source: boot/common/pwdgroup.xml @ 5b8677c

Last change on this file since 5b8677c was 5b8677c, checked in by Jim Gifford <clfs@…>, 17 years ago

r4535@server: jim | 2006-07-12 17:47:54 -0700
Added descriptions to users/groups

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 7.9 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
9  <?dbhtml filename="pwdgroup.html"?>
10
11  <title>Creating the passwd, group, and log Files</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
14    <primary sortas="e-/etc/passwd">/etc/passwd</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
18    <primary sortas="e-/etc/group">/etc/group</primary>
19  </indexterm>
20
21  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
22    <primary sortas="e-/var/run/utmp">/var/run/utmp</primary>
23  </indexterm>
24
25  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
26    <primary sortas="e-/var/log/btmp">/var/log/btmp</primary>
27  </indexterm>
28
29  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
30    <primary sortas="e-/var/log/lastlog">/var/log/lastlog</primary>
31  </indexterm>
32
33  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
34    <primary sortas="e-/var/log/wtmp">/var/log/wtmp</primary>
35  </indexterm>
36
37  <para os="a">In order for user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to
38  be able to login and for the name <quote>root</quote> to be recognized,
39  there must be relevant entries in the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>
40  and <filename>/etc/group</filename> files.</para>
41
42  <para>Create the <filename>${CLFS}/etc/passwd</filename> file by running
43  the following command:</para>
44
45<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${CLFS}/etc/passwd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
46<literal>root::0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash</literal>
47EOF</userinput></screen>
48
49  <para os="b">The actual password for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
50  (the <quote>::</quote> used here is just a placeholder and allow you to login
51  with no password) will be set later.</para>
52
53  <variablelist os="c">
54 
55    <title>Additional users you may want to add:</title>
56
57    <varlistentry>
58      <term><literal>bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/false</literal></term>
59      <listitem>
60        <para>Was recommended for compatibility with legacy applications.</para>
61      </listitem>
62    </varlistentry>
63    <varlistentry>
64      <term><literal>daemon:x:2:6:daemon:/sbin:/bin/false</literal></term>
65      <listitem>
66        <para>Was recommended as an unprivileged User ID/Group ID for daemons
67         to execute under in order to limit their access to the system.</para>
68      </listitem>
69    </varlistentry>
70    <varlistentry>
71      <term><literal>adm:x:3:16:adm:/var/adm:/bin/false</literal></term>
72      <listitem>
73        <para>Was used for programs that performed administrative tasks.</para>
74      </listitem>
75    </varlistentry>
76    <varlistentry>
77      <term><literal>lp:x:10:9:lp:/var/spool/lp:/bin/false</literal></term>
78      <listitem>
79        <para>Used by programs for printing</para>
80      </listitem>
81    </varlistentry>
82    <varlistentry>
83      <term><literal>mail:x:30:30:mail:/var/mail:/bin/false</literal></term>
84      <listitem>
85        <para>Often used by email programs</para>
86      </listitem>
87    </varlistentry>
88    <varlistentry>
89      <term><literal>news:x:31:31:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/false</literal></term>
90      <listitem>
91        <para>Often used for network news servers</para>
92      </listitem>
93    </varlistentry>
94    <varlistentry>
95      <term><literal>uucp:x:32:32:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/false</literal></term>
96      <listitem>
97        <para>Often used for Unix-to-Unix Copy of files from one server to the next/</para>
98      </listitem>
99    </varlistentry>
100    <varlistentry>
101      <term><literal>operator:x:50:0:operator:/root:/bin/bash</literal></term>
102      <listitem>
103        <para>Often used to allow system operators to access the system</para>
104      </listitem>
105    </varlistentry>
106    <varlistentry>
107      <term><literal>postmaster:x:51:30:postmaster:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false</literal></term>
108      <listitem>
109        <para>Is the account that receives all the information of troubles with the mail server</para>
110      </listitem>
