source: BOOK/final-system/common/binutils.xml @ 37172b2

systemd
Last change on this file since 37172b2 was 37172b2, checked in by William Harrington <kb0iic@…>, 5 years ago

Update binutils to 2.28.

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 12.2 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-system-binutils" role="wrap">
9  <?dbhtml filename="binutils.html"?>
10
11  <title>Binutils-&binutils-version;</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils">
14    <primary sortas="a-Binutils">Binutils</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <sect2 role="package">
18    <title/>
19
20    <para>The Binutils package contains a linker, an assembler, and other
21    tools for handling object files.</para>
22
23  </sect2>
24
25  <sect2 role="installation">
26    <title>Installation of Binutils</title>
27
28    <para os="b">Verify that the PTYs are working properly inside the build
29    environment. Check that everything is set up correctly by performing a
30    simple test:</para>
31
32<screen os="c" role="nodump"><userinput>expect -c "spawn ls"</userinput></screen>
33
34    <para os="d">This command should give the following output:</para>
35
36<screen os="e"><computeroutput>spawn ls</computeroutput></screen>
37
38    <para os="f">If, instead, it gives a message saying to create more ptys,
39    then the environment is not set up for proper PTY operation. This issue
40    needs to be resolved before running the test suites for Binutils and GCC.</para>
41
42<!-- Branch update patch area
43    <para os="p1">The following patch contains a number of updates to the
44    &binutils-version; branch by the Binutils developers:</para>
45
46    <screen os="p2"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&binutils-branch_update-patch;</userinput></screen>
47-->
48
49    <para os="g">The Binutils documentation recommends building Binutils outside of the
50    source directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
51
52<screen os="h"><userinput>mkdir -v ../binutils-build
53cd ../binutils-build</userinput></screen>
54
55    <para os="i">Prepare Binutils for compilation:</para>
56
57<screen os="ca"><userinput>CC="gcc -isystem /usr/include" \
58LDFLAGS="-Wl,-rpath-link,/usr/lib:/lib" \
59../binutils-&binutils-dir;/configure \
60    --prefix=/usr \
61    --enable-shared \
62    --enable-gold=yes \
63    --enable-plugins \
64    --with-system-zlib \
65    --enable-threads</userinput></screen>
66
67    <para os="j">Compile the package:</para>
68
69<screen os="k"><userinput>make tooldir=/usr</userinput></screen>
70
71<!--    <important os="l">
72      <para>During <command>make tooldir=/usr</command> you may receive the
73      following error message. It is safe to ignore.</para>
74
75<screen><computeroutput>WARNING: `flex' is missing on your system. You should only
76need it if you modified a `.l' file. You may need the `Flex'
77package in order for those modifications to take effect. You
78can get `Flex' from any GNU archive site.</computeroutput></screen>
79    </important> -->
80
81    <variablelist os="n">
82      <title>The meaning of the make parameter:</title>
83
84      <varlistentry>
85        <term><parameter>tooldir=/usr</parameter></term>
86        <listitem>
87          <para>Normally, the tooldir (the directory where the executables
88          will ultimately be located) is set to <filename
89          class="directory">$(exec_prefix)/$(target_alias)</filename>. Because this
90          is a custom system, this target-specific directory in <filename
91          class="directory">/usr</filename> is not required.</para>
92        </listitem>
93      </varlistentry>
94    </variablelist>
95
96    <important os="o">
97      <para>Due to Binutils' critical role in a properly functioning system,
98      the CLFS developers strongly recommend running the testsuite.</para>
99    </important>
100
101    <para os="p">Test the results:</para>
102
103<screen os="q"><userinput remap="test">make check</userinput></screen>
104
105    <para os="r">Install the package:</para>
106
107<screen os="s"><userinput>make tooldir=/usr install</userinput></screen>
108
109  </sect2>
110
111  <sect2 id="contents-binutils" role="content">
112    <title>Contents of Binutils</title>
113
114    <segmentedlist>
115      <segtitle>Installed programs</segtitle>
116      <segtitle>Installed libraries</segtitle>
117      <segtitle>Installed directory</segtitle>
118
119      <seglistitem>
120        <seg>addr2line, ar, as, c++filt, elfedit, gprof, ld, ld.bfd, ld.gold,
121        nm, objcopy, objdump, ranlib, readelf, size, strings, strip</seg>
122        <seg>libbfd.[a,so], libopcodes.[a,so]</seg>
123        <seg>/usr/lib/ldscripts</seg>
124      </seglistitem>
125    </segmentedlist>
126
127    <variablelist>
128      <bridgehead renderas="sect3">Short Descriptions</bridgehead>
129      <?dbfo list-presentation="list"?>
130      <?dbhtml list-presentation="table"?>
131
132      <varlistentry id="addr2line">
133        <term><command>addr2line</command></term>
134        <listitem>
135          <para>Translates program addresses to file names and line numbers;
136          given an address and the name of an executable, it uses the debugging
137          information in the executable to determine which source file and line
138          number are associated with the address</para>
139          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils addr2line">
140            <primary sortas="b-addr2line">addr2line</primary>
141          </indexterm>
142        </listitem>
143      </varlistentry>
144
145      <varlistentry id="ar">
146        <term><command>ar</command></term>
147        <listitem>
148          <para>Creates, modifies, and extracts from archives</para>
149          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ar">
150            <primary sortas="b-ar">ar</primary>
151          </indexterm>
152        </listitem>
153      </varlistentry>
154
155      <varlistentry id="as">
156        <term><command>as</command></term>
157        <listitem>
158          <para>An assembler that assembles the output of <command>gcc</command>
159          into object files</para>
160          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils as">
161            <primary sortas="b-as">as</primary>
162          </indexterm>
163        </listitem>
164      </varlistentry>
165
166      <varlistentry id="c-filt">
167        <term><command>c++filt</command></term>
168        <listitem>
169          <para>Used by the linker to de-mangle C++ and Java symbols and to keep
170          overloaded functions from clashing</para>
171          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils c-filt">
172            <primary sortas="b-c++filt">c++filt</primary>
173          </indexterm>
174        </listitem>
175      </varlistentry>
176
177      <varlistentry id="elfedit">
178        <term><command>elfedit</command></term>
