source: BOOK/final-system/common/glibc.xml @ 58375318

systemd
Last change on this file since 58375318 was 58375318, checked in by William Harrington <kb0iic@…>, 5 years ago

Use --enable-stack-protector=strong during GLIBC final system.

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File size: 34.7 KB
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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
10
11  <title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc">
14    <primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <sect2 role="package">
18    <title/>
19
20    <para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides
21    the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
22    closing files, reading and writing files, string handling, pattern matching,
23    arithmetic, and so on.</para>
24
25  </sect2>
26
27  <sect2 role="installation">
28    <title>Installation of Glibc</title>
29
30    <note os="z">
31      <para>Some packages outside of CLFS suggest installing GNU libiconv in
32      order to translate data from one encoding to another. The project's
33      home page (<ulink url="http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/"/>) says
34      <quote>This library provides an <function>iconv()</function>
35      implementation, for use on systems which don't have one, or whose
36      implementation cannot convert from/to Unicode.</quote> Glibc provides
37      an <function>iconv()</function> implementation and can convert from/to
38      Unicode, therefore libiconv is not required on a CLFS system.</para>
39    </note>
40
41    <para os="l1">At the end of the installation, the build system will run
42    a sanity test to make sure everything installed properly. This script
43    performs its tests by attempting to compile test programs against certain
44    libraries. However it does not specify the path to
45    <filename class="libraryfile">ld.so</filename>, and our toolchain
46    is still configured to use the one in
47    <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The following set of
48    commands will force the script to use the complete path of the new
49    <filename class="libraryfile">ld.so</filename> that was just installed:</para>
50
51<screen os="l2"><userinput>LINKER=$(readelf -l /tools/bin/bash | sed -n 's@.*interpret.*/tools\(.*\)]$@\1@p')
52sed -i "s|libs -o|libs -L/usr/lib -Wl,-dynamic-linker=${LINKER} -o|" \
53  scripts/test-installation.pl
54unset LINKER</userinput></screen>
55
56    <para os="b">The Glibc build system is self-contained and will install
57    perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still
58    pointing at <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The specs
59    and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the
60    Glibc Autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
61    of achieving a clean build.</para>
62
63    <para os="e">The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of     the source directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
64
65<screen os="f"><userinput>mkdir -v ../glibc-build
66cd ../glibc-build</userinput></screen>
67
68    <para os="g">Prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
69
70<screen os="h"><userinput>../glibc-&glibc-version;/configure \
71    --prefix=/usr \
72    --enable-kernel=&glibc-kernel-version; \
73    --libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc \
74    --enable-stack-protector=strong \
75    --enable-obsolete-rpc</userinput></screen>
76
77    <variablelist os="i">
78      <title>The meaning of the new configure option:</title>
79
80      <varlistentry>
81        <term><parameter>--libexecdir=/usr/lib/glibc</parameter></term>
82        <listitem>
83          <para>This changes the location for hard links to the
84          <command>getconf</command> utility from their default of <filename
85          class="directory">/usr/libexec</filename> to <filename
86          class="directory">/usr/lib/glibc</filename>.</para>
87        </listitem>
88      </varlistentry>
89    </variablelist>
90
91    <para os="j">Compile the package:</para>
92
93<screen os="k"><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
94
95    <important os="l">
96      <para>Due to Glibc's critical role in a properly functioning system,
97      the CLFS developers strongly recommend running the testsuite.</para>
98    </important>
99
100    <para os="m">Use the following commands to run the test suite and output
101    any test failures:</para>
102
103<!-- items n,o,p no longer the master, use x86_64 which has no failures -->
104
105<screen os="n"><userinput remap="test">make check</userinput></screen>
106
107    <para os="o">The Glibc test suite is highly dependent on certain functions of
108    the host system, in particular the kernel. The <emphasis>posix/annexc</emphasis> and
109    <emphasis>conform/run-conformtest</emphasis> tests normally fail
110    and you should see <literal>Error 1 (ignored)</literal> in the output. Apart
111    from this, the Glibc test suite is always expected to pass. However, in certain
112    circumstances, some failures are unavoidable. If a test fails because of a missing
113    program (or missing symbolic link), or a segfault, you will see an error code
114    greater than 127 and the details will be in the log. More commonly, tests will
115    fail with <literal>Error 2</literal> - for these, the contents of the corresponding
116    <filename>.out</filename> file, e.g. <filename>posix/annexc.out</filename> may be
117    informative. Here is a list of the most common issues:</para>
118
119    <itemizedlist os="p">
120      <listitem>
121        <para>The <emphasis>nptl/tst-clock2</emphasis>,
122        <emphasis>nptl/tst-attr3</emphasis>,
123        <emphasis>tst/tst-cputimer1</emphasis>, and
124        <emphasis>rt/tst-cpuclock2</emphasis>
125        tests have been known to fail.  The
126        reason is not completely understood, but indications are that minor
127        timing issues can trigger these failures.</para>
128      </listitem>
129      <listitem>
130        <para>The <emphasis>math</emphasis> tests sometimes fail.
