login and for the name <quote>root</quote> to be recognized,
39  there must be relevant entries in the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename>
40  and <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> files.</para>
41
42  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename> file by running
43  the following command:</para>
44
45<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/passwd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
46<literal>root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash</literal>
47EOF</userinput></screen>
48
49  <para os="a">The actual password for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
50  (the <quote>x</quote> used here is just a placeholder) will be set
51  later.</para>
52
53  <variablelist os="b">
54 
55    <title>Additional users you may want to add:</title>
56
57    <varlistentry>
58      <term><literal>bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/false</literal></term>
59      <listitem>
60        <para>To be written</para>
61      </listitem>
62    </varlistentry>
63    <varlistentry>
64      <term><literal>daemon:x:2:6:daemon:/sbin:/bin/false</literal></term>
65      <listitem>
66        <para>To be written</para>
67      </listitem>
68    </varlistentry>
69    <varlistentry>
70      <term><literal>adm:x:3:16:adm:/var/adm:/bin/false</literal></term>
71      <listitem>
72        <para>To be written</para>
73      </listitem>
74    </varlistentry>
75    <varlistentry>
76      <term><literal>lp:x:10:9:lp:/var/spool/lp:/bin/false</literal></term>
77      <listitem>
78        <para>To be written</para>
79      </listitem>
80    </varlistentry>
81    <varlistentry>
82      <term><literal>mail:x:30:30:mail:/var/mail:/bin/false</literal></term>
83      <listitem>
84        <para>To be written</para>
85      </listitem>
86    </varlistentry>
87    <varlistentry>
88      <term><literal>news:x:31:31:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/false</literal></term>
89      <listitem>
90        <para>To be written</para>
91      </listitem>
92    </varlistentry>
93    <varlistentry>
94      <term><literal>uucp:x:32:32:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/false</literal></term>
95      <listitem>
96        <para>To be written</para>
97      </listitem>
98    </varlistentry>
99    <varlistentry>
100      <term><literal>operator:x:50:0:operator:/root:/bin/bash</literal></term>
101      <listitem>
102        <para>To be written</para>
103      </listitem>
104    </varlistentry>
105    <varlistentry>
106      <term><literal>postmaster:x:51:30:postmaster:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false</literal></term>
107      <listitem>
108        <para>To be written</para>
109      </listitem>
110    </varlistentry>
111    <varlistentry>
112      <term><literal>nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/:/bin/false</literal></term>
113      <listitem>
114        <para>To be written</para>
115      </listitem>
116    </varlistentry>
117  </variablelist>
118
119  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> file by running
120  the following command:</para>
121
122<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/group &lt;&lt; "EOF"
123<literal>root:x:0:
124bin:x:1:
125sys:x:2:
126kmem:x:3:
127tty:x:4:
128tape:x:5:
129daemon:x:6:
130floppy:x:7:
131disk:x:8:
132lp:x:9:
133dialout:x:10:
134audio:x:11:
135video:x:12:
136utmp:x:13:
137usb:x:14:
138cdrom:x:15:</literal>
139EOF</userinput></screen>
140
141  <variablelist os="c">
142
143    <title>Additional groups you may want to add</title>
144
145    <varlistentry>
146      <term><literal>adm:x:16:root,adm,daemon</literal></term>
147      <listitem>
148        <para>To be written</para>
149      </listitem>
150    </varlistentry>
151    <varlistentry>
152      <term><literal>console:x:17:</literal></term>
153      <listitem>
154        <para>To be written</para>
155      </listitem>
156    </varlistentry>
157    <varlistentry>
158      <term><literal>cdrw:x:18:</literal></term>
159      <listitem>
160        <para>To be written</para>
161      </listitem>
162    </varlistentry>
163    <varlistentry>
164      <term><literal>mail:x:30:mail</literal></term>
165      <listitem>
166        <para>Used by MTAs (Mail Transport Agents)</para>
167      </listitem>
168    </varlistentry>
169    <varlistentry>
170      <term><literal>news:x:31:news</literal></term>
171      <listitem>
172        <para>To be written</para>
173      </listitem>
174    </varlistentry>
175    <varlistentry>
176      <term><literal>uucp:x:32:uucp</literal></term>
177      <listitem>
178        <para>To be written</para>
179      </listitem>
180    </varlistentry>
181    <varlistentry>
182      <term><literal>users:x:100:</literal></term>
183      <listitem>
184        <para>To be written</para>
185      </listitem>
186    </varlistentry>
187    <varlistentry>
188      <term><literal>nogroup:x:65533:</literal></term>
189      <listitem>
190        <para>To be written</para>
191      </listitem>
192    </varlistentry>
193    <varlistentry>
194      <term><literal>nobody:x:65534:</literal></term>
195      <listitem>
196        <para>To be written</para>
197      </listitem>
198    </varlistentry>
199  </variablelist>
200
201  <para os="d">The created groups are not part of any standard&mdash;they are
202  groups decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration
203  in the final system, and in part by common convention employed by a
204  number of existing Linux distributions. The Linux Standard Base (LSB,
205  available at <ulink url="http://www.linuxbase.org"/>) recommends only
206  that, besides the group <quote>root</quote> with a Group ID (GID) of 0,
207  a group <quote>bin</quote> with a GID of 1 be present. All other group
208  names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since
209  well-written programs do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the
210  group's name.</para>
211
212  <para os="e">The <command>login</command>, <command>agetty</command>, and
213  <command>init</command> programs (and others) use a number of log
214  files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
215  when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
216  do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them
217  proper permissions:</para>
218
219<screen><userinput>touch ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
220chmod -v 664 ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/lastlog
221chmod -v 600 ${LFS}/var/log/btmp</userinput></screen>
222
223  <para>The <filename>${LFS}/var/run/utmp</filename> file records the users
224  that are currently logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</filename>
225  file records all logins and logouts. The
226  <filename>${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</filename> file records when
227  each user last logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/btmp</filename> file
228  records the bad login attempts.</para>
229
230</sect1>
Note: See TracBrowser for help on using the repository browser.