source: BOOK/final-system/common/shadow.xml @ b27081c4

sysvinit
Last change on this file since b27081c4 was b27081c4, checked in by Chris Staub <chris@…>, 6 years ago

Put one configure option per line

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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-shadow" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="shadow.html"?>
10
11  <title>Shadow-&shadow-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow">
14    <primary sortas="a-Shadow">Shadow</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <sect2 role="package">
18    <title/>
19
20    <para>The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a
21    secure way.</para>
22
23  </sect2>
24
25  <sect2 role="installation">
26    <title>Installation of Shadow</title>
27
28    <note os="a">
29      <para>If you would like to enforce the use of strong passwords,
30      refer to <ulink url="&cblfs-root;index.php/Cracklib"/>
31      for installing Cracklib prior to building Shadow. After Cracklib is
32      installed, execute this <command>sed</command> in Shadow's source
33      directory to correct the path to the Cracklib dictionary:</para>
34
35<screen role="nodump"><userinput>sed -i 's@\(DICTPATH.\).*@\1/lib/cracklib/pw_dict@' etc/login.defs</userinput></screen>
36
37      <para>Finally, add <parameter>--with-libcrack</parameter> to the
38      <command>configure</command> command below.</para>
39
40    </note>
41
42    <para os="b">Disable the installation of the <command>groups</command> and
43    <command>nologin</command> programs and their man pages, as better versions
44    of these programs are provided by Coreutils and Util-linux:</para>
45
46<screen os="c"><userinput>sed -i src/Makefile.in \
47  -e 's/groups$(EXEEXT) //' -e 's/= nologin$(EXEEXT)/= /'
48find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i \
49  -e 's/man1\/groups\.1 //' -e 's/man8\/nologin\.8 //' '{}' \;</userinput></screen>
50
51    <para os="d">Prepare Shadow for compilation:</para>
52
53<screen os="e"><userinput>./configure \
54    --sysconfdir=/etc</userinput></screen>
55
56<para os="f">The meaning of the new configure option:</para>
57
58  <variablelist os="g">
59    <varlistentry>
60      <term><parameter>--sysconfdir=/etc</parameter></term>
61      <listitem><para>Tells Shadow to install its configuration files into
62      <filename class="directory">/etc</filename>, rather than
63      <filename class="directory">/usr/etc</filename>.</para></listitem>
64    </varlistentry>
65
66  </variablelist>
67
68    <para os="h">Compile the package:</para>
69
70<screen os="i"><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
71
72    <para os="j">This package does not come with a test suite.</para>
73
74    <para os="k">Install the package:</para>
75
76<screen os="l"><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
77
78    <para os="m" id="shadow-login_defs">Instead of using the default
79    <emphasis>DES</emphasis> method, use the more secure
80    <emphasis>SHA512</emphasis> method of password encryption, which also allows
81    passwords longer than 8 characters. It is also necessary to change the
82    obsolete <filename class="directory">/var/spool/mail</filename> location
83    for user mailboxes that Shadow uses by default to the <filename
84    class="directory">/var/mail</filename> location used currently. Use the
85    following sed command to make these changes to the appropriate
86    configuration file:</para>
87
88    <indexterm os="n" zone="shadow-login_defs">
89      <primary sortas="e-/etc/login.defs">/etc/login.defs</primary>
90    </indexterm>
91
92<screen os="s"><userinput>sed -i /etc/login.defs \
93    -e 's@#\(ENCRYPT_METHOD \).*@\1SHA512@' \
94    -e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@'</userinput></screen>
95
96    <para os="t">Move a misplaced program to its proper location:</para>
97
98<screen os="u"><userinput>mv -v /usr/bin/passwd /bin</userinput></screen>
99
100  </sect2>
101
102  <sect2 id="conf-shadow" role="configuration">
103    <title>Configuring Shadow</title>
104
105    <indexterm zone="conf-shadow">
106      <primary sortas="a-Shadow">Shadow</primary>
107      <secondary>configuring</secondary>
108    </indexterm>
109
110    <para>This package contains utilities to add, modify, and delete users and
111    groups; set and change their passwords; and perform other administrative
112    tasks. For a full explanation of what <emphasis>password shadowing</emphasis>
113    means, see the <filename>doc/HOWTO</filename> file within the unpacked source
114    tree. If using Shadow support, keep in mind that programs which need to
115    verify passwords (display managers, FTP programs, pop3 daemons, etc.) must
116    be Shadow-compliant. That is, they need to be able to work with shadowed
117    passwords.</para>
118
119    <para>To enable shadowed passwords, run the following command:</para>
120
121<screen><userinput>pwconv</userinput></screen>
122
123    <para>To enable shadowed group passwords, run:</para>
124
125<screen role="nodump"><userinput>grpconv</userinput></screen>