131        Certain optimization settings are known to be a
132        factor here.</para>
133      </listitem>
134      <listitem>
135        <para>If you have mounted the CLFS partition with the
136        <parameter>noatime</parameter> option, the <emphasis>atime</emphasis> test
137        will fail. As mentioned in <xref linkend="ch-partitioning-mounting"/>,
138        do not use the <parameter>noatime</parameter> option while building
139        CLFS.</para>
140      </listitem>
141      <listitem>
142        <para>When running on older and slower hardware, some tests
143        can fail because of test timeouts being exceeded.
144        Modifying the make check command to set a TIMEOUTFACTOR is reported to
145        help eliminate these errors (e.g. <command>TIMEOUTFACTOR=16
146        make -k check</command>).</para>
147      </listitem>
148      <listitem>
149        <para>posix/tst-getaddrinfo4 will always fail due to not having a network
150        connection when the test is run.</para>
151      </listitem>
152    </itemizedlist>
153
154    <para os="q">Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
155    complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>.
156    Prevent this warning with:</para>
157
158<screen os="r"><userinput>touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
159
160    <para os="s">Install the package, and remove unneeded files from
161    <filename class="directory">/usr/include/rpcsvc</filename>:</para>
162
163<screen os="t"><userinput>make install &amp;&amp;
164rm -v /usr/include/rpcsvc/*.x</userinput></screen>
165
166    <para os="u">Install the configuration file and runtime directory for
167    <command>nscd</command>:</para>
168
169<screen os="v"><userinput>cp -v ../glibc-&glibc-version;/nscd/nscd.conf /etc/nscd.conf
170mkdir -pv /var/cache/nscd</userinput></screen>
171
172    <para os="w">Install the systemd support files for <command>nscd</command>:</para>
173
174<screen os="x"><userinput>install -v -Dm644 ../glibc-&glibc-version;/nscd/nscd.tmpfiles /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/nscd.conf
175install -v -Dm644 ../glibc-&glibc-version;/nscd/nscd.service /lib/systemd/system/nscd.service</userinput></screen>
176
177  </sect2>
178
179  <sect2 id="i18n-glibc" role="configuration">
180    <title>Internationalization</title>
181
182    <para>The locales that can make the system respond in a different
183    language were not installed by the above command. Install them
184    with:</para>
185
186<screen><userinput>make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
187
188    <para>To save time, an alternative to running the previous command (which
189    generates and installs every locale listed in the
190    <filename>glibc-&glibc-version;/localedata/SUPPORTED</filename> file) is
191    to install only those locales that are wanted and needed. This can be
192    achieved by using the <command>localedef</command> command. Information on
193    this command is located in the <filename>INSTALL</filename> file in the
194    Glibc source. However, there are a number of locales that are essential in
195    order for the tests of future packages to pass, in particular, the
196    <emphasis>libstdc++</emphasis> tests from GCC. The following instructions,
197    instead of the <parameter>install-locales</parameter> target used above,
198    will install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run
199    successfully:</para>
200
201<screen role="nodump"><userinput>mkdir -pv /usr/lib/locale
202localedef -i cs_CZ -f UTF-8 cs_CZ.UTF-8
203localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
204localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
205localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
206localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
207localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
208localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
209localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
210localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
211localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
212localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
213localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP</userinput></screen>
214
215    <para>Some locales installed by the <command>make
216    localedata/install-locales</command> command above are not properly
217    supported by some applications that are in CLFS and CBLFS. Because
218    of the various problems that arise due to application programmers making
219    assumptions that break in such locales, CLFS should not be used in locales
220    that utilize multibyte character sets (including UTF-8) or right-to-left
221    writing order.  Numerous unofficial and unstable patches are required to
222    fix these problems, and it has been decided by the CLFS developers not to
223    support such complex locales at this time. This applies to the ja_JP and
224    fa_IR locales as well&mdash;they have been installed only for GCC and
225    Gettext tests to pass, and the <command>watch</command> program (part of
226    the Procps-ng package) does not work properly in them. Various attempts to
227    circumvent these restrictions are documented in internationalization-related
228    hints.</para>
229
230  </sect2>
231
232  <sect2 id="conf-glibc" role="configuration">
233    <title>Configuring Glibc</title>
234
235    <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
236      <primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary>
237    </indexterm>
238
239    <indexterm zone="conf-glibc">
240      <primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary>
241    </indexterm>
242
243    <para>The <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file needs to be created
244    because, although Glibc provides defaults when this file is missing or
245    corrupt, the Glibc defaults do not work well in a networked environment.
