source: BOOK/boot/common/pwdgroup.xml @ eb55250

clfs-1.2clfs-2.1clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since eb55250 was eb55250, checked in by Jim Gifford <clfs@…>, 16 years ago

r1166@server (orig r1164): chris | 2006-02-10 22:07:07 -0800
Added -v to the rest of the temp-system pages, and various other text updates

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 4.4 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
9  <?dbhtml filename="pwdgroup.html"?>
10
11  <title>Creating the passwd, group, and log Files</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
14    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/passwd">${LFS}/etc/passwd</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
18    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/group">${LFS}/etc/group</primary>
19  </indexterm>
20
21  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
22    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/run/utmp">${LFS}/var/run/utmp</primary>
23  </indexterm>
24
25  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
26    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/btmp">${LFS}/var/log/btmp</primary>
27  </indexterm>
28
29  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
30    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/lastlog">${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</primary>
31  </indexterm>
32
33  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
34    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/wtmp">${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</primary>
35  </indexterm>
36
37  <para>In order for user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to
38  be able to login and for the name <quote>root</quote> to be recognized,
39  there must be relevant entries in the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename>
40  and <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> files.</para>
41
42  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename> file by running
43  the following command:</para>
44
45<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/passwd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
46<literal>root::0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
47bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/false
48daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/bin/false
49adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/bin/false
50lp:x:10:18:lp:/var/spool/lp:/bin/false
51mail:x:30:30:mail:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false
52news:x:31:31:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/false
53uucp:x:32:32:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/false
54operator:x:50:0:operator:/root:/bin/bash
55postmaster:x:51:30:postmaster:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false
56nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/:/bin/false</literal>
57EOF</userinput></screen>
58
59  <para os="a">The actual password for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
60  (the <quote>x</quote> used here is just a placeholder) will be set
61  later.</para>
62
63  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> file by running
64  the following command:</para>
65
66<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/group &lt;&lt; "EOF"
67<literal>root::0:root
68bin::1:root,bin,daemon
69daemon::2:root,bin,daemon
70sys::3:root,bin,adm
71adm::4:root,adm,daemon
72kmem::5:
73utmp::6:
74tty::10:
75video::11:root
76console::12:
77disk::13:root,adm
78floppy::14:root
79cdrom::15:
80cdrw::16:
81tape::17:root
82lp::18:lp
83usb::19:
84audio::20:
85dialout::21:root
86mail::30:mail
87news::31:news
88uucp::32:uucp
89users::100:
90nogroup::65533:
91nobody::65534:</literal>
92EOF</userinput></screen>
93
94  <para os="b">The created groups are not part of any standard&mdash;they are
95  groups decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration
96  in the final system, and in part by common convention employed by a
97  number of existing Linux distributions. The Linux Standard Base (LSB,
98  available at <ulink url="http://www.linuxbase.org"/>) recommends only
99  that, besides the group <quote>root</quote> with a Group ID (GID) of 0,
100  a group <quote>bin</quote> with a GID of 1 be present. All other group
101  names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since
102  well-written programs do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the
103  group's name.</para>
104
105  <para os="c">The <command>login</command>, <command>agetty</command>, and
106  <command>init</command> programs (and others) use a number of log
107  files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
108  when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
109  do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them
110  proper permissions:</para>
111
112<screen><userinput>touch ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
113chmod -v 664 ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/lastlog
114chmod -v 600 ${LFS}/var/log/btmp</userinput></screen>
115
116  <para>The <filename>${LFS}/var/run/utmp</filename> file records the users
117  that are currently logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</filename>
118  file records all logins and logouts. The
119  <filename>${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</filename> file records when
120  each user last logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/btmp</filename> file
121  records the bad login attempts.</para>
122
123</sect1>
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