Ticket #1164: iputils-s20161105-build-1.patch

File iputils-s20161105-build-1.patch, 156.3 KB (added by kb0iic, 4 weeks ago)

Iputils patch to simplify installation

  • iputils-s20161105

    Submitted By: William Harrington <kb0iic at cross-lfs dot org>
    Date: 2017-08-25
    Initial Package Version: s20161105
    Upstream Status: None
    Origin: https://github.com/iputils/iputils
    Description: Edit Makefile USE_ Variables and include man pages.
    
    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/Makefile iputils-s20161105/Makefile
    old new  
    2828# sysfs support (with libsysfs - deprecated) [no|yes|static] 
    2929USE_SYSFS=no 
    3030# IDN support  [yes|no|static] 
    31 USE_IDN=yes 
     31USE_IDN=no 
    3232 
    3333# Do not use getifaddrs [no|yes|static] 
    3434WITHOUT_IFADDRS=no 
     
    3636ARPING_DEFAULT_DEVICE= 
    3737 
    3838# nettle library for ipv6 ping [yes|no|static] 
    39 USE_NETTLE=yes 
     39USE_NETTLE=no 
    4040# libgcrypt library for ipv6 ping [no|yes|static] 
    4141USE_GCRYPT=no 
    4242# Crypto library for ping6 [shared|static|no] 
    43 USE_CRYPTO=shared 
     43USE_CRYPTO=no 
    4444# Resolv library for ping6 [yes|static] 
    4545USE_RESOLV=yes 
    4646# ping6 source routing (deprecated by RFC5095) [no|yes|RFC3542] 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/arping.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/arping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "ARPING" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8arping \- send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-AbDfhqUV\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15Ping \fIdestination\fR on device \fIinterface\fR by ARP packets, 
     16using source address \fIsource\fR. 
     17.SH "OPTIONS" 
     18.TP 
     19\fB-A\fR 
     20The same as \fB-U\fR, but ARP REPLY packets used instead 
     21of ARP REQUEST. 
     22.TP 
     23\fB-b\fR 
     24Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally \fBarping\fR starts 
     25from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received. 
     26.TP 
     27\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR 
     28Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ARP REQUEST 
     29packets. With  
     30\fIdeadline\fR 
     31option, instead wait for 
     32\fIcount\fR ARP REPLY packets, or until the timeout expires. 
     33.TP 
     34\fB-D\fR 
     35Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See  
     36RFC2131, 4.4.1. 
     37Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received 
     38.TP 
     39\fB-f\fR 
     40Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive. 
     41.TP 
     42\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR 
     43Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets. 
     44.TP 
     45\fB-h\fR 
     46Print help page and exit. 
     47.TP 
     48\fB-q\fR 
     49Quiet output. Nothing is displayed. 
     50.TP 
     51\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR 
     52IP source address to use in ARP packets. 
     53If this option is absent, source address is: 
     54.RS 
     55.TP 0.2i 
     56\(bu 
     57In DAD mode (with option \fB-D\fR) set to 0.0.0.0. 
     58.TP 0.2i 
     59\(bu 
     60In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options \fB-U\fR or \fB-A\fR) 
     61set to \fIdestination\fR. 
     62.TP 0.2i 
     63\(bu 
     64Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables. 
     65.RE 
     66.TP 
     67\fB-U\fR 
     68Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches. 
     69No replies are expected. 
     70.TP 
     71\fB-V\fR 
     72Print version of the program and exit. 
     73.TP 
     74\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR 
     75Specify a timeout, in seconds, before 
     76\fBarping\fR 
     77exits regardless of how many 
     78packets have been sent or received. In this case 
     79\fBarping\fR 
     80does not stop after 
     81\fIcount\fR 
     82packet are sent, it waits either for 
     83\fIdeadline\fR 
     84expire or until 
     85\fIcount\fR 
     86probes are answered. 
     87.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     88.PP 
     89\fBping\fR(8), 
     90\fBclockdiff\fR(8), 
     91\fBtracepath\fR(8). 
     92.SH "AUTHOR" 
     93.PP 
     94\fBarping\fR was written by 
     95Alexey Kuznetsov 
     96<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. 
     97It is now maintained by 
     98YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     99<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>. 
     100.SH "SECURITY" 
     101.PP 
     102\fBarping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability 
     103to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root, 
     104because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts. 
     105.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     106.PP 
     107\fBarping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     108and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     109http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/clockdiff.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/clockdiff.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "CLOCKDIFF" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8clockdiff \- measure clock difference between hosts 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBclockdiff\fR [\fB-o\fR] [\fB-o1\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15\fBclockdiff\fR Measures clock difference between us and 
     16\fIdestination\fR with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP 
     17[2] 
     18packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option 
     19[3] 
     20option added to ICMP ECHO. 
     21[1] 
     22.SH "OPTIONS" 
     23.TP 
     24\fB-o\fR 
     25Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP 
     26messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support 
     27ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris <2.4). 
     28.TP 
     29\fB-o1\fR 
     30Slightly different form of \fB-o\fR, namely it uses three-term 
     31IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one. 
     32What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly, 
     33\fB-o\fR is better for Linux. 
     34.SH "WARNINGS" 
     35.TP 0.2i 
     36\(bu 
     37Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed 
     38by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless. 
     39.TP 0.2i 
     40\(bu 
     41Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris>2.4), when 
     42run \fBxntpd\fR. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source, 
     43which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps 
     44randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can 
     45use NTP in this case, which is even better. 
     46.TP 0.2i 
     47\(bu 
     48\fBclockdiff\fR shows difference in time modulo 24 days. 
     49.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     50.PP 
     51\fBping\fR(8), 
     52\fBarping\fR(8), 
     53\fBtracepath\fR(8). 
     54.SH "REFERENCES" 
     55.PP 
     56[1] ICMP ECHO, 
     57RFC0792, page 14. 
     58.PP 
     59[2] ICMP TIMESTAMP, 
     60RFC0792, page 16. 
     61.PP 
     62[3] IP TIMESTAMP option, 
     63RFC0791, 3.1, page 16. 
     64.SH "AUTHOR" 
     65.PP 
     66\fBclockdiff\fR was compiled by 
     67Alexey Kuznetsov 
     68<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. It was based on code borrowed 
     69from BSD \fBtimed\fR daemon. 
     70It is now maintained by 
     71YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     72<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>. 
     73.SH "SECURITY" 
     74.PP 
     75\fBclockdiff\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability 
     76to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root. 
     77.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     78.PP 
     79\fBclockdiff\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     80and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     81http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/ninfod.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/ninfod.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "NINFOD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8ninfod \- Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBninfod\fR [\fB-dhv\fR] [\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR] [\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR] 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15Responds to IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620) from clients. 
     16Queries can be sent by various implementations of \fBping6\fR command. 
     17.SH "OPTIONS" 
     18.TP 
     19\fB-a\fR 
     20Debug mode.  Do not go background. 
     21.TP 
     22\fB-h\fR 
     23Show help. 
     24.TP 
     25\fB-v\fR 
     26Verbose mode. 
     27.TP 
     28\fB-u \fIuser\fB\fR 
     29Run as another user. 
     30\fIuser\fR can either be username or user ID. 
     31.TP 
     32\fB-p \fIpidfile\fB\fR 
     33File for process-id storage. 
     34\fIuser\fR is required to be able to create the file. 
     35.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     36.PP 
     37\fBping\fR(8). 
     38.SH "AUTHOR" 
     39.PP 
     40\fBninfod\fR was written by USAGI/WIDE Project. 
     41.SH "COPYING" 
     42.PP 
     43 
     44.nf 
     45Copyright (C) 2012 YOSHIFUJI Hideaki. 
     46Copyright (C) 2002 USAGI/WIDE Project. 
     47All rights reserved. 
     48 
     49Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without 
     50modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions 
     51are met: 
     521. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright 
     53   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 
     542. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright 
     55   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the 
     56   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 
     573. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors 
     58   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software 
     59   without specific prior written permission. 
     60 
     61THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND 
     62ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE 
     63IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE 
     64ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE 
     65FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL 
     66DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS 
     67OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) 
     68HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT 
     69LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY 
     70OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF 
     71SUCH DAMAGE. 
     72.fi 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/pg3.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/pg3.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "PG3" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8pg3, ipg, pgset \- send stream of UDP packets 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBsource ipg\fR 
     12 
     13 
     14\fBpg\fR 
     15 
     16 
     17\fBpgset\fR \fB\fICOMMAND\fB\fR 
     18 
     19.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     20.PP 
     21\fBipg\fR is not a program, it is script which should be sourced 
     22to \fBbash\fR. When sourced it loads module \fIpg3\fR and 
     23exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros 
     24are \fBpg\fR to start packet injection and to get the results of run; 
     25and \fBpgset\fR to setup packet generator. 
     26.PP 
     27\fBpgset\fR can send the following commands to module \fIpg3\fR: 
     28.SH "COMMAND" 
     29.TP 
     30\fBodev \fIDEVICE\fB\fR 
     31Name of Ethernet device to test. See 
     32warning below. 
     33.TP 
     34\fBpkt_size \fIBYTES\fB\fR 
     35Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP, 
     36MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS 
     37and various paddings. 
     38.TP 
     39\fBfrags \fINUMBER\fB\fR 
     40Each packet will contain \fINUMBER\fR of fragments. 
     41Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support 
     42fragmented buffers. 
     43.TP 
     44\fBcount \fINUMBER\fB\fR 
     45Send stream of \fINUMBER\fR of packets and stop after this. 
     46.TP 
     47\fBipg \fITIME\fB\fR 
     48Introduce artificial delay between packets of \fITIME\fR 
     49microseconds. 
     50.TP 
     51\fBdst \fIIP_ADDRESS\fB\fR 
     52Select IP destination where the stream is sent to. 
     53Beware, never set this address at random. \fBpg3\fR is not a toy, 
     54it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0. 
     55.TP 
     56\fBdst \fIMAC_ADDRESS\fB\fR 
     57Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to. 
     58Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received 
     59by any node on LAN. 
     60.TP 
     61\fBstop\fR 
     62Abort packet injection. 
     63.SH "WARNING" 
     64.PP 
     65When output device is set to some random device different 
     66of hardware Ethernet device, \fBpg3\fR will crash kernel. 
     67.PP 
     68Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices, 
     69which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact. 
     70.SH "AUTHOR" 
     71.PP 
     72\fBpg3\fR was written by Robert Olsson <robert.olsson@its.uu.se>. 
     73.SH "SECURITY" 
     74.PP 
     75This can be used only by superuser. 