246    The time zone also needs to be configured.</para>
247
248    <para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running
249    the following:</para>
250
251<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
252<literal># Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
253
254passwd: files
255group: files
256shadow: files
257
258hosts: files dns
259networks: files
260
261protocols: files
262services: files
263ethers: files
264rpc: files
265
266# End /etc/nsswitch.conf</literal>
267EOF</userinput></screen>
268
269    <para>Install timezone data:</para>
270<screen><userinput>tar -xf ../tzdata&tzdata-version;.tar.gz
271
272ZONEINFO=/usr/share/zoneinfo
273mkdir -pv $ZONEINFO/{posix,right}
274
275for tz in etcetera southamerica northamerica europe africa antarctica \
276          asia australasia backward pacificnew systemv; do
277    zic -L /dev/null   -d $ZONEINFO       -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
278    zic -L /dev/null   -d $ZONEINFO/posix -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
279    zic -L leapseconds -d $ZONEINFO/right -y "sh yearistype.sh" ${tz}
280done
281
282cp -v zone.tab zone1970.tab iso3166.tab $ZONEINFO
283zic -d $ZONEINFO -p America/New_York
284unset ZONEINFO</userinput></screen>
285
286    <variablelist>
287      <title>The meaning of the zic commands:</title>
288
289      <varlistentry>
290        <term><parameter>zic -L /dev/null ...</parameter></term>
291        <listitem>
292          <para>This creates posix timezones, without any leap seconds.  It is
293          conventional to put these in both
294          <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename> and
295          <filename class="directory">zoneinfo/posix</filename>. It is
296          necessary to put the POSIX timezones in
297          <filename class="directory">zoneinfo</filename>, otherwise various
298          test-suites will report errors. On an embedded system, where space is
299          tight and you do not intend to ever update the timezones, you could save
300          1.9MB by not using the <filename class="directory">posix</filename>
301          directory, but some applications or test-suites might give less good
302          results</para>
303        </listitem>
304      </varlistentry>
305      <varlistentry>
306        <term><parameter>zic -L leapseconds ...</parameter></term>
307        <listitem>
308          <para>This creates right timezones, including leap seconds. On an
309          embedded system, where space is tight and you do not intend to
310          ever update the timezones, or care about the correct time, you could
311          save 1.9MB by omitting the <filename class="directory">right</filename>
312          directory.</para>
313        </listitem>
314      </varlistentry>
315      <varlistentry>
316        <term><parameter>zic ... -p ...</parameter></term>
317        <listitem>
318          <para>This creates the <filename>posixrules</filename> file. We use
319          New York because POSIX requires the daylight savings time rules
320          to be in accordance with US rules.</para>
321        </listitem>
322      </varlistentry>
323    </variablelist>
324
325    <para>To determine the local time zone, run the following script:</para>
326
327<screen role="nodump"><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
328
329    <para>After answering a few questions about the location, the script will
330    output the name of the time zone (e.g., <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis> or
331    <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis>). Then create the
332    <filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by running:</para>
333
334<screen><userinput>cp -v /usr/share/zoneinfo/<replaceable>[xxx]</replaceable> \
335    /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
336
337    <para>Replace <replaceable>[xxx]</replaceable> with the name of the time zone
338    that <command>tzselect</command> provided (e.g., Canada/Eastern).</para>
339
340  </sect2>
341
342  <sect2 id="conf-ld" role="configuration">
343    <title>Configuring The Dynamic Loader</title>
344
345    <indexterm zone="conf-ld">
346      <primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary>
347    </indexterm>
348
349    <para os="ld-a">By default, the dynamic loader (<filename
350    class="libraryfile">/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through
351    <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename
352    class="directory">/usr/lib</filename> for dynamic libraries that are
353    needed by programs as they are run. However, if there are libraries in
354    directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
355    <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, these need to be
356    added to the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file in order
357    for the dynamic loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly
358    known to contain additional libraries are <filename
359    class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename> and <filename
360    class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so add those directories to the
361    dynamic loader's search path.</para>
362
363    <para os="ld-b">Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
364    following:</para>
365
366<screen os="ld-c"><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"
367<literal># Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
368
369/usr/local/lib
370/opt/lib
371
372# End /etc/ld.so.conf</literal>
373EOF</userinput></screen>
374
375  </sect2>
376
377  <sect2 id="contents-glibc" role="content">
