source: BOOK/boot/common/pwdgroup.xml @ 65018363

clfs-1.2clfs-2.1clfs-3.0.0-systemdclfs-3.0.0-sysvinitsystemdsysvinit
Last change on this file since 65018363 was 65018363, checked in by Chris Staub <chris@…>, 15 years ago

Modified the creation the /etc/passwd and /etc/group, and added some temp. placeholder text for additional users and groups

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 4.5 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
9  <?dbhtml filename="pwdgroup.html"?>
10
11  <title>Creating the passwd, group, and log Files</title>
12
13  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
14    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/passwd">${LFS}/etc/passwd</primary>
15  </indexterm>
16
17  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
18    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/etc/group">${LFS}/etc/group</primary>
19  </indexterm>
20
21  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
22    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/run/utmp">${LFS}/var/run/utmp</primary>
23  </indexterm>
24
25  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
26    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/btmp">${LFS}/var/log/btmp</primary>
27  </indexterm>
28
29  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
30    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/lastlog">${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</primary>
31  </indexterm>
32
33  <indexterm zone="ch-boot-pwdgroup">
34    <primary sortas="e-${LFS}/var/log/wtmp">${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</primary>
35  </indexterm>
36
37  <para>In order for user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to
38  be able to login and for the name <quote>root</quote> to be recognized,
39  there must be relevant entries in the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename>
40  and <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> files.</para>
41
42  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/passwd</filename> file by running
43  the following command:</para>
44
45<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/passwd &lt;&lt; "EOF"
46<literal>root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash</literal>
47EOF</userinput></screen>
48
49<para os="a">TO BE WRITTEN: more text describing additional users
50bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/bin/false
51daemon:x:2:6:daemon:/sbin:/bin/false
52adm:x:3:16:adm:/var/adm:/bin/false
53lp:x:10:9:lp:/var/spool/lp:/bin/false
54mail:x:30:30:mail:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false
55news:x:31:31:news:/var/spool/news:/bin/false
56uucp:x:32:32:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/bin/false
57operator:x:50:0:operator:/root:/bin/bash
58postmaster:x:51:30:postmaster:/var/spool/mail:/bin/false
59nobody:x:65534:65534:nobody:/:/bin/false</para>
60
61  <para os="b">The actual password for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
62  (the <quote>x</quote> used here is just a placeholder) will be set
63  later.</para>
64
65  <para>Create the <filename>${LFS}/etc/group</filename> file by running
66  the following command:</para>
67
68<screen><userinput>cat &gt; ${LFS}/etc/group &lt;&lt; "EOF"
69<literal>root:x:0:
70bin:x:1:
71sys:x:2:
72kmem:x:3:
73tty:x:4:
74tape:x:5:
75daemon:x:6:
76floppy:x:7:
77disk:x:8:
78lp:x:9:
79dialout:x:10:
80audio:x:11:
81video:x:12:
82utmp:x:13:
83usb:x:14:
84cdrom:x:15:</literal>
85EOF</userinput></screen>
86
87<para os="c">TO BE WRITTEN: more text describing additional groups
88adm::16:root,adm,daemon
89console::17:
90cdrw::18:
91mail::30:mail
92news::31:news
93uucp::32:uucp
94users::100:
95nogroup::65533:
96nobody::65534:</para>
97
98  <para os="d">The created groups are not part of any standard&mdash;they are
99  groups decided on in part by the requirements of the Udev configuration
100  in the final system, and in part by common convention employed by a
101  number of existing Linux distributions. The Linux Standard Base (LSB,
102  available at <ulink url="http://www.linuxbase.org"/>) recommends only
103  that, besides the group <quote>root</quote> with a Group ID (GID) of 0,
104  a group <quote>bin</quote> with a GID of 1 be present. All other group
105  names and GIDs can be chosen freely by the system administrator since
106  well-written programs do not depend on GID numbers, but rather use the
107  group's name.</para>
108
109  <para os="e">The <command>login</command>, <command>agetty</command>, and
110  <command>init</command> programs (and others) use a number of log
111  files to record information such as who was logged into the system and
112  when. However, these programs will not write to the log files if they
113  do not already exist. Initialize the log files and give them
114  proper permissions:</para>
115
116<screen><userinput>touch ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/{btmp,lastlog,wtmp}
117chmod -v 664 ${LFS}/var/run/utmp ${LFS}/var/log/lastlog
118chmod -v 600 ${LFS}/var/log/btmp</userinput></screen>
119
120  <para>The <filename>${LFS}/var/run/utmp</filename> file records the users
121  that are currently logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/wtmp</filename>
122  file records all logins and logouts. The
123  <filename>${LFS}/var/log/lastlog</filename> file records when
124  each user last logged in. The <filename>${LFS}/var/log/btmp</filename> file
125  records the bad login attempts.</para>
126
127</sect1>
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