111    </varlistentry>
112    <varlistentry>
113      <term><literal>nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/:/bin/false</literal></term>
114      <listitem>
115        <para>This account is used by NFS.</para>
116      </listitem>
117    </varlistentry>
118  </variablelist>
119
120  <para>Create the <filename>${CLFS}/etc/group</filename> file by running
121  the following command:</para>
122
123<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${CLFS}/etc/group &lt;&lt; "EOF"
124<literal>root:x:0:
125bin:x:1:
126sys:x:2:
127kmem:x:3:
128tty:x:4:
129tape:x:5:
130daemon:x:6:
131floppy:x:7:
132disk:x:8:
133lp:x:9:
134dialout:x:10:
135audio:x:11:
136video:x:12:
137utmp:x:13:
138usb:x:14:
139cdrom:x:15:</literal>
140EOF</userinput></screen>
141
142  <variablelist os="d">
143
144    <title>Additional groups you may want to add</title>
145
146    <varlistentry>
147      <term><literal>adm:x:16:root,adm,daemon</literal></term>
148      <listitem>
149        <para>All users in this group are allowed to do administrative tasks</para>
150      </listitem>
151    </varlistentry>
152    <varlistentry>
153      <term><literal>console:x:17:</literal></term>
154      <listitem>
155        <para>This group has direct access to the console</para>
156      </listitem>
157    </varlistentry>
158    <varlistentry>
159      <term><literal>cdrw:x:18:</literal></term>
160      <listitem>
161        <para>This group is allowed to use the CDRW drive</para>
162      </listitem>
163    </varlistentry>
164    <varlistentry>
165      <term><literal>mail:x:30:mail</literal></term>
166      <listitem>
167        <para>Used by MTAs (Mail Transport Agents)</para>
168      </listitem>
169    </varlistentry>
170    <varlistentry>
171      <term><literal>news:x:31:news</literal></term>
172      <listitem>
173        <para>Used by Network News Servers</para>
174      </listitem>
175    </varlistentry>
176    <varlistentry>
177      <term><literal>uucp:x:32:uucp</literal></term>
178      <listitem>
179        <para>Used by the Unix-to-Unix copy users.</para>
180      </listitem>
181    </varlistentry>
182    <varlistentry>
183      <term><literal>users:x:1000:</literal></term>
184      <listitem>
185        <para>The default GID used by shadow for new users</para>
186      </listitem>
187    </varlistentry>
188    <varlistentry>
189      <term><literal>nogroup:x:65533:</literal></term>
190      <listitem>
191        <para>This is a default group used by some programs that do not
192        require a group</para>
193      </listitem>
194    </varlistentry>
195    <varlistentry>
196      <term><literal>nobody:x:65534:</literal></term>
197      <listitem>
198        <para>This is used by NFS.</para>
199      </listitem>
200    </varlistentry>
201  </variablelist>
202
203  <para os="e">The created groups are not part of any standard&mdash;they are
204  groups decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration
205  in the final system, and in part by common convention employed by a
206  number of existing Linux distributions. The Linux Standard Base (LSB,
207  available at <ulink url="http://www.linuxbase.org"/>) recommends only
208  that, besides the group <quote>root</quote> with a Group ID (GID) of 0,
209  a group <quote>bin</quote> with a GID of 1 be present. All other group
210  names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since
211  well-written programs do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the
212  group's name.</para>
213
214  <para os="f">The <command>login</command>, <command>agetty</command>, and
215  <command>init</command> programs (and others) use a number of log
216  files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
217  when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
218  do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them
219  proper permissions:</para>
220
221<screen><userinput>touch ${CLFS}/var/run/utmp ${CLFS}/var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
222chmod -v 664 ${CLFS}/var/run/utmp ${CLFS}/var/log/lastlog
223chmod -v 600 ${CLFS}/var/log/btmp</userinput></screen>
224
225  <para>The <filename>/var/run/utmp</filename> file records the users
226  that are currently logged in. The <filename>/var/log/wtmp</filename>
227  file records all logins and logouts. The
228  <filename>/var/log/lastlog</filename> file records when
229  each user last logged in. The <filename>/var/log/btmp</filename> file
230  records the bad login attempts.</para>
231
232</sect1>
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