378    <title>Contents of Glibc</title>
379
380    <segmentedlist>
381      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
382      <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
383      <segtitle>Installed directories</segtitle>
384
385      <seglistitem>
386        <seg>catchsegv, gencat, getconf, getent, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig,
387        ldd, lddlibc4, locale, localedef, makedb, mtrace, nscd,
388        pcprofiledump, pldd, rpcgen, sln, sotruss, sprof, tzselect, xtrace,
389        zdump, zic</seg>
390        <seg>ld.so, libBrokenLocale.[a,so], libSegFault.so, libanl.[a,so],
391        libc.[a,so], libc_nonshared.a, libcidn.[a,so], libcrypt.[a,so],
392        libdl.[a,so], libg.a, libieee.a, libm.[a,so], libmcheck.a,
393        libmemusage.so, libnsl.a, libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so,
394        libnss_files.so, libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so, libnss_nisplus.so,
395        libpcprofile.so, libpthread.[a,so], libpthread_nonshared.a,
396        libresolv.[a,so], librpcsvc.a, librt.[a,so], libthread_db.so,
397        libutil.[a,so]</seg>
398        <seg>/usr/include/arpa, /usr/include/bits, /usr/include/gnu,
399        /usr/include/net, /usr/include/netash, /usr/include/netatalk,
400        /usr/include/netax25, /usr/include/neteconet, /usr/include/netinet,
401        /usr/include/netipx, /usr/include/netiucv, /usr/include/netpacket,
402        /usr/include/netrom, /usr/include/netrose, /usr/include/nfs,
403        /usr/include/protocols, /usr/include/rpc, /usr/include/rpcsvc,
404        /usr/include/scsi, /usr/include/sys, /usr/lib/audit, /usr/lib/gconv,
405        /usr/lib/glibc, /usr/lib/locale, /usr/share/i18n, /usr/share/zoneinfo,
406        /var/cache/ldconfig, /var/cache/nscd</seg>
407      </seglistitem>
408    </segmentedlist>
409
410    <variablelist>
411      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
412      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
413      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
414
415      <varlistentry id="catchsegv">
416        <term><command>catchsegv</command></term>
417        <listitem>
418          <para>Can be used to create a stack trace when a program
419          terminates with a segmentation fault</para>
420          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv">
421            <primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary>
422          </indexterm>
423        </listitem>
424      </varlistentry>
425
426      <varlistentry id="gencat">
427        <term><command>gencat</command></term>
428        <listitem>
429          <para>Generates message catalogues</para>
430          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat">
431            <primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary>
432          </indexterm>
433        </listitem>
434      </varlistentry>
435
436      <varlistentry id="getconf">
437        <term><command>getconf</command></term>
438        <listitem>
439          <para>Displays the system configuration values for file system specific
440          variables</para>
441          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf">
442            <primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary>
443          </indexterm>
444        </listitem>
445      </varlistentry>
446
447      <varlistentry id="getent">
448        <term><command>getent</command></term>
449        <listitem>
450          <para>Gets entries from an administrative database</para>
451          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent">
452            <primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary>
453          </indexterm>
454        </listitem>
455      </varlistentry>
456
457      <varlistentry id="iconv">
458        <term><command>iconv</command></term>
459        <listitem>
460          <para>Performs character set conversion</para>
461          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv">
462            <primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary>
463          </indexterm>
464        </listitem>
465      </varlistentry>
466
467      <varlistentry id="iconvconfig">
468        <term><command>iconvconfig</command></term>
469        <listitem>
470          <para>Creates fastloading <command>iconv</command> module configuration
471          files</para>
472          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig">
473            <primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary>
474          </indexterm>
475        </listitem>
476      </varlistentry>
477
478      <varlistentry id="ldconfig">
479        <term><command>ldconfig</command></term>
480        <listitem>
481          <para>Configures the dynamic linker runtime bindings</para>
482          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig">
483            <primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary>
484          </indexterm>
485        </listitem>
486      </varlistentry>
487
488      <varlistentry id="ldd">
489        <term><command>ldd</command></term>
490        <listitem>
491          <para>Reports which shared libraries are required
492          by each given program or shared library</para>
493          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd">
494            <primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary>
495          </indexterm>
496        </listitem>
497      </varlistentry>
498
499      <varlistentry id="lddlibc4">
500        <term><command>lddlibc4</command></term>
501        <listitem>
502          <para>Assists <command>ldd</command> with object files</para>