     76.PP 
     77This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled 
     78even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with 
     7960 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream 
     80switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode. 
     81Use only in test lab environment. 
     82.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     83.PP 
     84\fBpg3\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     85and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     86http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/ping.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/ping.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "PING" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8ping \- send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBping\fR [\fB-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV46\fR] [\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR] [\fB-F \fIflowlabel\fB\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR] [\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR] [\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_option\fB\fR] [\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR] [\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR] [\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR] [\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR] [\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR] [\fB\fIhop\fB\fR\fI ...\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15\fBping\fR uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST 
     16datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. 
     17ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP 
     18header, followed by a struct timeval and then an arbitrary 
     19number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet. 
     20.PP 
     21\fBping\fR works with both IPv4 and IPv6. Using only one of them 
     22explicitly can be enforced by specifying \fB-4\fR or \fB-6\fR. 
     23.PP 
     24\fBping\fR can also send IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620). 
     25Intermediate \fIhop\fRs may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095). 
     26.SH "OPTIONS" 
     27.TP 
     28\fB-4\fR 
     29Use IPv4 only. 
     30.TP 
     31\fB-6\fR 
     32Use IPv6 only. 
     33.TP 
     34\fB-a\fR 
     35Audible ping. 
     36.TP 
     37\fB-A\fR 
     38Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that 
     39effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe 
     40is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user. 
     41On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode.   
     42.TP 
     43\fB-b\fR 
     44Allow pinging a broadcast address. 
     45.TP 
     46\fB-B\fR 
     47Do not allow \fBping\fR to change source address of probes. 
     48The address is bound to one selected when \fBping\fR starts. 
     49.TP 
     50\fB-c \fIcount\fB\fR 
     51Stop after sending \fIcount\fR ECHO_REQUEST 
     52packets. With  
     53\fIdeadline\fR 
     54option, \fBping\fR waits for 
     55\fIcount\fR ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires. 
     56.TP 
     57\fB-d\fR 
     58Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used. 
     59Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.  
     60.TP 
     61\fB-D\fR 
     62Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before 
     63each line. 
     64.TP 
     65\fB-f\fR 
     66Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed, 
     67while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed. 
     68This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped. 
     69If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and 
     70outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second, 
     71whichever is more. 
     72Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval. 
     73.TP 
     74\fB-F \fIflow label\fB\fR 
     75IPv6 only. 
     76Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets. 
     77If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label. 
     78.TP 
     79\fB-h\fR 
     80Show help. 
     81.TP 
     82\fB-i \fIinterval\fB\fR 
     83Wait \fIinterval\fR seconds between sending each packet. 
     84The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally, 
     85or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval 
     86to values less than 0.2 seconds. 
     87.TP 
     88\fB-I \fIinterface\fB\fR 
     89\fIinterface\fR is either an address, or an interface name. 
     90If \fIinterface\fR is an address, it sets source address 
     91to specified interface address. 
     92If \fIinterface\fR in an interface name, it sets 
     93source interface to specified interface. 
     94For IPv6, when doing ping to a link-local scope 
     95address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in 
     96\fIdestination\fR, or by this option) is required. 
     97.TP 
     98\fB-l \fIpreload\fB\fR 
     99If \fIpreload\fR is specified, 
     100\fBping\fR sends that many packets not waiting for reply. 
     101Only the super-user may select preload more than 3. 
     102.TP 
     103\fB-L\fR 
     104Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping 
     105destination is a multicast address. 
     106.TP 
     107\fB-m \fImark\fB\fR 
     108use \fImark\fR to tag the packets going out. This is useful 
     109for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy 
     110routing to select specific outbound processing. 
     111.TP 
     112\fB-M \fIpmtudisc_opt\fB\fR 
     113Select Path MTU Discovery strategy. 
     114\fIpmtudisc_option\fR may be either \fIdo\fR 
     115(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),  
     116\fIwant\fR (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size 
     117is large), or \fIdont\fR (do not set DF flag). 
     118.TP 
     119\fB-N \fInodeinfo_option\fB\fR 
     120IPv6 only. 
     121Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request. 
     122CAP_NET_RAW capability is required. 
     123.RS 
     124.TP 
     125\fBhelp\fR 
     126Show help for NI support. 
     127.RE 
     128.RS 
     129.TP 
     130\fBname\fR 
     131Queries for Node Names. 
     132.RE 
     133.RS 
     134.TP 
     135\fBipv6\fR 
     136Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags. 
     137.RS 
     138.TP 
     139\fBipv6-global\fR 
     140Request IPv6 global-scope addresses. 
     141.RE 
     142.RS 
     143.TP 
     144\fBipv6-sitelocal\fR 
     145Request IPv6 site-local addresses. 
     146.RE 
     147.RS 
     148.TP 
     149\fBipv6-linklocal\fR 
     150Request IPv6 link-local addresses. 
     151.RE 
     152.RS 
     153.TP 
     154\fBipv6-all\fR 
     155Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces. 
     156.RE 
     157.RE 
     158.RS 
     159.TP 
     160\fBipv4\fR 
     161Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag. 
     162.RS 
     163.TP 
     164\fBipv4-all\fR 
     165Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces. 
     166.RE 
     167.RE 
     168.RS 
     169.TP 
     170\fBsubject-ipv6=\fIipv6addr\fB\fR 
     171IPv6 subject address. 
     172.RE 
     173.RS 
     174.TP 
     175\fBsubject-ipv4=\fIipv4addr\fB\fR 
     176IPv4 subject address. 
     177.RE 
     178.RS 
     179.TP 
     180\fBsubject-name=\fInodename\fB\fR 
     181Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot, 
     182fully-qualified domain name is assumed. 
     183.RE 
     184.RS 
     185.TP 
     186\fBsubject-fqdn=\fInodename\fB\fR 
     187Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is 
     188always assumed. 
     189.RE 
     190.TP 
     191\fB-n\fR 
     192Numeric output only. 
     193No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses. 
     194.TP 
     195\fB-O\fR 
     196Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet. 
     197This is useful together with the timestamp \fB-D\fR to 
     198log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers. 
     199.TP 
     200\fB-p \fIpattern\fB\fR 
     201You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send. 
     202This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network. 
     203For example, \fB-p ff\fR will cause the sent packet 
     204to be filled with all ones. 
     205.TP 
     206\fB-q\fR 
     207Quiet output. 
     208Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and 
     209when finished. 
     210.TP 
     211\fB-Q \fItos\fB\fR 
     212Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams. 
     213\fItos\fR can be decimal (\fBping\fR only) or hex number. 
     214 
     215In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated 
     216Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate 
     217data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services 
     218Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN. 
     219 
     220Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted 
     221as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as 
     222congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7 
     223(highest bits) for Precedence. 
     224.TP 
     225\fB-r\fR 
     226Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached 
     227interface. 
     228If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned. 
     229This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface 
     230that has no route through it provided the option \fB-I\fR is also 
     231used. 
     232.TP 
     233\fB-R\fR 
     234\fBping\fR only. 
     235Record route. 
     236Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST 
     237packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets. 
     238Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes. 
     239Many hosts ignore or discard this option. 
     240.TP 
     241\fB-s \fIpacketsize\fB\fR 
     242Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent.   
     243The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP 
     244data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data. 
     245.TP 
     246\fB-S \fIsndbuf\fB\fR 
     247Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer 
     248not more than one packet. 
     249.TP 
     250\fB-t \fIttl\fB\fR 
     251\fBping\fR only. 
     252Set the IP Time to Live. 
     253.TP 
     254\fB-T \fItimestamp option\fB\fR 
     255Set special IP timestamp options. 
     256\fItimestamp option\fR may be either  
     257\fItsonly\fR (only timestamps),  
     258\fItsandaddr\fR (timestamps and addresses) or  
     259\fItsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]\fR 
     260(timestamp prespecified hops). 
     261.TP 
     262\fB-U\fR 
     263Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally 
     264\fBping\fR 
     265prints network round trip time, which can be different 
     266f.e. due to DNS failures.  
     267.TP 
     268\fB-v\fR 
     269Verbose output. 
     270.TP 
     271\fB-V\fR 
     272Show version and exit. 
     273.TP 
     274\fB-w \fIdeadline\fB\fR 
     275Specify a timeout, in seconds, before 
     276\fBping\fR 
     277exits regardless of how many 
     278packets have been sent or received. In this case 
     279\fBping\fR 
     280does not stop after 
     281\fIcount\fR 
     282packet are sent, it waits either for 
     283\fIdeadline\fR 
     284expire or until 
     285\fIcount\fR 
     286probes are answered or for some error notification from network.    
     287.TP 
     288\fB-W \fItimeout\fB\fR 
     289Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout 
     290in absence of any responses, otherwise \fBping\fR waits for two RTTs. 
     291.PP 
     292When using \fBping\fR for fault isolation, it should first be run 
     293on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up 
     294and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be 
     295``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. 
     296If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet 
     297loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used 
     298in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers. 
     299When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or 
     300if the program is terminated with a 
     301SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics 
     302can be obtained without termination of process with signal 
     303SIGQUIT. 
     304.PP 
     305If \fBping\fR does not receive any reply packets at all it will 
     306exit with code 1. If a packet  
     307\fIcount\fR 
     308and 
     309\fIdeadline\fR 
     310are both specified, and fewer than 
     311\fIcount\fR 
     312packets are received by the time the 
     313\fIdeadline\fR 
     314has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.  
     315On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This 
     316makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or 
     317not. 
     318.PP 
     319This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and 
     320management. 
     321Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use 
     322\fBping\fR during normal operations or from automated scripts. 
     323.SH "ICMP PACKET DETAILS" 
     324.PP 
     325An IP header without options is 20 bytes. 
     326An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth 
     327of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data. 
     328When a \fIpacketsize\fR is given, this indicated the size of this 
     329extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received 
     330inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes 
     331more than the requested data space (the ICMP header). 
     332.PP 
     333If the data space is at least of size of struct timeval 
     334\fBping\fR uses the beginning bytes of this space to include 
     335a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times. 
     336If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given. 
     337.SH "DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS" 
     338.PP 
     339\fBping\fR will report duplicate and damaged packets. 
     340Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by 
     341inappropriate link-level retransmissions. 
     342Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a 
     343good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not 
     344always be cause for alarm. 
     345.PP 
     346Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often 
     347indicate broken hardware somewhere in the 
     348\fBping\fR packet's path (in the network or in the hosts). 
     349.SH "TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS" 
     350.PP 
     351The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending 
     352on the data contained in the data portion. 
     353Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into 
     354networks and remain undetected for long periods of time. 
     355In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something 
     356that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all 
     357zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros. 
