source: BOOK/final-system/common/binutils.xml @ 3d5c658

clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since 3d5c658 was 3d5c658, checked in by William Harrington <kb0iic@…>, 9 years ago

Remove sed in all binutils builds with hosts using Texinfo 5.x. It has been fixed in latest binutils release.

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 12.5 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-binutils" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="binutils.html"?>
10
11  <title>Binutils-&binutils-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils">
14    <primary sortas="a-Binutils">Binutils</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <sect2 role="package">
18    <title/>
19
20    <para>The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
21    tools for handling object files.</para>
22
23  </sect2>
24
25  <sect2 role="installation">
26    <title>Installation of Binutils</title>
27
28    <para os="b">Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the build
29    environment. Check that everything is set up correctly by performing a
30    simple test:</para>
31
32<screen os="c" role="nodump"><userinput>expect -c "spawn ls"</userinput></screen>
33
34    <para os="d">This command should give the following output:</para>
35
36<screen os="e"><computeroutput>spawn ls</computeroutput></screen>
37
38    <para os="f">If, instead, it gives a message saying to create more ptys,
39    then the environment is not set up for proper PTY operation. This issue
40    needs to be resolved before running the test suites for Binutils and GCC.</para>
41
42<!-- Branch update patch area
43    <para os="p1">The following patch contains a number of updates to the
44    &binutils-version; branch by the Binutils developers:</para>
45
46    <screen os="p2"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&binutils-branch_update-patch;</userinput></screen>
47-->
48
49    <para os="g">The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the
50    source directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
51
52<screen os="h"><userinput>mkdir -v ../binutils-build
53cd ../binutils-build</userinput></screen>
54
55    <para os="i">Prepare Binutils for compilation:</para>
56
57<screen os="ca"><userinput>CC="gcc -isystem /usr/include" \
58LDFLAGS="-Wl,-rpath-link,/usr/lib:/lib" \
59  ../binutils-&binutils-dir;/configure --prefix=/usr \
60    --enable-shared</userinput></screen>
61
62    <para os="j">Compile the package:</para>
63
64<screen os="k"><userinput>make configure-host</userinput></screen>
65
66    <important os="l">
67      <para>During <command>make configure-host</command> you may receive the
68      following error message. It is safe to ignore.</para>
69
70<screen><computeroutput>WARNING: `flex' is missing on your system. You should only
71need it if you modified a `.l' file. You may need the `Flex'
72package in order for those modifications to take effect. You
73can get `Flex' from any GNU archive site.</computeroutput></screen>
74    </important>
75
76<screen os="m"><userinput>make tooldir=/usr</userinput></screen>
77
78    <variablelist os="n">
79      <title>The meaning of the make parameter:</title>
80
81      <varlistentry>
82        <term><parameter>tooldir=/usr</parameter></term>
83        <listitem>
84          <para>Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables
85          will ultimately be located) is set to <filename
86          class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename>. Because this
87          is a custom system, this target-specific directory in <filename
88          class="directory">/usr</filename> is not required.</para>
89        </listitem>
90      </varlistentry>
91    </variablelist>
92
93    <important os="o">
94      <para>The test suite for Binutils is considered critical.
95      Do not skip it under any circumstance.</para>
96    </important>
97
98    <para os="p">Test the results:</para>
99
100<screen os="q"><userinput>make check</userinput></screen>
101
102    <para os="r">Install the package:</para>
103
104<screen os="s"><userinput>make tooldir=/usr install</userinput></screen>
105
106    <para os="t">Install the <filename class="headerfile">libiberty</filename> header
107    file that is needed by some packages:</para>
108
109<screen os="u"><userinput>cp -v ../binutils-&binutils-dir;/include/libiberty.h /usr/include</userinput></screen>
110
111  </sect2>
112
113  <sect2 id="contents-binutils" role="content">
114    <title>Contents of Binutils</title>
115
116    <segmentedlist>
117      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
118      <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
119      <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
120
121      <seglistitem>
122        <seg>addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, elfedit, gprof, ld, ld.bfd, nm, objcopy,
123        objdump,
124        ranlib, readelf, size, strings, and strip</seg>
125        <seg>libiberty.a, libbfd.[a,so], and libopcodes.[a,so]</seg>
126        <seg>/usr/lib/ldscripts</seg>
127      </seglistitem>
128    </segmentedlist>
129
130    <variablelist>
131      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
132      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
133      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
134
135      <varlistentry id="addr2line">
136        <term><command>addr2line</command></term>
137        <listitem>
138          <para>Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers;
139          given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
140          information in the executable to determine which source file and line
141          number are associated with the address</para>
142          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils addr2line">
143            <primary sortas="b-addr2line">addr2line</primary>
144          </indexterm>
145        </listitem>
146      </varlistentry>
147
148      <varlistentry id="ar">
149        <term><command>ar</command></term>
150        <listitem>
151          <para>Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives</para>
152          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ar">
153            <primary sortas="b-ar">ar</primary>
154          </indexterm>
155        </listitem>
156      </varlistentry>
157
158      <varlistentry id="as">
159        <term><command>as</command></term>
160        <listitem>
161          <para>An assembler that assembles the output of <command>gcc</command>
162          into object files</para>
163          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils as">
164            <primary sortas="b-as">as</primary>
165          </indexterm>
166        </listitem>
167      </varlistentry>
168
169      <varlistentry id="c-filt">
170        <term><command>c++filt</command></term>
171        <listitem>
172          <para>Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
173          overloaded functions from clashing</para>
174          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils c-filt">
175            <primary sortas="b-c++filt">c++filt</primary>
176          </indexterm>
177        </listitem>