503          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4">
504            <primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary>
505          </indexterm>
506        </listitem>
507      </varlistentry>
508
509      <varlistentry id="locale">
510        <term><command>locale</command></term>
511        <listitem>
512          <para>Tells the compiler to enable or disable the use of POSIX locales
513          for built-in operations</para>
514          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale">
515            <primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary>
516          </indexterm>
517        </listitem>
518      </varlistentry>
519
520      <varlistentry id="localedef">
521        <term><command>localedef</command></term>
522        <listitem>
523          <para>Compiles locale specifications</para>
524          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef">
525            <primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary>
526          </indexterm>
527        </listitem>
528      </varlistentry>
529
530      <varlistentry id="makedb">
531        <term><command>makedb</command></term>
532        <listitem>
533          <para>Creates a simple database from textual input</para>
534          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc makedb">
535            <primary sortas="b-makedb">makedb</primary>
536          </indexterm>
537        </listitem>
538      </varlistentry>
539
540      <varlistentry id="mtrace">
541        <term><command>mtrace</command></term>
542        <listitem>
543          <para>Reads and interprets a memory trace file and
544          displays a summary in human-readable format</para>
545          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace">
546            <primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary>
547          </indexterm>
548        </listitem>
549      </varlistentry>
550
551      <varlistentry id="nscd">
552        <term><command>nscd</command></term>
553        <listitem>
554          <para>A daemon that provides a cache for the most common name
555          service requests</para>
556          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd">
557            <primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary>
558          </indexterm>
559        </listitem>
560      </varlistentry>
561
562      <varlistentry id="pcprofiledump">
563        <term><command>pcprofiledump</command></term>
564        <listitem>
565          <para>Dumps information generated by PC profiling</para>
566          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pcprofiledump">
567            <primary sortas="b-pcprofiledump">pcprofiledump</primary>
568          </indexterm>
569        </listitem>
570      </varlistentry>
571
572      <varlistentry id="pldd">
573        <term><command>pldd</command></term>
574        <listitem>
575          <para>Lists dynamic shared objects used by running processes</para>
576          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pldd">
577            <primary sortas="b-pldd">pldd</primary>
578          </indexterm>
579        </listitem>
580      </varlistentry>
581
582      <varlistentry id="rpcgen">
583        <term><command>rpcgen</command></term>
584        <listitem>
585          <para>Generates C code to implement the Remote Procecure Call (RPC)
586          protocol</para>
587          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc rpcgen">
588            <primary sortas="b-rpcgen">rpcgen</primary>
589          </indexterm>
590        </listitem>
591      </varlistentry>
592
593      <varlistentry id="sln">
594        <term><command>sln</command></term>
595        <listitem>
596          <para>A statically linked program that creates symbolic links</para>
597          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln">
598            <primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary>
599          </indexterm>
600        </listitem>
601      </varlistentry>
602
603      <varlistentry id="sotruss">
604        <term><command>sotruss</command></term>
605        <listitem>
606          <para>Traces shared library procedure calls of a specified command</para>
607          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sotruss">
608            <primary sortas="b-sotruss">sotruss</primary>
609          </indexterm>
610        </listitem>
611      </varlistentry>
612
613      <varlistentry id="sprof">
614        <term><command>sprof</command></term>
615        <listitem>
616          <para>Reads and displays shared object profiling data</para>
617          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof">
618            <primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary>
619          </indexterm>
620        </listitem>
621      </varlistentry>
622
623      <varlistentry id="tzselect">
624        <term><command>tzselect</command></term>
625        <listitem>
626          <para>Asks the user about the location of the
627          system and reports the corresponding time zone description</para>
628          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect">
629            <primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary>
630          </indexterm>
631        </listitem>
632      </varlistentry>
633
634      <varlistentry id="xtrace">
635        <term><command>xtrace</command></term>
636        <listitem>
637          <para>Traces the execution of a program by
638          printing the currently executed function</para>
639          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace">
640            <primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary>
