source: BOOK/boot/common/createfiles.xml @ f742599

clfs-3.0.0-systemdsystemd
Last change on this file since f742599 was f742599, checked in by Chris Staub <chris@…>, 9 years ago

Additional minor text update on essential symlinks page

  • Property mode set to 100644
File size: 5.9 KB
Line 
1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
2<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.5//EN"
3  "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.5/docbookx.dtd" [
4  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
5  %general-entities;
6]>
7
8<sect1 id="ch-boot-createfiles">
9  <?dbhtml filename="createfiles.html"?>
10
11  <title>Creating Essential Symlinks</title>
12
13  <para os="a">Some programs use hard-wired paths to files which do not exist
14  yet. In order to satisfy these programs, create a number of symbolic
15  links which will be replaced by real files throughout the course of
16  the next chapter after the software has been installed.</para>
17
18<screen os="b"><userinput>ln -sv /tools/bin/{bash,cat,echo,grep,login,pwd,stty} ${CLFS}/bin
19ln -sv /tools/bin/file ${CLFS}/usr/bin
20ln -sv /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1} ${CLFS}/usr/lib
21ln -sv /tools/lib/libstdc++.so{.6,} ${CLFS}/usr/lib
22sed -e 's/tools/usr/' /tools/lib/libstdc++.la &gt; ${CLFS}/usr/lib/libstdc++.la
23ln -sv bash ${CLFS}/bin/sh
24ln -sv ../run ${CLFS}/var/run
25ln -sv /tools/sbin/init ${CLFS}/sbin
26ln -sv /tools/etc/{login.{access,defs},limits} ${CLFS}/etc</userinput></screen>
27
28  <variablelist os="c">
29    <title>The purpose of each link:</title>
30
31    <varlistentry os="c1">
32      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/bash</filename></parameter></term>
33      <listitem>
34        <para>Many <command>bash</command> scripts specify
35        <filename>/bin/bash</filename>.</para>
36      </listitem>
37    </varlistentry>
38
39    <varlistentry os="c2">
40      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/cat</filename></parameter></term>
41      <listitem>
42        <para>This pathname is hard-coded into Glibc's configure script.</para>
43      </listitem>
44    </varlistentry>
45
46    <varlistentry os="c3">
47      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/echo</filename></parameter></term>
48      <listitem>
49        <para>This is to satisfy one of the tests in Glibc's test suite, which
50        expects <filename>/bin/echo</filename>.</para>
51      </listitem>
52    </varlistentry>
53
54    <varlistentry os="c4">
55      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/grep</filename></parameter></term>
56      <listitem>
57        <para>This to avoid a hard-coded
58        <filename class="directory">/tools</filename> reference in Libtool.</para>
59      </listitem>
60    </varlistentry>
61
62    <varlistentry os="c5">
63      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/login</filename></parameter></term>
64      <listitem>
65        <para>The <command>agetty</command> program expects to find
66        <command>login</command> in <filename class="directory">/bin</filename>.</para>
67      </listitem>
68    </varlistentry>
69
70    <varlistentry os="c6">
71      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/pwd</filename></parameter></term>
72      <listitem>
73        <para>Some <command>configure</command> scripts, particularly Glibc's,
74        have this pathname hard-coded.</para>
75      </listitem>
76    </varlistentry>
77
78    <varlistentry os="c7">
79      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/stty</filename></parameter></term>
80      <listitem>
81        <para>This pathname is hard-coded into Expect, therefore it is needed
82        for Binutils and GCC test suites to pass.</para>
83      </listitem>
84    </varlistentry>
85
86    <varlistentry os="c8">
87      <term><parameter><filename>/usr/bin/file</filename></parameter></term>
88      <listitem>
89        <para>Binutils' <command>configure</command> scripts specify this
90        command location.</para>
91      </listitem>
92    </varlistentry>
93
94    <varlistentry os="c9">
95      <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1}</filename></parameter></term>
96      <listitem>
97        <para>Glibc needs this for the pthreads library to work.</para>
98      </listitem>
99    </varlistentry>
100
101    <varlistentry os="c10">
102      <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++{,.6}</filename></parameter></term>
103      <listitem>
104        <para>This is needed by several tests in Glibc's test suite, as well as
105        for C++ support in GMP.</para>
106      </listitem>
107    </varlistentry>
108
109    <varlistentry os="c11">
110      <term><parameter><filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++.la</filename></parameter></term>
111      <listitem>
112        <para>This prevents a <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>
113        reference that would otherwise be in
114        <filename>/usr/lib/libstdc++.la</filename> after GCC is installed.</para>
115      </listitem>
116    </varlistentry>
117
118    <varlistentry os="c12">
119      <term><parameter><filename>/bin/sh</filename></parameter></term>
120      <listitem>
121        <para>Many shell scripts hard-code <filename>/bin/sh</filename>.</para>
122      </listitem>
123    </varlistentry>
124
125    <varlistentry os="c13">
126      <term><parameter><filename>/var/run</filename></parameter></term>
127      <listitem>
128        <para>This is to account for any applications that have not yet
129        migrated to using <filename class="directory">/run</filename>.</para>
130      </listitem>
131    </varlistentry>
132
133    <varlistentry os="c14">
134      <term><parameter><filename>/sbin/init</filename></parameter></term>
135      <listitem>
136        <para>This is where the kernel expects to find <command>init</command>.</para>
137      </listitem>
138    </varlistentry>
139
140    <varlistentry os="c15">
141      <term><parameter><filename>/etc/{login.{access,defs},limits}</filename></parameter></term>
142      <listitem>
143        <para>These are configuration files used by Shadow and are expected to
144        be found in <filename class="directory">/etc</filename>, for programs
145        such as <command>login</command> and <command>su</command> to work.</para>
146      </listitem>
147    </varlistentry>
148
149  </variablelist>
150
151  <para os="d">Historically, Linux maintains a list of the mounted file systems
152  in the file <filename>/etc/mtab</filename>. Modern kernels maintain this list
153  internally and expose it to the user via the
154  <filename class="directory">/proc</filename> filesystem. To satisfy utilities
155  that expect the presence of <filename>/etc/mtab</filename>, create the
156  following symbolic link:</para>
157
158<screen os="e"><userinput>ln -sv /proc/self/mounts ${CLFS}/etc/mtab</userinput></screen>
159
160</sect1>
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