     358It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for 
     359example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is 
     360at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and 
     361what the controllers transmit can be complicated. 
     362.PP 
     363This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably 
     364have to do a lot of testing to find it. 
     365If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent 
     366across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other 
     367similar length files. 
     368You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test 
     369using the \fB-p\fR option of \fBping\fR. 
     370.SH "TTL DETAILS" 
     371.PP 
     372The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers 
     373that the packet can go through before being thrown away. 
     374In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement 
     375the TTL field by exactly one. 
     376.PP 
     377The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP 
     378packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values 
     379(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15). 
     380.PP 
     381The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set 
     382the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255. 
     383This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them 
     384with 
     385\fBtelnet\fR(1) 
     386or 
     387\fBftp\fR(1). 
     388.PP 
     389In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives. 
     390When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things 
     391with the TTL field in its response: 
     392.TP 0.2i 
     393\(bu 
     394Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the 
     3954.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet 
     396will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path. 
     397.TP 0.2i 
     398\(bu 
     399Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do. 
     400In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the 
     401number of routers in the path \fBfrom\fR 
     402the remote system \fBto\fR the \fBping\fRing host. 
     403.TP 0.2i 
     404\(bu 
     405Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for 
     406ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60. 
     407Others may use completely wild values. 
     408.SH "BUGS" 
     409.TP 0.2i 
     410\(bu 
     411Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option. 
     412.TP 0.2i 
     413\(bu 
     414The maximum IP header length is too small for options like 
     415RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful. 
     416There's not much that can be done about this, however. 
     417.TP 0.2i 
     418\(bu 
     419Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the 
     420broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions. 
     421.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     422.PP 
     423\fBnetstat\fR(1), 
     424\fBifconfig\fR(8). 
     425.SH "HISTORY" 
     426.PP 
     427The \fBping\fR command appeared in 4.3BSD. 
     428.PP 
     429The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux. 
     430.PP 
     431As of version s20150815, the \fBping6\fR binary doesn't exist anymore. 
     432It has been merged into \fBping\fR. Creating a symlink named 
     433\fBping6\fR pointing to \fBping\fR will result in the same 
     434funcionality as before. 
     435.SH "SECURITY" 
     436.PP 
     437\fBping\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability 
     438to be executed 1) if the program is used for non-echo queries 
     439(See \fB-N\fR option), or 2) if kernel does not 
     440support non-raw ICMP sockets, or 3) if the user is not allowed 
     441to create an ICMP echo socket.  The program may be used as 
     442set-uid root. 
     443.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     444.PP 
     445\fBping\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     446and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     447http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

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     59><H1 
     60CLASS="TITLE" 
     61>I. System Manager's Manual: iputils</H1 
     62><DIV 
     63CLASS="TOC" 
     64><DL 
     65><DT 
     66><B 
     67>Table of Contents</B 
     68></DT 
     69><DT 
     70><A 
     71HREF="r3.html" 
     72>ping</A 
     73>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DT 
     74><DT 
     75><A 
     76HREF="r483.html" 
     77>arping</A 
     78>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DT 
     79><DT 
     80><A 
     81HREF="r641.html" 
     82>clockdiff</A 
     83>&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DT 
     84><DT 
     85><A 
     86HREF="r736.html" 
     87>rarpd</A 
     88>&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DT 
     89><DT 
     90><A 
     91HREF="r835.html" 
     92>tracepath</A 
     93>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DT 
     94><DT 
     95><A 
     96HREF="r942.html" 
     97>traceroute6</A 
     98>&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DT 
     99><DT 
     100><A 
     101HREF="r1007.html" 
     102>tftpd</A 
     103>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DT 
     104><DT 
     105><A 
     106HREF="r1080.html" 
     107>ninfod</A 
     108>&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DT 
     109><DT 
     110><A 
     111HREF="r1149.html" 
     112>rdisc</A 
     113>&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DT 
     114><DT 
     115><A 
     116HREF="r1293.html" 
     117>pg3</A 
     118>&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DT 
     119></DL 
     120></DIV 
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     164>&nbsp;</TD 
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     176 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="TFTPD" 
     71></A 
     72>tftpd</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN1012" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>tftpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;Trivial File Transfer Protocol server</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN1015" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>tftpd</B 
     92> {<TT 
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     94><I 
     95>directory</I 
     96></TT 
     97>}</P 
     98></DIV 
     99><DIV 
     100CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     101><A 
     102NAME="AEN1020" 
     103></A 
     104><H2 
     105>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     106><P 
     107><B 
     108CLASS="COMMAND" 
     109>tftpd</B 
     110> is a server which supports the DARPA 
     111Trivial File Transfer Protocol 
     112(<A 
     113HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1350.txt" 
     114TARGET="_top" 
     115>RFC1350</A 
     116>). 
     117The TFTP server is started 
     118by <SPAN 
     119CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     120><SPAN 
     121CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     122>inetd</SPAN 
     123>(8)</SPAN 
     124>.</P 
     125><P 
     126><TT 
     127CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     128><I 
     129>directory</I 
     130></TT 
     131> is required argument; if it is not given 
     132<B 
     133CLASS="COMMAND" 
     134>tftpd</B 
     135> aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested 
     136via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting <B 
     137CLASS="COMMAND" 
     138>tftpd</B 
     139> to this directory. 
     140File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however 
     141administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links.</P 
     142><P 
     143>It is in difference of variants of <B 
     144CLASS="COMMAND" 
     145>tftpd</B 
     146> usually distributed 
     147with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match 
     148file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random 
     149default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to 
     150behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected 
     151to know something about layout of filesystem on server host. 
     152And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem, 
     153it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients. </P 
     154><P 
     155>In the case when <B 
     156CLASS="COMMAND" 
     157>tftpd</B 
     158> is used together with 
     159<A 
     160HREF="r736.html" 
     161><SPAN 
     162CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     163><SPAN 
     164CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     165>rarpd</SPAN 
     166>(8)</SPAN 
     167></A 
     168>, 
     169tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected 
     170that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding 
     171its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems 
     172conventions. See  
     173<A 
     174HREF="r736.html" 
     175><SPAN 
     176CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     177><SPAN 
     178CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     179>rarpd</SPAN 
     180>(8)</SPAN 
     181></A 
     182> 
     183for more details.</P 
     184></DIV 
     185><DIV 
     186CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     187><A 
     188NAME="AEN1044" 
     189></A 
     190><H2 
     191>SECURITY</H2 
     192><P 
     193>TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication. 
     194Due to this capital flaw <B 
     195CLASS="COMMAND" 
     196>tftpd</B 
     197> is not able to restrict 
     198access to files and will allow only publically readable 
     199files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already 
     200exist and are publically writable.</P 
     201><P 
     202>Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP <I 
     203CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     204>must not</I 
     205> 
     206contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed 
     207to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain 
     208such information as rule, however you should think twice before 
     209publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain 
     210<I 
     211CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     212>unencrypted</I 
     213> passwords and may contain some information 
     214about the network, which you were not going to make public.</P 
     215><P 
     216>The <B 
     217CLASS="COMMAND" 
     218>tftpd</B 
     219> server should be executed by <B 
     220CLASS="COMMAND" 
     221>inetd</B 
     222> 
     223with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal 
     224access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed 
     225as superuser occasionally, <B 
     226CLASS="COMMAND" 
     227>tftpd</B 
     228> drops its UID and GID 
     229to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect. 
     230However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible 
     231for everyone can be read or written via TFTP.</P 
     232></DIV 
     233><DIV 
     234CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     235><A 
     236NAME="AEN1055" 
     237></A 
     238><H2 
     239>SEE ALSO</H2 
     240><P 
     241><A 
     242HREF="r736.html" 
     243><SPAN 
     244CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     245><SPAN 
     246CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     247>rarpd</SPAN 
     248>(8)</SPAN 
     249></A 
     250>, 
     251<SPAN 
     252CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     253><SPAN 
     254CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     255>tftp</SPAN 
     256>(1)</SPAN 
     257>, 
     258<SPAN 
     259CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     260><SPAN 
     261CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     262>inetd</SPAN 
     263>(8)</SPAN 
     264>.</P 
     265></DIV 
     266><DIV 
     267CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     268><A 
     269NAME="AEN1068" 
     270></A 
     271><H2 
     272>HISTORY</H2 
     273><P 
     274>The <B 
     275CLASS="COMMAND" 
     276>tftpd</B 
     277> command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils 
     278is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO).</P 
     279><P 
     280>It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature 
     281(<CODE 
     282CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     283>MSG_CONFIRM</CODE 
     284>) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients 
     285not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted. 
     286However, this is full functional and can be used in production.</P 
     287></DIV 
     288><DIV 
     289CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     290><A 
     291NAME="AEN1074" 
     292></A 
     293><H2 
     294>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     295><P 
     296><B 
     297CLASS="COMMAND" 
     298>tftpd</B 
     299> is part of <TT 
     300CLASS="FILENAME" 
     301>iputils</TT 
     302> package 
     303and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     304<A 
     305HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     306TARGET="_top" 
     307>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     308>.</P 
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     359>&nbsp;</TD 
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="NINFOD" 
     71></A 
     72>ninfod</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN1085" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>ninfod&nbsp;--&nbsp;Respond to IPv6 Node Information Queries</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN1088" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>ninfod</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-dhv</CODE 
     95>] [-p <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>pidfile</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [-u <TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>user</I 
     104></TT 
     105>]</P 
     106></DIV 
     107><DIV 
     108CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     109><A 
     110NAME="AEN1097" 
     111></A 
     112><H2 
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     114><P 
     115>Responds to <A 
     116HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4620.txt" 
     117TARGET="_top" 
     118>IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620)</A 
     119> from clients. 
     120Queries can be sent by various implementations of <B 
     121CLASS="COMMAND" 
     122>ping6</B 
     123> command.</P 
     124></DIV 
     125><DIV 
     126CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     127><A 
     128NAME="AEN1102" 
     129></A 
     130><H2 
     131>OPTIONS</H2 
     132><P 
     133></P 
     134><DIV 
     135CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     136><DL 
     137><DT 
     138><CODE 
     139CLASS="OPTION" 
     140>-a</CODE 
     141></DT 
     142><DD 
     143><P 
     144>Debug mode.  Do not go background. 
     145  </P 
     146></DD 
     147><DT 
     148><CODE 
     149CLASS="OPTION" 
     150>-h</CODE 
     151></DT 
     152><DD 
     153><P 
     154>Show help. 