126
127    <para>To view or change the default settings for new user accounts that
128    you create, you can edit <filename>/etc/default/useradd</filename>. See
129    <command>man useradd</command> or
130    <ulink url="&cblfs-root;index.php/Configuring_for_Adding_Users"/> for more
131    information.</para>
132
133  </sect2>
134
135  <sect2 id="root-password" role="configuration">
136    <title>Setting the root password</title>
137
138    <para>Choose a password for user <systemitem
139    class="username">root</systemitem> and set it by running:</para>
140
141<screen role="nodump"><userinput>passwd root</userinput></screen>
142
143  </sect2>
144
145  <sect2 id="contents-shadow" role="content">
146    <title>Contents of Shadow</title>
147
148    <segmentedlist>
149      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
150      <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
151
152      <seglistitem>
153        <seg>chage, chfn, chgpasswd, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd,
154        groupadd, groupdel, groupmems, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv,
155        lastlog, login, logoutd, newgrp, newusers, passwd, pwck,
156        pwconv, pwunconv, sg (link to newgrp), su, useradd, userdel, usermod,
157        vigr (link to vipw), vipw</seg>
158        <seg>/etc/default</seg>
159      </seglistitem>
160    </segmentedlist>
161
162    <variablelist>
163      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
164      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
165      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
166
167      <varlistentry id="chage">
168        <term><command>chage</command></term>
169        <listitem>
170          <para>Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory
171          password changes</para>
172          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow chage">
173            <primary sortas="b-chage">chage</primary>
174          </indexterm>
175        </listitem>
176      </varlistentry>
177
178      <varlistentry id="chfn">
179        <term><command>chfn</command></term>
180        <listitem>
181          <para>Used to change a user's full name and other information</para>
182          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow chfn">
183            <primary sortas="b-chfn">chfn</primary>
184          </indexterm>
185        </listitem>
186      </varlistentry>
187
188      <varlistentry id="chgpasswd">
189        <term><command>chgpasswd</command></term>
190        <listitem>
191          <para>Used to update group passwords in batch mode</para>
192          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow chgpasswd">
193            <primary sortas="b-chgpasswd">chgpasswd</primary>
194          </indexterm>
195        </listitem>
196      </varlistentry>
197
198      <varlistentry id="chpasswd">
199        <term><command>chpasswd</command></term>
200        <listitem>
201          <para>Used to update the passwords of an entire series of user
202          accounts</para>
203          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow chpasswd">
204            <primary sortas="b-chpasswd">chpasswd</primary>
205          </indexterm>
206        </listitem>
207      </varlistentry>
208
209      <varlistentry id="chsh">
210        <term><command>chsh</command></term>
211        <listitem>
212          <para>Used to change a user's default login shell</para>
213          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow chsh">
214            <primary sortas="b-chsh">chsh</primary>
215          </indexterm>
216        </listitem>
217      </varlistentry>
218
219      <varlistentry id="expiry">
220        <term><command>expiry</command></term>
221        <listitem>
222          <para>Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy</para>
223          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow expiry">
224            <primary sortas="b-expiry">expiry</primary>
225          </indexterm>
226        </listitem>
227      </varlistentry>
228
229      <varlistentry id="faillog">
230        <term><command>faillog</command></term>
231        <listitem>
232          <para>Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum
233          number of failures before an account is blocked, or to reset the
234          failure count</para>
235          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow faillog">
236            <primary sortas="b-faillog">faillog</primary>
237          </indexterm>
238        </listitem>
239      </varlistentry>
240
241      <varlistentry id="gpasswd">
242        <term><command>gpasswd</command></term>
243        <listitem>
244          <para>Is used to add and delete members and administrators to
245          groups</para>
246          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow gpasswd">
247            <primary sortas="b-gpasswd">gpasswd</primary>
248          </indexterm>
249        </listitem>
250      </varlistentry>
251
252      <varlistentry id="groupadd">