641          </indexterm>
642        </listitem>
643      </varlistentry>
644
645      <varlistentry id="zdump">
646        <term><command>zdump</command></term>
647        <listitem>
648          <para>The time zone dumper</para>
649          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump">
650            <primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary>
651          </indexterm>
652        </listitem>
653      </varlistentry>
654
655      <varlistentry id="zic">
656        <term><command>zic</command></term>
657        <listitem>
658          <para>The time zone compiler</para>
659          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic">
660            <primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary>
661          </indexterm>
662        </listitem>
663      </varlistentry>
664
665      <varlistentry id="ld.so">
666        <term><filename class="libraryfile">ld.so</filename></term>
667        <listitem>
668          <para>The helper program for shared library executables</para>
669          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so">
670            <primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld.so</primary>
671          </indexterm>
672        </listitem>
673      </varlistentry>
674
675      <varlistentry id="libBrokenLocale">
676        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libBrokenLocale</filename></term>
677        <listitem>
678          <para>Used by programs, such as Mozilla, to solve broken locales</para>
679          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale">
680            <primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary>
681          </indexterm>
682        </listitem>
683      </varlistentry>
684
685      <varlistentry id="libSegFault">
686        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libSegFault</filename></term>
687        <listitem>
688          <para>The segmentation fault signal handler</para>
689          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault">
690            <primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary>
691          </indexterm>
692        </listitem>
693      </varlistentry>
694
695      <varlistentry id="libanl">
696        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libanl</filename></term>
697        <listitem>
698          <para>An asynchronous name lookup library</para>
699          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl">
700            <primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary>
701          </indexterm>
702        </listitem>
703      </varlistentry>
704
705      <varlistentry id="libc">
706        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libc</filename></term>
707        <listitem>
708          <para>The main C library</para>
709          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc">
710            <primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary>
711          </indexterm>
712        </listitem>
713      </varlistentry>
714
715      <varlistentry id="libcidn">
716        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcidn</filename></term>
717        <listitem>
718          <para>Used internally by Glibc for handling internationalized domain
719          names in the <function>getaddrinfo()</function> function</para>
720          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcidn">
721            <primary sortas="c-libcidn">libcidn</primary>
722          </indexterm>
723        </listitem>
724      </varlistentry>
725
726      <varlistentry id="libcrypt">
727        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libcrypt</filename></term>
728        <listitem>
729          <para>The cryptography library</para>
730          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt">
731            <primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary>
732          </indexterm>
733        </listitem>
734      </varlistentry>
735
736      <varlistentry id="libdl">
737        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libdl</filename></term>
738        <listitem>
739          <para>The dynamic linking interface library</para>
740          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl">
741            <primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary>
742          </indexterm>
743        </listitem>
744      </varlistentry>
745
746      <varlistentry id="libg">
747        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libg</filename></term>
748        <listitem>
749          <para>A runtime library for <command>g++</command></para>
750          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg">
751            <primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary>
752          </indexterm>
753        </listitem>
754      </varlistentry>
755
756      <varlistentry id="libieee">
757        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libieee</filename></term>
758        <listitem>
759          <para>The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
760          floating point library</para>
761          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libieee">
762            <primary sortas="c-libieee">libieee</primary>
763          </indexterm>
764        </listitem>
765      </varlistentry>
766
767      <varlistentry id="libm">
768        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libm</filename></term>
769        <listitem>
770          <para>The mathematical library</para>
771          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm">
772            <primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary>