     155  </P 
     156></DD 
     157><DT 
     158><CODE 
     159CLASS="OPTION" 
     160>-v</CODE 
     161></DT 
     162><DD 
     163><P 
     164>Verbose mode. 
     165  </P 
     166></DD 
     167><DT 
     168><CODE 
     169CLASS="OPTION" 
     170>-u <TT 
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     172><I 
     173>user</I 
     174></TT 
     175></CODE 
     176></DT 
     177><DD 
     178><P 
     179>Run as another user. 
     180<TT 
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     182><I 
     183>user</I 
     184></TT 
     185> can either be username or user ID. 
     186  </P 
     187></DD 
     188><DT 
     189><CODE 
     190CLASS="OPTION" 
     191>-p <TT 
     192CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     193><I 
     194>pidfile</I 
     195></TT 
     196></CODE 
     197></DT 
     198><DD 
     199><P 
     200>File for process-id storage. 
     201<TT 
     202CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     203><I 
     204>user</I 
     205></TT 
     206> is required to be able to create the file. 
     207  </P 
     208></DD 
     209></DL 
     210></DIV 
     211></DIV 
     212><DIV 
     213CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     214><A 
     215NAME="AEN1134" 
     216></A 
     217><H2 
     218>SEE ALSO</H2 
     219><P 
     220><A 
     221HREF="r3.html" 
     222><SPAN 
     223CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     224><SPAN 
     225CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     226>ping</SPAN 
     227>(8)</SPAN 
     228></A 
     229>.</P 
     230></DIV 
     231><DIV 
     232CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     233><A 
     234NAME="AEN1141" 
     235></A 
     236><H2 
     237>AUTHOR</H2 
     238><P 
     239><B 
     240CLASS="COMMAND" 
     241>ninfod</B 
     242> was written by USAGI/WIDE Project.</P 
     243></DIV 
     244><DIV 
     245CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     246><A 
     247NAME="AEN1145" 
     248></A 
     249><H2 
     250>COPYING</H2 
     251><P 
     252><P 
     253CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT" 
     254>Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2012&nbsp;YOSHIFUJI&nbsp;Hideaki.<br> 
     255Copyright&nbsp;(C)&nbsp;2002&nbsp;USAGI/WIDE&nbsp;Project.<br> 
     256All&nbsp;rights&nbsp;reserved.<br> 
     257<br> 
     258Redistribution&nbsp;and&nbsp;use&nbsp;in&nbsp;source&nbsp;and&nbsp;binary&nbsp;forms,&nbsp;with&nbsp;or&nbsp;without<br> 
     259modification,&nbsp;are&nbsp;permitted&nbsp;provided&nbsp;that&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;conditions<br> 
     260are&nbsp;met:<br> 
     2611.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;of&nbsp;source&nbsp;code&nbsp;must&nbsp;retain&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br> 
     262&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer.<br> 
     2632.&nbsp;Redistributions&nbsp;in&nbsp;binary&nbsp;form&nbsp;must&nbsp;reproduce&nbsp;the&nbsp;above&nbsp;copyright<br> 
     264&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;notice,&nbsp;this&nbsp;list&nbsp;of&nbsp;conditions&nbsp;and&nbsp;the&nbsp;following&nbsp;disclaimer&nbsp;in&nbsp;the<br> 
     265&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;documentation&nbsp;and/or&nbsp;other&nbsp;materials&nbsp;provided&nbsp;with&nbsp;the&nbsp;distribution.<br> 
     2663.&nbsp;Neither&nbsp;the&nbsp;name&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;project&nbsp;nor&nbsp;the&nbsp;names&nbsp;of&nbsp;its&nbsp;contributors<br> 
     267&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;may&nbsp;be&nbsp;used&nbsp;to&nbsp;endorse&nbsp;or&nbsp;promote&nbsp;products&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;this&nbsp;software<br> 
     268&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;without&nbsp;specific&nbsp;prior&nbsp;written&nbsp;permission.<br> 
     269<br> 
     270THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE&nbsp;IS&nbsp;PROVIDED&nbsp;BY&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;AND&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;``AS&nbsp;IS''&nbsp;AND<br> 
     271ANY&nbsp;EXPRESS&nbsp;OR&nbsp;IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES,&nbsp;INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;THE<br> 
     272IMPLIED&nbsp;WARRANTIES&nbsp;OF&nbsp;MERCHANTABILITY&nbsp;AND&nbsp;FITNESS&nbsp;FOR&nbsp;A&nbsp;PARTICULAR&nbsp;PURPOSE<br> 
     273ARE&nbsp;DISCLAIMED.&nbsp;&nbsp;IN&nbsp;NO&nbsp;EVENT&nbsp;SHALL&nbsp;THE&nbsp;PROJECT&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONTRIBUTORS&nbsp;BE&nbsp;LIABLE<br> 
     274FOR&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;DIRECT,&nbsp;INDIRECT,&nbsp;INCIDENTAL,&nbsp;SPECIAL,&nbsp;EXEMPLARY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;CONSEQUENTIAL<br> 
     275DAMAGES&nbsp;(INCLUDING,&nbsp;BUT&nbsp;NOT&nbsp;LIMITED&nbsp;TO,&nbsp;PROCUREMENT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;SUBSTITUTE&nbsp;GOODS<br> 
     276OR&nbsp;SERVICES;&nbsp;LOSS&nbsp;OF&nbsp;USE,&nbsp;DATA,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;PROFITS;&nbsp;OR&nbsp;BUSINESS&nbsp;INTERRUPTION)<br> 
     277HOWEVER&nbsp;CAUSED&nbsp;AND&nbsp;ON&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;THEORY&nbsp;OF&nbsp;LIABILITY,&nbsp;WHETHER&nbsp;IN&nbsp;CONTRACT,&nbsp;STRICT<br> 
     278LIABILITY,&nbsp;OR&nbsp;TORT&nbsp;(INCLUDING&nbsp;NEGLIGENCE&nbsp;OR&nbsp;OTHERWISE)&nbsp;ARISING&nbsp;IN&nbsp;ANY&nbsp;WAY<br> 
     279OUT&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;USE&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THIS&nbsp;SOFTWARE,&nbsp;EVEN&nbsp;IF&nbsp;ADVISED&nbsp;OF&nbsp;THE&nbsp;POSSIBILITY&nbsp;OF<br> 
     280SUCH&nbsp;DAMAGE.</P 
     281></P 
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     332>&nbsp;</TD 
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     70NAME="RDISC" 
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     72>rdisc</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN1154" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>rdisc&nbsp;--&nbsp;network router discovery daemon</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN1157" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>rdisc</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-abdfrstvV</CODE 
     95>] [-p <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>preference</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [-T <TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>max_interval</I 
     104></TT 
     105>] [<TT 
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     107><I 
     108>send_address</I 
     109></TT 
     110>] [<TT 
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     112><I 
     113>receive_address</I 
     114></TT 
     115>]</P 
     116></DIV 
     117><DIV 
     118CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     119><A 
     120NAME="AEN1170" 
     121></A 
     122><H2 
     123>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     124><P 
     125><B 
     126CLASS="COMMAND" 
     127>rdisc</B 
     128> implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol. 
     129<B 
     130CLASS="COMMAND" 
     131>rdisc</B 
     132> is invoked at boot time to populate the network 
     133routing tables with default routes. </P 
     134><P 
     135><B 
     136CLASS="COMMAND" 
     137>rdisc</B 
     138> listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address 
     139(or <TT 
     140CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     141><I 
     142>receive_address</I 
     143></TT 
     144> provided it is given)  
     145for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received 
     146messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses 
     147with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses 
     148the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers 
     149and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table 
     150for each one of them.</P 
     151><P 
     152>Optionally, <B 
     153CLASS="COMMAND" 
     154>rdisc</B 
     155> can avoid waiting for routers to announce  
     156themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages 
     157to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address  
     158(or <TT 
     159CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     160><I 
     161>send_address</I 
     162></TT 
     163> provided it is given)  
     164when it is started.</P 
     165><P 
     166>A timer is associated with each router address and the address will 
     167no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the  
     168timer expires before a new  
     169<I 
     170CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     171>advertise</I 
     172> message is received from the router. 
     173The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an  
     174<I 
     175CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     176>advertise</I 
     177> 
     178message with the preference being maximally negative.</P 
     179><P 
     180>Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS 
     181and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e <B 
     182CLASS="COMMAND" 
     183>gated</B 
     184>. 
     185Or, <B 
     186CLASS="COMMAND" 
     187>rdisc</B 
     188> can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER.</P 
     189></DIV 
     190><DIV 
     191CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     192><A 
     193NAME="AEN1187" 
     194></A 
     195><H2 
     196>OPTIONS</H2 
     197><P 
     198></P 
     199><DIV 
     200CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     201><DL 
     202><DT 
     203><CODE 
     204CLASS="OPTION" 
     205>-a</CODE 
     206></DT 
     207><DD 
     208><P 
     209>Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their  
     210<I 
     211CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     212>advertise</I 
     213> messages. 
     214Normally <B 
     215CLASS="COMMAND" 
     216>rdisc</B 
     217> only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing 
     218tables) the router or routers with the highest preference. 
     219  </P 
     220></DD 
     221><DT 
     222><CODE 
     223CLASS="OPTION" 
     224>-b</CODE 
     225></DT 
     226><DD 
     227><P 
     228>Opposite to <CODE 
     229CLASS="OPTION" 
     230>-a</CODE 
     231>, i.e. install only router with the best 
     232preference value. It is default behaviour. 
     233  </P 
     234></DD 
     235><DT 
     236><CODE 
     237CLASS="OPTION" 
     238>-d</CODE 
     239></DT 
     240><DD 
     241><P 
     242>Send debugging messages to syslog. 
     243  </P 
     244></DD 
     245><DT 
     246><CODE 
     247CLASS="OPTION" 
     248>-f</CODE 
     249></DT 
     250><DD 
     251><P 
     252>Run <B 
     253CLASS="COMMAND" 
     254>rdisc</B 
     255> forever even if no routers are found. 
     256Normally <B 
     257CLASS="COMMAND" 
     258>rdisc</B 
     259> gives up if it has not received any  
     260<I 
     261CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     262>advertise</I 
     263> message after after soliciting three times, 
     264in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code. 
     265If <CODE 
     266CLASS="OPTION" 
     267>-f</CODE 
     268> is not specified in the first form then  
     269<CODE 
     270CLASS="OPTION" 
     271>-s</CODE 
     272> must be specified. 
     273  </P 
     274></DD 
     275><DT 
     276><CODE 
     277CLASS="OPTION" 
     278>-r</CODE 
     279></DT 
     280><DD 
     281><P 
     282>Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER. 