253        <term><command>groupadd</command></term>
254        <listitem>
255          <para>Creates a group with the given name</para>
256          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow groupadd">
257            <primary sortas="b-groupadd">groupadd</primary>
258          </indexterm>
259        </listitem>
260      </varlistentry>
261
262      <varlistentry id="groupdel">
263        <term><command>groupdel</command></term>
264        <listitem>
265          <para>Deletes the group with the given name</para>
266          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow groupdel">
267            <primary sortas="b-groupdel">groupdel</primary>
268          </indexterm>
269        </listitem>
270      </varlistentry>
271
272      <varlistentry id="groupmems">
273        <term><command>groupmems</command></term>
274        <listitem>
275          <para>Allows a user to administer his/her own group membership list
276          without the requirement of superuser privileges</para>
277          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow groupmems">
278            <primary sortas="b-groupmems">groupmems</primary>
279          </indexterm>
280        </listitem>
281      </varlistentry>
282
283      <varlistentry id="groupmod">
284        <term><command>groupmod</command></term>
285        <listitem>
286          <para>Is used to modify the given group's name or GID</para>
287          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow groupmod">
288            <primary sortas="b-groupmod">groupmod</primary>
289          </indexterm>
290        </listitem>
291      </varlistentry>
292
293      <varlistentry id="grpck">
294        <term><command>grpck</command></term>
295        <listitem>
296          <para>Verifies the integrity of the group files
297          <filename>/etc/group</filename> and
298          <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename></para>
299          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow grpck">
300            <primary sortas="b-grpck">grpck</primary>
301          </indexterm>
302        </listitem>
303      </varlistentry>
304
305      <varlistentry id="grpconv">
306        <term><command>grpconv</command></term>
307        <listitem>
308          <para>Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal
309          group file</para>
310          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow grpconv">
311            <primary sortas="b-grpconv">grpconv</primary>
312          </indexterm>
313        </listitem>
314      </varlistentry>
315
316      <varlistentry id="grpunconv">
317        <term><command>grpunconv</command></term>
318        <listitem>
319          <para>Updates <filename>/etc/group</filename> from
320          <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename> and then deletes the latter</para>
321          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow grpunconv">
322            <primary sortas="b-grpunconv">grpunconv</primary>
323          </indexterm>
324        </listitem>
325      </varlistentry>
326
327      <varlistentry id="lastlog">
328        <term><command>lastlog</command></term>
329        <listitem>
330          <para>Reports the most recent login of all users or of a
331          given user</para>
332          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow lastlog">
333            <primary sortas="b-lastlog">lastlog</primary>
334          </indexterm>
335        </listitem>
336      </varlistentry>
337
338      <varlistentry id="login">
339        <term><command>login</command></term>
340        <listitem>
341          <para>Is used by the system to let users sign on</para>
342          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow login">
343            <primary sortas="b-login">login</primary>
344          </indexterm>
345        </listitem>
346      </varlistentry>
347
348      <varlistentry id="logoutd">
349        <term><command>logoutd</command></term>
350        <listitem>
351          <para>Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time
352          and ports</para>
353          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow logoutd">
354            <primary sortas="b-logoutd">logoutd</primary>
355          </indexterm>
356        </listitem>
357      </varlistentry>
358
359      <varlistentry id="newgrp">
360        <term><command>newgrp</command></term>
361        <listitem>
362          <para>Is used to change the current GID during a login session</para>
363          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow newgrp">
364            <primary sortas="b-newgrp">newgrp</primary>
365          </indexterm>
366        </listitem>
367      </varlistentry>
368
369      <varlistentry id="newusers">
370        <term><command>newusers</command></term>
371        <listitem>
372          <para>Is used to create or update an entire series of user
373          accounts</para>
374          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow newusers">
375            <primary sortas="b-newusers">newusers</primary>