178      </varlistentry>
179
180      <varlistentry id="elfedit">
181        <term><command>elfedit</command></term>
182        <listitem>
183          <para>Updates the ELF header of ELF files</para>
184          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils elfedit">
185            <primary sortas="b-elfedit">elfedit</primary>
186          </indexterm>
187        </listitem>
188      </varlistentry>
189
190      <varlistentry id="gprof">
191        <term><command>gprof</command></term>
192        <listitem>
193          <para>Displays call graph profile data</para>
194          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils gprof">
195            <primary sortas="b-gprof">gprof</primary>
196          </indexterm>
197        </listitem>
198      </varlistentry>
199
200      <varlistentry id="ld">
201        <term><command>ld</command></term>
202        <listitem>
203          <para>A linker that combines a number of object and archive files
204          into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol
205          references</para>
206          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld">
207            <primary sortas="b-ld">ld</primary>
208          </indexterm>
209        </listitem>
210      </varlistentry>
211
212      <varlistentry id="ld.bfd">
213        <term><command>ld.bfd</command></term>
214        <listitem>
215          <para>Hard link to <command>ld</command></para>
216          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.bfd">
217            <primary sortas="b-ld.bfd">ld.bfd</primary>
218          </indexterm>
219        </listitem>
220      </varlistentry>
221
222      <varlistentry id="nm">
223        <term><command>nm</command></term>
224        <listitem>
225          <para>Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file</para>
226          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils nm">
227            <primary sortas="b-nm">nm</primary>
228          </indexterm>
229        </listitem>
230      </varlistentry>
231
232      <varlistentry id="objcopy">
233        <term><command>objcopy</command></term>
234        <listitem>
235          <para>Translates one type of object file into another</para>
236          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objcopy">
237            <primary sortas="b-objcopy">objcopy</primary>
238          </indexterm>
239        </listitem>
240      </varlistentry>
241
242      <varlistentry id="objdump">
243        <term><command>objdump</command></term>
244        <listitem>
245          <para>Displays information about the given object file, with options
246          controlling the particular information to display; the information
247          shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
248          tools</para>
249          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objdump">
250            <primary sortas="b-objdump">objdump</primary>
251          </indexterm>
252        </listitem>
253      </varlistentry>
254
255      <varlistentry id="ranlib">
256        <term><command>ranlib</command></term>
257        <listitem>
258          <para>Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it
259          in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive
260          members that are relocatable object files</para>
261          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ranlib">
262            <primary sortas="b-ranlib">ranlib</primary>
263          </indexterm>
264        </listitem>
265      </varlistentry>
266
267      <varlistentry id="readelf">
268        <term><command>readelf</command></term>
269        <listitem>
270          <para>Displays information about ELF type binaries</para>
271          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils readelf">
272            <primary sortas="b-readelf">readelf</primary>
273          </indexterm>
274        </listitem>
275      </varlistentry>
276
277      <varlistentry id="size">
278        <term><command>size</command></term>
279        <listitem>
280          <para>Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given
281          object files</para>
282          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils size">
283            <primary sortas="b-size">size</primary>
284          </indexterm>
285        </listitem>
286      </varlistentry>
287
288      <varlistentry id="strings">
289        <term><command>strings</command></term>
290        <listitem>
291          <para>Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable
292          characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to
293          four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from
294          the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files,
295          it scans the entire file</para>
296          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strings">
297            <primary sortas="b-strings">strings</primary>
298          </indexterm>
299        </listitem>
300      </varlistentry>
301
302      <varlistentry id="strip">
303        <term><command>strip</command></term>
304        <listitem>
305          <para>Discards symbols from object files</para>
306          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strip">
307            <primary sortas="b-strip">strip</primary>
308          </indexterm>
309        </listitem>
310      </varlistentry>
311
312      <varlistentry id="libiberty">
313        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libiberty</filename></term>
314        <listitem>
315          <para>Contains routines used by various GNU programs, including
316          <command>getopt</command>, <command>obstack</command>,
317          <command>strerror</command>, <command>strtol</command>, and
318          <command>strtoul</command></para>
319          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libiberty">
320            <primary sortas="c-libiberty">libiberty</primary>
321          </indexterm>
322        </listitem>
323      </varlistentry>
324
325      <varlistentry id="libbfd">
326        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libbfd</filename></term>
327        <listitem>
328          <para>The Binary File Descriptor library</para>
329          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libbfd">
330            <primary sortas="c-libbfd">libbfd</primary>
331          </indexterm>
332        </listitem>
333      </varlistentry>
334
335      <varlistentry id="libopcodes">
336        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libopcodes</filename></term>
337        <listitem>
338          <para>A library for dealing with opcodes&mdash;the <quote>readable
339          text</quote> versions of instructions for the processor;
340          it is used for building utilities like
341          <command>objdump</command>.</para>
342          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libopcodes">
343            <primary sortas="c-libopcodes">libopcodes</primary>
344          </indexterm>
345        </listitem>
346      </varlistentry>
347
348    </variablelist>
349
350  </sect2>
351
352</sect1>
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