     283  </P 
     284></DD 
     285><DT 
     286><CODE 
     287CLASS="OPTION" 
     288>-s</CODE 
     289></DT 
     290><DD 
     291><P 
     292>Send three <I 
     293CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     294>solicitation</I 
     295> messages initially to quickly discover 
     296the routers when the system is booted. 
     297When <CODE 
     298CLASS="OPTION" 
     299>-s</CODE 
     300> is specified <B 
     301CLASS="COMMAND" 
     302>rdisc</B 
     303> 
     304exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers. 
     305This can be overridden with the <CODE 
     306CLASS="OPTION" 
     307>-f</CODE 
     308> option. 
     309  </P 
     310></DD 
     311><DT 
     312><CODE 
     313CLASS="OPTION" 
     314>-p <TT 
     315CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     316><I 
     317>preference</I 
     318></TT 
     319></CODE 
     320></DT 
     321><DD 
     322><P 
     323>Set preference in advertisement. 
     324Available only with -r option. 
     325  </P 
     326></DD 
     327><DT 
     328><CODE 
     329CLASS="OPTION" 
     330>-T <TT 
     331CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     332><I 
     333>max_interval</I 
     334></TT 
     335></CODE 
     336></DT 
     337><DD 
     338><P 
     339>Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs. 
     340Available only with -r option. 
     341  </P 
     342></DD 
     343><DT 
     344><CODE 
     345CLASS="OPTION" 
     346>-t</CODE 
     347></DT 
     348><DD 
     349><P 
     350>Test mode. Do not go to background. 
     351  </P 
     352></DD 
     353><DT 
     354><CODE 
     355CLASS="OPTION" 
     356>-v</CODE 
     357></DT 
     358><DD 
     359><P 
     360>Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog. 
     361  </P 
     362></DD 
     363><DT 
     364><CODE 
     365CLASS="OPTION" 
     366>-V</CODE 
     367></DT 
     368><DD 
     369><P 
     370>Print version and exit. 
     371  </P 
     372></DD 
     373></DL 
     374></DIV 
     375></DIV 
     376><DIV 
     377CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     378><A 
     379NAME="AEN1259" 
     380></A 
     381><H2 
     382>HISTORY</H2 
     383><P 
     384>This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright 
     385notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by 
     386<A 
     387HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     388TARGET="_top" 
     389>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     390&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     391>. 
     392It is now maintained by 
     393<A 
     394HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net" 
     395TARGET="_top" 
     396>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     397&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A 
     398>.</P 
     399></DIV 
     400><DIV 
     401CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     402><A 
     403NAME="AEN1264" 
     404></A 
     405><H2 
     406>SEE ALSO</H2 
     407><P 
     408><SPAN 
     409CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     410><SPAN 
     411CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     412>icmp</SPAN 
     413>(7)</SPAN 
     414>, 
     415<SPAN 
     416CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     417><SPAN 
     418CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     419>inet</SPAN 
     420>(7)</SPAN 
     421>, 
     422<A 
     423HREF="r3.html" 
     424><SPAN 
     425CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     426><SPAN 
     427CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     428>ping</SPAN 
     429>(8)</SPAN 
     430></A 
     431>.</P 
     432></DIV 
     433><DIV 
     434CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     435><A 
     436NAME="AEN1277" 
     437></A 
     438><H2 
     439>REFERENCES</H2 
     440><P 
     441>Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages", 
     442<A 
     443HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1256.txt" 
     444TARGET="_top" 
     445>RFC1256</A 
     446>, Network Information Center, SRI International, 
     447Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991.</P 
     448></DIV 
     449><DIV 
     450CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     451><A 
     452NAME="AEN1281" 
     453></A 
     454><H2 
     455>SECURITY</H2 
     456><P 
     457><B 
     458CLASS="COMMAND" 
     459>rdisc</B 
     460> requires <CODE 
     461CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     462>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     463> to listen 
     464and send ICMP messages and capability <CODE 
     465CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     466>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE 
     467> 
     468to update routing tables. </P 
     469></DIV 
     470><DIV 
     471CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     472><A 
     473NAME="AEN1287" 
     474></A 
     475><H2 
     476>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     477><P 
     478><B 
     479CLASS="COMMAND" 
     480>rdisc</B 
     481> is part of <TT 
     482CLASS="FILENAME" 
     483>iputils</TT 
     484> package 
     485and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     486<A 
     487HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     488TARGET="_top" 
     489>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     490>.</P 
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     541>&nbsp;</TD 
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  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r1293.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r1293.html
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     34>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
     35></TR 
     36><TR 
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     41><A 
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     58><HR 
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     61><H1 
     62><A 
     63NAME="PG3" 
     64></A 
     65>pg3</H1 
     66><DIV 
     67CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     68><A 
     69NAME="AEN1298" 
     70></A 
     71><H2 
     72>Name</H2 
     73>pg3, ipg, pgset&nbsp;--&nbsp;send stream of UDP packets</DIV 
     74><DIV 
     75CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     76><A 
     77NAME="AEN1301" 
     78></A 
     79><H2 
     80>Synopsis</H2 
     81><P 
     82><B 
     83CLASS="COMMAND" 
     84>source ipg</B 
     85></P 
     86><P 
     87><B 
     88CLASS="COMMAND" 
     89>pg</B 
     90></P 
     91><P 
     92><B 
     93CLASS="COMMAND" 
     94>pgset</B 
     95> {<TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>COMMAND</I 
     99></TT 
     100>}</P 
     101></DIV 
     102><DIV 
     103CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     104><A 
     105NAME="AEN1310" 
     106></A 
     107><H2 
     108>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     109><P 
     110><B 
     111CLASS="COMMAND" 
     112>ipg</B 
     113> is not a program, it is script which should be sourced 
     114to <B 
     115CLASS="COMMAND" 
     116>bash</B 
     117>. When sourced it loads module <TT 
     118CLASS="FILENAME" 
     119>pg3</TT 
     120> and 
     121exports a few of functions accessible from parent shell. These macros 
     122are <B 
     123CLASS="COMMAND" 
     124>pg</B 
     125> to start packet injection and to get the results of run; 
     126and <B 
     127CLASS="COMMAND" 
     128>pgset</B 
     129> to setup packet generator.</P 
     130><P 
     131><B 
     132CLASS="COMMAND" 
     133>pgset</B 
     134> can send the following commands to module <TT 
     135CLASS="FILENAME" 
     136>pg3</TT 
     137>:</P 
     138></DIV 
     139><DIV 
     140CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     141><A 
     142NAME="AEN1321" 
     143></A 
     144><H2 
     145>COMMAND</H2 
     146><P 
     147></P 
     148><DIV 
     149CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     150><DL 
     151><DT 
     152><CODE 
     153CLASS="OPTION" 
     154>odev <TT 
     155CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     156><I 
     157>DEVICE</I 
     158></TT 
     159></CODE 
     160></DT 
     161><DD 
     162><P 
     163>Name of Ethernet device to test. See 
     164<A 
     165HREF="r1293.html#PG3.WARNING" 
     166>warning</A 
     167> below. 
     168  </P 
     169></DD 
     170><DT 
     171><CODE 
     172CLASS="OPTION" 
     173>pkt_size <TT 
     174CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     175><I 
     176>BYTES</I 
     177></TT 
     178></CODE 
     179></DT 
     180><DD 
     181><P 
     182>Size of packet to generate. The size includes all the headers: UDP, IP, 
     183MAC, but does not account for overhead internal to medium, i.e. FCS 
     184and various paddings. 
     185  </P 
     186></DD 
     187><DT 
     188><CODE 
     189CLASS="OPTION" 
     190>frags <TT 
     191CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     192><I 
     193>NUMBER</I 
     194></TT 
     195></CODE 
     196></DT 
     197><DD 
     198><P 
     199>Each packet will contain <TT 
     200CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     201><I 
     202>NUMBER</I 
     203></TT 
     204> of fragments. 
     205Maximal amount for linux-2.4 is 6. Far not all the devices support 
     206fragmented buffers. 
     207  </P 
     208></DD 
     209><DT 
     210><CODE 
     211CLASS="OPTION" 
     212>count <TT 
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     214><I 
     215>NUMBER</I 
     216></TT 
     217></CODE 
     218></DT 
     219><DD 
     220><P 
     221>Send stream of <TT 
     222CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     223><I 
     224>NUMBER</I 
     225></TT 
     226> of packets and stop after this. 
     227  </P 
     228></DD 
     229><DT 
     230><CODE 
     231CLASS="OPTION" 
     232>ipg <TT 
     233CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     234><I 
     235>TIME</I 
     236></TT 
     237></CODE 
     238></DT 
     239><DD 
     240><P 
     241>Introduce artificial delay between packets of <TT 
     242CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     243><I 
     244>TIME</I 
     245></TT 
     246> 
     247microseconds. 
     248  </P 
     249></DD 
     250><DT 
     251><CODE 
     252CLASS="OPTION" 
     253>dst <TT 
     254CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     255><I 
     256>IP_ADDRESS</I 
     257></TT 
     258></CODE 
     259></DT 
     260><DD 
     261><P 
     262>Select IP destination where the stream is sent to. 
     263Beware, never set this address at random. <B 
     264CLASS="COMMAND" 
     265>pg3</B 
     266> is not a toy, 
     267it creates really tough stream. Default value is 0.0.0.0. 
     268  </P 
     269></DD 
     270><DT 
     271><CODE 
     272CLASS="OPTION" 
     273>dst <TT 
     274CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     275><I 
     276>MAC_ADDRESS</I 
     277></TT 
     278></CODE 
     279></DT 
     280><DD 
     281><P 
     282>Select MAC destination where the stream is sent to. 
     283Default value is 00:00:00:00:00:00 in hope that this will not be received 
     284by any node on LAN. 
     285  </P 
     286></DD 
     287><DT 
     288><CODE 
     289CLASS="OPTION" 
     290>stop</CODE 
     291></DT 
     292><DD 
     293><P 
     294>Abort packet injection. 