773          </indexterm>
774        </listitem>
775      </varlistentry>
776
777      <varlistentry id="libmcheck">
778        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmcheck</filename></term>
779        <listitem>
780          <para>Contains code run at boot</para>
781          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck">
782            <primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary>
783          </indexterm>
784        </listitem>
785      </varlistentry>
786
787      <varlistentry id="libmemusage">
788        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libmemusage</filename></term>
789        <listitem>
790          <para>Used by <command>memusage</command> (included in Glibc, but
791          not built in a base CLFS system as it has additional dependencies)
792          to help collect information about the memory usage of a program</para>
793          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage">
794            <primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary>
795          </indexterm>
796        </listitem>
797      </varlistentry>
798
799      <varlistentry id="libnsl">
800        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnsl</filename></term>
801        <listitem>
802          <para>The network services library</para>
803          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl">
804            <primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary>
805          </indexterm>
806        </listitem>
807      </varlistentry>
808
809      <varlistentry id="libnss">
810        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libnss</filename></term>
811        <listitem>
812          <para>The Name Service Switch libraries, containing functions for
813          resolving host names, user names, group names, aliases, services,
814          protocols, etc.</para>
815          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss">
816            <primary sortas="c-libnss">libnss</primary>
817          </indexterm>
818        </listitem>
819      </varlistentry>
820
821      <varlistentry id="libpcprofile">
822        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpcprofile</filename></term>
823        <listitem>
824          <para>Contains profiling functions used to track the amount of CPU
825          time spent in specific source code lines</para>
826          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpcprofile">
827            <primary sortas="c-libpcprofile">libpcprofile</primary>
828          </indexterm>
829        </listitem>
830      </varlistentry>
831
832      <varlistentry id="libpthread">
833        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libpthread</filename></term>
834        <listitem>
835          <para>The POSIX threads library</para>
836          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread">
837            <primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary>
838          </indexterm>
839        </listitem>
840      </varlistentry>
841
842      <varlistentry id="libresolv">
843        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libresolv</filename></term>
844        <listitem>
845          <para>Contains functions for creating, sending, and interpreting
846          packets to the Internet domain name servers</para>
847          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv">
848            <primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary>
849          </indexterm>
850        </listitem>
851      </varlistentry>
852
853      <varlistentry id="librpcsvc">
854        <term><filename class="libraryfile">librpcsvc</filename></term>
855        <listitem>
856          <para>Contains functions providing miscellaneous RPC services</para>
857          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librpcsvc">
858            <primary sortas="c-librpcsvc">librpcsvc</primary>
859          </indexterm>
860        </listitem>
861      </varlistentry>
862
863      <varlistentry id="librt">
864        <term><filename class="libraryfile">librt</filename></term>
865        <listitem>
866          <para>Contains functions providing most of the interfaces specified by
867          the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension</para>
868          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt">
869            <primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary>
870          </indexterm>
871        </listitem>
872      </varlistentry>
873
874      <varlistentry id="libthread_db">
875        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libthread_db</filename></term>
876        <listitem>
877          <para>Contains functions useful for
878          building debuggers for multi-threaded programs</para>
879          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db">
880            <primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary>
881          </indexterm>
882        </listitem>
883      </varlistentry>
884
885      <varlistentry id="libutil">
886        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libutil</filename></term>
887        <listitem>
888          <para>Contains code for <quote>standard</quote> functions used in
889          many different Unix utilities</para>
890          <indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil">
891            <primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary>
892          </indexterm>
893        </listitem>
894      </varlistentry>
895
896    </variablelist>
897
898  </sect2>
899
900</sect1>
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