179        <listitem>
180          <para>Updates the ELF header of ELF files</para>
181          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils elfedit">
182            <primary sortas="b-elfedit">elfedit</primary>
183          </indexterm>
184        </listitem>
185      </varlistentry>
186
187      <varlistentry id="gprof">
188        <term><command>gprof</command></term>
189        <listitem>
190          <para>Displays call graph profile data</para>
191          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils gprof">
192            <primary sortas="b-gprof">gprof</primary>
193          </indexterm>
194        </listitem>
195      </varlistentry>
196
197      <varlistentry id="ld">
198        <term><command>ld</command></term>
199        <listitem>
200          <para>A linker that combines a number of object and archive files
201          into a single file, relocating their data and tying up symbol
202          references</para>
203          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld">
204            <primary sortas="b-ld">ld</primary>
205          </indexterm>
206        </listitem>
207      </varlistentry>
208
209      <varlistentry id="ld.bfd">
210        <term><command>ld.bfd</command></term>
211        <listitem>
212          <para>Hard link to <command>ld</command></para>
213          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.bfd">
214            <primary sortas="b-ld.bfd">ld.bfd</primary>
215          </indexterm>
216        </listitem>
217      </varlistentry>
218
219      <varlistentry id="ld.gold">
220        <term><command>ld.gold</command></term>
221        <listitem>
222          <para>A linker designed to be faster than <command>ld</command>,
223          especially for large C++ applications.</para>
224          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ld.gold">
225            <primary sortas="b-ld.gold">ld.gold</primary>
226          </indexterm>
227        </listitem>
228      </varlistentry>
229
230      <varlistentry id="nm">
231        <term><command>nm</command></term>
232        <listitem>
233          <para>Lists the symbols occurring in a given object file</para>
234          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils nm">
235            <primary sortas="b-nm">nm</primary>
236          </indexterm>
237        </listitem>
238      </varlistentry>
239
240      <varlistentry id="objcopy">
241        <term><command>objcopy</command></term>
242        <listitem>
243          <para>Translates one type of object file into another</para>
244          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objcopy">
245            <primary sortas="b-objcopy">objcopy</primary>
246          </indexterm>
247        </listitem>
248      </varlistentry>
249
250      <varlistentry id="objdump">
251        <term><command>objdump</command></term>
252        <listitem>
253          <para>Displays information about the given object file, with options
254          controlling the particular information to display; the information
255          shown is useful to programmers who are working on the compilation
256          tools</para>
257          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils objdump">
258            <primary sortas="b-objdump">objdump</primary>
259          </indexterm>
260        </listitem>
261      </varlistentry>
262
263      <varlistentry id="ranlib">
264        <term><command>ranlib</command></term>
265        <listitem>
266          <para>Generates an index of the contents of an archive and stores it
267          in the archive; the index lists all of the symbols defined by archive
268          members that are relocatable object files</para>
269          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils ranlib">
270            <primary sortas="b-ranlib">ranlib</primary>
271          </indexterm>
272        </listitem>
273      </varlistentry>
274
275      <varlistentry id="readelf">
276        <term><command>readelf</command></term>
277        <listitem>
278          <para>Displays information about ELF type binaries</para>
279          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils readelf">
280            <primary sortas="b-readelf">readelf</primary>
281          </indexterm>
282        </listitem>
283      </varlistentry>
284
285      <varlistentry id="size">
286        <term><command>size</command></term>
287        <listitem>
288          <para>Lists the section sizes and the total size for the given
289          object files</para>
290          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils size">
291            <primary sortas="b-size">size</primary>
292          </indexterm>
293        </listitem>
294      </varlistentry>
295
296      <varlistentry id="strings">
297        <term><command>strings</command></term>
298        <listitem>
299          <para>Outputs, for each given file, the sequences of printable
300          characters that are of at least the specified length (defaulting to
301          four); for object files, it prints, by default, only the strings from
302          the initializing and loading sections while for other types of files,
303          it scans the entire file</para>
304          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strings">
305            <primary sortas="b-strings">strings</primary>
306          </indexterm>
307        </listitem>
308      </varlistentry>
309
310      <varlistentry id="strip">
311        <term><command>strip</command></term>
312        <listitem>
313          <para>Discards symbols from object files</para>
314          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils strip">
315            <primary sortas="b-strip">strip</primary>
316          </indexterm>
317        </listitem>
318      </varlistentry>
319
320      <varlistentry id="libbfd">
321        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libbfd</filename></term>
322        <listitem>
323          <para>The Binary File Descriptor library</para>
324          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libbfd">
325            <primary sortas="c-libbfd">libbfd</primary>
326          </indexterm>
327        </listitem>
328      </varlistentry>
329
330      <varlistentry id="libopcodes">
331        <term><filename class="libraryfile">libopcodes</filename></term>
332        <listitem>
333          <para>A library for dealing with opcodes&mdash;the <quote>readable
334          text</quote> versions of instructions for the processor;
335          it is used for building utilities like
336          <command>objdump</command>.</para>
337          <indexterm zone="ch-system-binutils libopcodes">
338            <primary sortas="c-libopcodes">libopcodes</primary>
339          </indexterm>
340        </listitem>
341      </varlistentry>
342
343    </variablelist>
344
345  </sect2>
346
347</sect1>
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