     295  </P 
     296></DD 
     297></DL 
     298></DIV 
     299></DIV 
     300><DIV 
     301CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     302><A 
     303NAME="PG3.WARNING" 
     304></A 
     305><H2 
     306>WARNING</H2 
     307><P 
     308>When output device is set to some random device different 
     309of hardware Ethernet device, <B 
     310CLASS="COMMAND" 
     311>pg3</B 
     312> will crash kernel.</P 
     313><P 
     314>Do not use it on VLAN, ethertap, VTUN and other devices, 
     315which emulate Ethernet not being real Ethernet in fact.</P 
     316></DIV 
     317><DIV 
     318CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     319><A 
     320NAME="AEN1381" 
     321></A 
     322><H2 
     323>AUTHOR</H2 
     324><P 
     325><B 
     326CLASS="COMMAND" 
     327>pg3</B 
     328> was written by <A 
     329HREF="mailto:robert.olsson@its.uu.se" 
     330TARGET="_top" 
     331>Robert Olsson &#60;robert.olsson@its.uu.se&#62;</A 
     332>.</P 
     333></DIV 
     334><DIV 
     335CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     336><A 
     337NAME="AEN1386" 
     338></A 
     339><H2 
     340>SECURITY</H2 
     341><P 
     342>This can be used only by superuser.</P 
     343><P 
     344>This tool creates floods of packets which is unlikely to be handled 
     345even by high-end machines. For example, it saturates gigabit link with 
     34660 byte packets when used with Intel's e1000. In face of such stream 
     347switches, routers and end hosts may deadlock, crash, explode. 
     348Use only in test lab environment.</P 
     349></DIV 
     350><DIV 
     351CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     352><A 
     353NAME="AEN1390" 
     354></A 
     355><H2 
     356>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     357><P 
     358><B 
     359CLASS="COMMAND" 
     360>pg3</B 
     361> is part of <TT 
     362CLASS="FILENAME" 
     363>iputils</TT 
     364> package 
     365and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     366<A 
     367HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     368TARGET="_top" 
     369>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     370>.</P 
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     405>&nbsp;</TD 
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  • iputils-s20161105

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     36ALIGN="center" 
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
     38></TR 
     39><TR 
     40><TD 
     41WIDTH="10%" 
     42ALIGN="left" 
     43VALIGN="bottom" 
     44><A 
     45HREF="r1.html" 
     46ACCESSKEY="P" 
     47>&#60;&#60;&#60; Previous</A 
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     52VALIGN="bottom" 
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     55WIDTH="10%" 
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     65><HR 
     66ALIGN="LEFT" 
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV 
     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="PING" 
     71></A 
     72>ping</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN8" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>ping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN11" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>ping</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-aAbBdDfhLnOqrRUvV46</CODE 
     95>] [-c <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>count</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [-F <TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>flowlabel</I 
     104></TT 
     105>] [-i <TT 
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     107><I 
     108>interval</I 
     109></TT 
     110>] [-I <TT 
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     112><I 
     113>interface</I 
     114></TT 
     115>] [-l <TT 
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     117><I 
     118>preload</I 
     119></TT 
     120>] [-m <TT 
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     122><I 
     123>mark</I 
     124></TT 
     125>] [-M <TT 
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     127><I 
     128>pmtudisc_option</I 
     129></TT 
     130>] [-N <TT 
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     132><I 
     133>nodeinfo_option</I 
     134></TT 
     135>] [-w <TT 
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     137><I 
     138>deadline</I 
     139></TT 
     140>] [-W <TT 
     141CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     142><I 
     143>timeout</I 
     144></TT 
     145>] [-p <TT 
     146CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     147><I 
     148>pattern</I 
     149></TT 
     150>] [-Q <TT 
     151CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     152><I 
     153>tos</I 
     154></TT 
     155>] [-s <TT 
     156CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     157><I 
     158>packetsize</I 
     159></TT 
     160>] [-S <TT 
     161CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     162><I 
     163>sndbuf</I 
     164></TT 
     165>] [-t <TT 
     166CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     167><I 
     168>ttl</I 
     169></TT 
     170>] [-T <TT 
     171CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     172><I 
     173>timestamp option</I 
     174></TT 
     175>] [<TT 
     176CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     177><I 
     178>hop</I 
     179></TT 
     180>...] {<TT 
     181CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     182><I 
     183>destination</I 
     184></TT 
     185>}</P 
     186></DIV 
     187><DIV 
     188CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     189><A 
     190NAME="AEN52" 
     191></A 
     192><H2 
     193>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     194><P 
     195><B 
     196CLASS="COMMAND" 
     197>ping</B 
     198> uses the ICMP protocol's mandatory ECHO_REQUEST 
     199datagram to elicit an ICMP ECHO_RESPONSE from a host or gateway. 
     200ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (``pings'') have an IP and ICMP 
     201header, followed by a <CODE 
     202CLASS="STRUCTNAME" 
     203>struct timeval</CODE 
     204> and then an arbitrary 
     205number of ``pad'' bytes used to fill out the packet.</P 
     206><P 
     207><B 
     208CLASS="COMMAND" 
     209>ping</B 
     210> works with both IPv4 and IPv6. Using only one of them 
     211explicitly can be enforced by specifying <CODE 
     212CLASS="OPTION" 
     213>-4</CODE 
     214> or <CODE 
     215CLASS="OPTION" 
     216>-6</CODE 
     217>.</P 
     218><P 
     219><B 
     220CLASS="COMMAND" 
     221>ping</B 
     222> can also send IPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620). 
     223Intermediate <TT 
     224CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     225><I 
     226>hop</I 
     227></TT 
     228>s may not be allowed, because IPv6 source routing was deprecated (RFC5095).</P 
     229></DIV 
     230><DIV 
     231CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     232><A 
     233NAME="AEN64" 
     234></A 
     235><H2 
     236>OPTIONS</H2 
     237><P 
     238></P 
     239><DIV 
     240CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     241><DL 
     242><DT 
     243><CODE 
     244CLASS="OPTION" 
     245>-4</CODE 
     246></DT 
     247><DD 
     248><P 
     249>Use IPv4 only. 
     250  </P 
     251></DD 
     252><DT 
     253><CODE 
     254CLASS="OPTION" 
     255>-6</CODE 
     256></DT 
     257><DD 
     258><P 
     259>Use IPv6 only. 
     260  </P 
     261></DD 
     262><DT 
     263><CODE 
     264CLASS="OPTION" 
     265>-a</CODE 
     266></DT 
     267><DD 
     268><P 
     269>Audible ping. 
     270  </P 
     271></DD 
     272><DT 
     273><CODE 
     274CLASS="OPTION" 
     275>-A</CODE 
     276></DT 
     277><DD 
     278><P 
     279>Adaptive ping. Interpacket interval adapts to round-trip time, so that 
     280effectively not more than one (or more, if preload is set) unanswered probe 
     281is present in the network. Minimal interval is 200msec for not super-user. 
     282On networks with low rtt this mode is essentially equivalent to flood mode.   
     283  </P 
     284></DD 
     285><DT 
     286><CODE 
     287CLASS="OPTION" 
     288>-b</CODE 
     289></DT 
     290><DD 
     291><P 
     292>Allow pinging a broadcast address. 
     293  </P 
     294></DD 
     295><DT 
     296><CODE 
     297CLASS="OPTION" 
     298>-B</CODE 
     299></DT 
     300><DD 
     301><P 
     302>Do not allow <B 
     303CLASS="COMMAND" 
     304>ping</B 
     305> to change source address of probes. 
     306The address is bound to one selected when <B 
     307CLASS="COMMAND" 
     308>ping</B 
     309> starts. 
     310  </P 
     311></DD 
     312><DT 
     313><CODE 
     314CLASS="OPTION" 
     315><A 
     316NAME="PING.COUNT" 
     317></A 
     318>-c <TT 
     319CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     320><I 
     321>count</I 
     322></TT 
     323></CODE 
     324></DT 
     325><DD 
     326><P 
     327>Stop after sending <TT 
     328CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     329><I 
     330>count</I 
     331></TT 
     332> ECHO_REQUEST 
     333packets. With  
     334<A 
     335HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE" 
     336><TT 
     337CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     338><I 
     339>deadline</I 
     340></TT 
     341></A 
     342> 
     343option, <B 
     344CLASS="COMMAND" 
     345>ping</B 
     346> waits for 
     347<TT 
     348CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     349><I 
     350>count</I 
     351></TT 
     352> ECHO_REPLY packets, until the timeout expires. 
     353  </P 
     354></DD 
     355><DT 
     356><CODE 
     357CLASS="OPTION" 
     358>-d</CODE 
     359></DT 
     360><DD 
     361><P 
     362>Set the <CODE 
     363CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     364>SO_DEBUG</CODE 
     365> option on the socket being used. 
     366Essentially, this socket option is not used by Linux kernel.  
     367  </P 
     368></DD 
     369><DT 
     370><CODE 
     371CLASS="OPTION" 
     372>-D</CODE 
     373></DT 
     374><DD 
     375><P 
     376>Print timestamp (unix time + microseconds as in gettimeofday) before 
     377each line. 
     378  </P 
     379></DD 
     380><DT 
     381><CODE 
     382CLASS="OPTION" 
     383>-f</CODE 
     384></DT 
     385><DD 
     386><P 
     387>Flood ping. For every ECHO_REQUEST sent a period ``.'' is printed, 
     388while for ever ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed. 
     389This provides a rapid display of how many packets are being dropped. 
     390If interval is not given, it sets interval to zero and 
     391outputs packets as fast as they come back or one hundred times per second, 
     392whichever is more. 
     393Only the super-user may use this option with zero interval. 
     394  </P 
     395></DD 
     396><DT 
     397><CODE 
     398CLASS="OPTION" 
     399>-F <TT 
     400CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     401><I 
     402>flow label</I 
     403></TT 
     404></CODE 
     405></DT 
     406><DD 
     407><P 
     408>IPv6 only. 
     409Allocate and set 20 bit flow label (in hex) on echo request packets. 
     410If value is zero, kernel allocates random flow label. 
     411  </P 
     412></DD 
     413><DT 
     414><CODE 
     415CLASS="OPTION" 
     416>-h</CODE 
     417></DT 
     418><DD 
     419><P 
     420>Show help. 
     421  </P 
     422></DD 
     423><DT 
     424><CODE 
     425CLASS="OPTION" 
     426>-i <TT 
     427CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     428><I 
     429>interval</I 
     430></TT 
     431></CODE 
     432></DT 
     433><DD 
     434><P 
     435>Wait <TT 
     436CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     437><I 
     438>interval</I 
     439></TT 
     440> seconds between sending each packet. 
     441The default is to wait for one second between each packet normally, 
     442or not to wait in flood mode. Only super-user may set interval 
     443to values less than 0.2 seconds. 
     444  </P 
     445></DD 
     446><DT 
     447><CODE 
     448CLASS="OPTION" 
     449>-I <TT 
     450CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     451><I 
     452>interface</I 
     453></TT 
     454></CODE 
     455></DT 
     456><DD 
     457><P 
     458><TT 
     459CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     460><I 
     461>interface</I 
     462></TT 
     463> is either an address, or an interface name. 