376          </indexterm>
377        </listitem>
378      </varlistentry>
379
380      <varlistentry id="passwd">
381        <term><command>passwd</command></term>
382        <listitem>
383          <para>Is used to change the password for a user or group account</para>
384          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow passwd">
385            <primary sortas="b-passwd">passwd</primary>
386          </indexterm>
387        </listitem>
388      </varlistentry>
389
390      <varlistentry id="pwck">
391        <term><command>pwck</command></term>
392        <listitem>
393          <para>Verifies the integrity of the password files
394          <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and
395          <filename>/etc/shadow</filename></para>
396          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow pwck">
397            <primary sortas="b-pwck">pwck</primary>
398          </indexterm>
399        </listitem>
400      </varlistentry>
401
402      <varlistentry id="pwconv">
403        <term><command>pwconv</command></term>
404        <listitem>
405          <para>Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal
406          password file</para>
407          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow pwconv">
408            <primary sortas="b-pwconv">pwconv</primary>
409          </indexterm>
410        </listitem>
411      </varlistentry>
412
413      <varlistentry id="pwunconv">
414        <term><command>pwunconv</command></term>
415        <listitem>
416          <para>Updates <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> from
417          <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> and then deletes the latter</para>
418          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow pwunconv">
419            <primary sortas="b-pwunconv">pwunconv</primary>
420          </indexterm>
421        </listitem>
422      </varlistentry>
423
424      <varlistentry id="sg">
425        <term><command>sg</command></term>
426        <listitem>
427          <para>Executes a given command while the user's GID
428          is set to that of the given group</para>
429          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow sg">
430            <primary sortas="b-sg">sg</primary>
431          </indexterm>
432        </listitem>
433      </varlistentry>
434
435      <varlistentry id="su">
436        <term><command>su</command></term>
437        <listitem>
438          <para>Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs</para>
439          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow su">
440            <primary sortas="b-su">su</primary>
441          </indexterm>
442        </listitem>
443      </varlistentry>
444
445      <varlistentry id="useradd">
446        <term><command>useradd</command></term>
447        <listitem>
448          <para>Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default
449          new-user information</para>
450          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow useradd">
451            <primary sortas="b-useradd">useradd</primary>
452          </indexterm>
453        </listitem>
454      </varlistentry>
455
456      <varlistentry id="userdel">
457        <term><command>userdel</command></term>
458        <listitem>
459          <para>Deletes the given user account</para>
460          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow userdel">
461            <primary sortas="b-userdel">userdel</primary>
462          </indexterm>
463        </listitem>
464      </varlistentry>
465
466      <varlistentry id="usermod">
467        <term><command>usermod</command></term>
468        <listitem>
469          <para>Is used to modify the given user's login name, User
470          Identification (UID), shell, initial group, home directory, etc.</para>
471          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow usermod">
472            <primary sortas="b-usermod">usermod</primary>
473          </indexterm>
474        </listitem>
475      </varlistentry>
476
477      <varlistentry id="vigr">
478        <term><command>vigr</command></term>
479        <listitem>
480          <para>Edits the <filename>/etc/group</filename> or
481          <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename> files</para>
482          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow vigr">
483            <primary sortas="b-vigr">vigr</primary>
484          </indexterm>
485        </listitem>
486      </varlistentry>
487
488      <varlistentry id="vipw">
489        <term><command>vipw</command></term>
490        <listitem>
491          <para>Edits the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> or
492          <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> files</para>
493          <indexterm zone="ch-system-shadow vipw">
494            <primary sortas="b-vipw">vipw</primary>
495          </indexterm>
496        </listitem>
497      </varlistentry>
498
499    </variablelist>
500
501  </sect2>
502
503</sect1>
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