     464If <TT 
     465CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     466><I 
     467>interface</I 
     468></TT 
     469> is an address, it sets source address 
     470to specified interface address. 
     471If <TT 
     472CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     473><I 
     474>interface</I 
     475></TT 
     476> in an interface name, it sets 
     477source interface to specified interface. 
     478For IPv6, when doing ping to a link-local scope 
     479address, link specification (by the '%'-notation in 
     480<TT 
     481CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     482><I 
     483>destination</I 
     484></TT 
     485>, or by this option) is required. 
     486  </P 
     487></DD 
     488><DT 
     489><CODE 
     490CLASS="OPTION" 
     491>-l <TT 
     492CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     493><I 
     494>preload</I 
     495></TT 
     496></CODE 
     497></DT 
     498><DD 
     499><P 
     500>If <TT 
     501CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     502><I 
     503>preload</I 
     504></TT 
     505> is specified, 
     506<B 
     507CLASS="COMMAND" 
     508>ping</B 
     509> sends that many packets not waiting for reply. 
     510Only the super-user may select preload more than 3. 
     511  </P 
     512></DD 
     513><DT 
     514><CODE 
     515CLASS="OPTION" 
     516>-L</CODE 
     517></DT 
     518><DD 
     519><P 
     520>Suppress loopback of multicast packets.  This flag only applies if the ping 
     521destination is a multicast address. 
     522  </P 
     523></DD 
     524><DT 
     525><CODE 
     526CLASS="OPTION" 
     527>-m <TT 
     528CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     529><I 
     530>mark</I 
     531></TT 
     532></CODE 
     533></DT 
     534><DD 
     535><P 
     536>use <TT 
     537CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     538><I 
     539>mark</I 
     540></TT 
     541> to tag the packets going out. This is useful 
     542for variety of reasons within the kernel such as using policy 
     543routing to select specific outbound processing. 
     544  </P 
     545></DD 
     546><DT 
     547><CODE 
     548CLASS="OPTION" 
     549>-M <TT 
     550CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     551><I 
     552>pmtudisc_opt</I 
     553></TT 
     554></CODE 
     555></DT 
     556><DD 
     557><P 
     558>Select Path MTU Discovery strategy. 
     559<TT 
     560CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     561><I 
     562>pmtudisc_option</I 
     563></TT 
     564> may be either <TT 
     565CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     566><I 
     567>do</I 
     568></TT 
     569> 
     570(prohibit fragmentation, even local one),  
     571<TT 
     572CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     573><I 
     574>want</I 
     575></TT 
     576> (do PMTU discovery, fragment locally when packet size 
     577is large), or <TT 
     578CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     579><I 
     580>dont</I 
     581></TT 
     582> (do not set DF flag). 
     583  </P 
     584></DD 
     585><DT 
     586><CODE 
     587CLASS="OPTION" 
     588>-N <TT 
     589CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     590><I 
     591>nodeinfo_option</I 
     592></TT 
     593></CODE 
     594></DT 
     595><DD 
     596><P 
     597>IPv6 only. 
     598Send ICMPv6 Node Information Queries (RFC4620), instead of Echo Request. 
     599<CODE 
     600CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     601>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     602> capability is required. 
     603   <P 
     604></P 
     605><DIV 
     606CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     607><DL 
     608><DT 
     609><CODE 
     610CLASS="OPTION" 
     611>help</CODE 
     612></DT 
     613><DD 
     614><P 
     615>Show help for NI support.</P 
     616></DD 
     617></DL 
     618></DIV 
     619> 
     620   <P 
     621></P 
     622><DIV 
     623CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     624><DL 
     625><DT 
     626><CODE 
     627CLASS="OPTION" 
     628>name</CODE 
     629></DT 
     630><DD 
     631><P 
     632>Queries for Node Names.</P 
     633></DD 
     634></DL 
     635></DIV 
     636> 
     637   <P 
     638></P 
     639><DIV 
     640CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     641><DL 
     642><DT 
     643><CODE 
     644CLASS="OPTION" 
     645>ipv6</CODE 
     646></DT 
     647><DD 
     648><P 
     649>Queries for IPv6 Addresses. There are several IPv6 specific flags. 
     650      <P 
     651></P 
     652><DIV 
     653CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     654><DL 
     655><DT 
     656><CODE 
     657CLASS="OPTION" 
     658>ipv6-global</CODE 
     659></DT 
     660><DD 
     661><P 
     662>Request IPv6 global-scope addresses.</P 
     663></DD 
     664></DL 
     665></DIV 
     666> 
     667      <P 
     668></P 
     669><DIV 
     670CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     671><DL 
     672><DT 
     673><CODE 
     674CLASS="OPTION" 
     675>ipv6-sitelocal</CODE 
     676></DT 
     677><DD 
     678><P 
     679>Request IPv6 site-local addresses.</P 
     680></DD 
     681></DL 
     682></DIV 
     683> 
     684      <P 
     685></P 
     686><DIV 
     687CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     688><DL 
     689><DT 
     690><CODE 
     691CLASS="OPTION" 
     692>ipv6-linklocal</CODE 
     693></DT 
     694><DD 
     695><P 
     696>Request IPv6 link-local addresses.</P 
     697></DD 
     698></DL 
     699></DIV 
     700> 
     701      <P 
     702></P 
     703><DIV 
     704CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     705><DL 
     706><DT 
     707><CODE 
     708CLASS="OPTION" 
     709>ipv6-all</CODE 
     710></DT 
     711><DD 
     712><P 
     713>Request IPv6 addresses on other interfaces.</P 
     714></DD 
     715></DL 
     716></DIV 
     717> 
     718     </P 
     719></DD 
     720></DL 
     721></DIV 
     722> 
     723   <P 
     724></P 
     725><DIV 
     726CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     727><DL 
     728><DT 
     729><CODE 
     730CLASS="OPTION" 
     731>ipv4</CODE 
     732></DT 
     733><DD 
     734><P 
     735>Queries for IPv4 Addresses.  There is one IPv4 specific flag. 
     736      <P 
     737></P 
     738><DIV 
     739CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     740><DL 
     741><DT 
     742><CODE 
     743CLASS="OPTION" 
     744>ipv4-all</CODE 
     745></DT 
     746><DD 
     747><P 
     748>Request IPv4 addresses on other interfaces.</P 
     749></DD 
     750></DL 
     751></DIV 
     752> 
     753     </P 
     754></DD 
     755></DL 
     756></DIV 
     757> 
     758   <P 
     759></P 
     760><DIV 
     761CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     762><DL 
     763><DT 
     764><CODE 
     765CLASS="OPTION" 
     766>subject-ipv6=<TT 
     767CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     768><I 
     769>ipv6addr</I 
     770></TT 
     771></CODE 
     772></DT 
     773><DD 
     774><P 
     775>IPv6 subject address.</P 
     776></DD 
     777></DL 
     778></DIV 
     779> 
     780   <P 
     781></P 
     782><DIV 
     783CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     784><DL 
     785><DT 
     786><CODE 
     787CLASS="OPTION" 
     788>subject-ipv4=<TT 
     789CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     790><I 
     791>ipv4addr</I 
     792></TT 
     793></CODE 
     794></DT 
     795><DD 
     796><P 
     797>IPv4 subject address.</P 
     798></DD 
     799></DL 
     800></DIV 
     801> 
     802   <P 
     803></P 
     804><DIV 
     805CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     806><DL 
     807><DT 
     808><CODE 
     809CLASS="OPTION" 
     810>subject-name=<TT 
     811CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     812><I 
     813>nodename</I 
     814></TT 
     815></CODE 
     816></DT 
     817><DD 
     818><P 
     819>Subject name.  If it contains more than one dot, 
     820        fully-qualified domain name is assumed.</P 
     821></DD 
     822></DL 
     823></DIV 
     824> 
     825   <P 
     826></P 
     827><DIV 
     828CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     829><DL 
     830><DT 
     831><CODE 
     832CLASS="OPTION" 
     833>subject-fqdn=<TT 
     834CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     835><I 
     836>nodename</I 
     837></TT 
     838></CODE 
     839></DT 
     840><DD 
     841><P 
     842>Subject name.  Fully-qualified domain name is 
     843        always assumed.</P 
     844></DD 
     845></DL 
     846></DIV 
     847> 
     848  </P 
     849></DD 
     850><DT 
     851><CODE 
     852CLASS="OPTION" 
     853>-n</CODE 
     854></DT 
     855><DD 
     856><P 
     857>Numeric output only. 
     858No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses. 
     859  </P 
     860></DD 
     861><DT 
     862><CODE 
     863CLASS="OPTION" 
     864>-O</CODE 
     865></DT 
     866><DD 
     867><P 
     868>Report outstanding ICMP ECHO reply before sending next packet. 
     869This is useful together with the timestamp <CODE 
     870CLASS="OPTION" 
     871>-D</CODE 
     872> to 
     873log output to a diagnostic file and search for missing answers. 
     874  </P 
     875></DD 
     876><DT 
     877><CODE 
     878CLASS="OPTION" 
     879>-p <TT 
     880CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     881><I 
     882>pattern</I 
     883></TT 
     884></CODE 
     885></DT 
     886><DD 
     887><P 
     888>You may specify up to 16 ``pad'' bytes to fill out the packet you send. 
     889This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a network. 
     890For example, <CODE 
     891CLASS="OPTION" 
     892>-p ff</CODE 
     893> will cause the sent packet 
     894to be filled with all ones. 
     895  </P 
     896></DD 
     897><DT 
     898><CODE 
     899CLASS="OPTION" 
     900>-q</CODE 
     901></DT 
     902><DD 
     903><P 
     904>Quiet output. 
     905Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and 
     906when finished. 
     907  </P 
     908></DD 
     909><DT 
     910><CODE 
     911CLASS="OPTION" 
     912>-Q <TT 
     913CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     914><I 
     915>tos</I 
     916></TT 
     917></CODE 
     918></DT 
     919><DD 
     920><P 
     921>       Set Quality of Service -related bits in ICMP datagrams. 
     922        <TT 
     923CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     924><I 
     925>tos</I 
     926></TT 
     927> can be decimal (<B 
     928CLASS="COMMAND" 
     929>ping</B 
     930> only) or hex number. 
     931        </P 
     932><P 
     933>       In RFC2474, these fields are interpreted as 8-bit Differentiated 
     934        Services (DS), consisting of: bits 0-1 (2 lowest bits) of separate 
     935        data, and bits 2-7 (highest 6 bits) of Differentiated Services 
     936        Codepoint (DSCP).  In RFC2481 and RFC3168, bits 0-1 are used for ECN. 
     937        </P 
     938><P 
     939>       Historically (RFC1349, obsoleted by RFC2474), these were interpreted 
     940        as: bit 0 (lowest bit) for reserved (currently being redefined as 
     941        congestion control), 1-4 for Type of Service and bits 5-7 
     942        (highest bits) for Precedence. 
     943   </P 
     944></DD 
     945><DT 
     946><CODE 
     947CLASS="OPTION" 
     948>-r</CODE 
     949></DT 
     950><DD 
     951><P 
     952>Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host on an attached 
     953interface. 
     954If the host is not on a directly-attached network, an error is returned. 
     955This option can be used to ping a local host through an interface 
     956that has no route through it provided the option <CODE 
     957CLASS="OPTION" 
     958>-I</CODE 
     959> is also 
     960used. 
     961  </P 
     962></DD 
     963><DT 
     964><CODE 
     965CLASS="OPTION" 
     966>-R</CODE 
     967></DT 
     968><DD 
     969><P 
     970><B 
     971CLASS="COMMAND" 
     972>ping</B 
     973> only. 
     974Record route. 
     975Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in the ECHO_REQUEST 
     976packet and displays the route buffer on returned packets. 
     977Note that the IP header is only large enough for nine such routes. 
     978Many hosts ignore or discard this option. 
     979  </P 
     980></DD 
     981><DT 
     982><CODE 
     983CLASS="OPTION" 
     984>-s <TT 
     985CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     986><I 
     987>packetsize</I 
     988></TT 
     989></CODE 
     990></DT 
     991><DD 
     992><P 
     993>Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent.   
     994The default is 56, which translates into 64 ICMP 
     995data bytes when combined with the 8 bytes of ICMP header data. 
     996  </P 
     997></DD 
     998><DT 
     999><CODE 
     1000CLASS="OPTION" 
     1001>-S <TT 
     1002CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1003><I 
     1004>sndbuf</I 
     1005></TT 
     1006></CODE 
     1007></DT 
     1008><DD 
     1009><P 
     1010>Set socket sndbuf. If not specified, it is selected to buffer 
     1011not more than one packet. 
     1012  </P 
     1013></DD 
     1014><DT 
     1015><CODE 
     1016CLASS="OPTION" 
     1017>-t <TT 
     1018CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1019><I 
     1020>ttl</I 
     1021></TT 
     1022></CODE 
     1023></DT 
     1024><DD 
     1025><P 
     1026><B 
     1027CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1028>ping</B 
     1029> only. 
     1030Set the IP Time to Live. 
     1031  </P 
     1032></DD 
     1033><DT 
     1034><CODE 
     1035CLASS="OPTION" 
     1036>-T <TT 
     1037CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1038><I 
     1039>timestamp option</I 
     1040></TT 
     1041></CODE 
     1042></DT 
     1043><DD 
     1044><P 
     1045>Set special IP timestamp options. 
     1046<TT 
     1047CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1048><I 
     1049>timestamp option</I 
     1050></TT 
     1051> may be either  
     1052<TT 
     1053CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1054><I 
     1055>tsonly</I 
     1056></TT 
     1057> (only timestamps),  
     1058<TT 
     1059CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1060><I 
     1061>tsandaddr</I 
     1062></TT 
     1063> (timestamps and addresses) or  
     1064<TT 
     1065CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1066><I 
     1067>tsprespec host1 [host2 [host3 [host4]]]</I 
     1068></TT 
     1069> 
     1070(timestamp prespecified hops). 
     1071  </P 
     1072></DD 
     1073><DT 
     1074><CODE 
     1075CLASS="OPTION" 
     1076>-U</CODE 
     1077></DT 
     1078><DD 
     1079><P 
     1080>Print full user-to-user latency (the old behaviour). Normally 
     1081<B 
     1082CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1083>ping</B 
     1084> 
     1085prints network round trip time, which can be different 
     1086f.e. due to DNS failures.  
     1087  </P 
     1088></DD 
     1089><DT 
     1090><CODE 
     1091CLASS="OPTION" 
     1092>-v</CODE 
     1093></DT 
     1094><DD 
     1095><P 
     1096>Verbose output. 
     1097  </P 
     1098></DD 
     1099><DT 
     1100><CODE 
     1101CLASS="OPTION" 
     1102>-V</CODE 
     1103></DT 
     1104><DD 
     1105><P 
     1106>Show version and exit. 
     1107  </P 
     1108></DD 
     1109><DT 
     1110><CODE 
     1111CLASS="OPTION" 
     1112><A 
     1113NAME="PING.DEADLINE" 
     1114></A 
     1115>-w <TT 
     1116CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1117><I 
     1118>deadline</I 
     1119></TT 
     1120></CODE 
     1121></DT 
     1122><DD 
     1123><P 
     1124>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before 
     1125<B 
     1126CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1127>ping</B 
     1128> 
     1129exits regardless of how many 
     1130packets have been sent or received. In this case 
     1131<B 
     1132CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1133>ping</B 
     1134> 
     1135does not stop after 
     1136<A 
     1137HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT" 
     1138><TT 
     1139CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1140><I 
     1141>count</I 
     1142></TT 
     1143></A 
     1144> 
     1145packet are sent, it waits either for 
     1146<A 
     1147HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE" 
     1148><TT 
     1149CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1150><I 
     1151>deadline</I 
     1152></TT 
     1153></A 
     1154> 
     1155expire or until 
     1156<A 
     1157HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT" 
     1158><TT 
     1159CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1160><I 
     1161>count</I 
     1162></TT 
     1163></A 
     1164> 
     1165probes are answered or for some error notification from network.    
     1166  </P 
     1167></DD 
     1168><DT 
     1169><CODE 
     1170CLASS="OPTION" 
     1171>-W <TT 
     1172CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1173><I 
     1174>timeout</I 
     1175></TT 
     1176></CODE 
     1177></DT 
     1178><DD 
     1179><P 
     1180>Time to wait for a response, in seconds. The option affects only timeout 
     1181in absence of any responses, otherwise <B 
     1182CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1183>ping</B 
     1184> waits for two RTTs. 
     1185  </P 
     1186></DD 
     1187></DL 
     1188></DIV 
     1189><P 
     1190>When using <B 
     1191CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1192>ping</B 
     1193> for fault isolation, it should first be run 
     1194on the local host, to verify that the local network interface is up 
     1195and running. Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be 
     1196``pinged''. Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed. 
     1197If duplicate packets are received, they are not included in the packet 
     1198loss calculation, although the round trip time of these packets is used 
     1199in calculating the minimum/average/maximum round-trip time numbers. 
     1200When the specified number of packets have been sent (and received) or 
     1201if the program is terminated with a 
     1202<CODE 
     1203CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     1204>SIGINT</CODE 
     1205>, a brief summary is displayed. Shorter current statistics 
     1206can be obtained without termination of process with signal 
     1207<CODE 
     1208CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     1209>SIGQUIT</CODE 
     1210>.</P 
     1211><P 
     1212>If <B 
     1213CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1214>ping</B 
     1215> does not receive any reply packets at all it will 
     1216exit with code 1. If a packet  
     1217<A 
     1218HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT" 
     1219><TT 
     1220CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1221><I 
     1222>count</I 
     1223></TT 
     1224></A 
     1225> 
     1226and 
     1227<A 
     1228HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE" 
     1229><TT 
     1230CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1231><I 
     1232>deadline</I 
     1233></TT 
     1234></A 
     1235> 
     1236are both specified, and fewer than 
     1237<A 
     1238HREF="r3.html#PING.COUNT" 
     1239><TT 
     1240CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1241><I 
     1242>count</I 
     1243></TT 
     1244></A 
     1245> 
     1246packets are received by the time the 
     1247<A 
     1248HREF="r3.html#PING.DEADLINE" 
     1249><TT 
     1250CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1251><I 
     1252>deadline</I 
     1253></TT 
     1254></A 
     1255> 
     1256has arrived, it will also exit with code 1.  
     1257On other error it exits with code 2. Otherwise it exits with code 0. This 
     1258makes it possible to use the exit code to see if a host is alive or 
     1259not.</P 
     1260><P 
     1261>This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and 
     1262management. 
     1263Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise to use 
     1264<B 
     1265CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1266>ping</B 
     1267> during normal operations or from automated scripts.</P 
     1268></DIV 
     1269><DIV 
     1270CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1271><A 
     1272NAME="AEN402" 
     1273></A 
     1274><H2 
     1275>ICMP PACKET DETAILS</H2 
     1276><P 
     1277>An IP header without options is 20 bytes. 
     1278An ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet contains an additional 8 bytes worth 
     1279of ICMP header followed by an arbitrary amount of data. 
     1280When a <TT 
     1281CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     1282><I 
     1283>packetsize</I 
     1284></TT 
     1285> is given, this indicated the size of this 
     1286extra piece of data (the default is 56). Thus the amount of data received 
     1287inside of an IP packet of type ICMP ECHO_REPLY will always be 8 bytes 
     1288more than the requested data space (the ICMP header).</P 
     1289><P 
     1290>If the data space is at least of size of <CODE 
     1291CLASS="STRUCTNAME" 
     1292>struct timeval</CODE 
     1293> 
     1294<B 
     1295CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1296>ping</B 
     1297> uses the beginning bytes of this space to include 
     1298a timestamp which it uses in the computation of round trip times. 
     1299If the data space is shorter, no round trip times are given.</P 
     1300></DIV 
     1301><DIV 
     1302CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1303><A 
     1304NAME="AEN409" 
     1305></A 
     1306><H2 
     1307>DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS</H2 
     1308><P 
     1309><B 
     1310CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1311>ping</B 
     1312> will report duplicate and damaged packets. 
     1313Duplicate packets should never occur, and seem to be caused by 
     1314inappropriate link-level retransmissions. 
     1315Duplicates may occur in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a 
     1316good sign, although the presence of low levels of duplicates may not 
     1317always be cause for alarm.</P 
     1318><P 
     1319>Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often 
     1320indicate broken hardware somewhere in the 
     1321<B 
     1322CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1323>ping</B 
     1324> packet's path (in the network or in the hosts).</P 
     1325></DIV 
     1326><DIV 
     1327CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1328><A 
     1329NAME="AEN415" 
     1330></A 
     1331><H2 
     1332>TRYING DIFFERENT DATA PATTERNS</H2 
     1333><P 
     1334>The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending 
     1335on the data contained in the data portion. 
     1336Unfortunately, data-dependent problems have been known to sneak into 
     1337networks and remain undetected for long periods of time. 
     1338In many cases the particular pattern that will have problems is something 
     1339that doesn't have sufficient ``transitions'', such as all ones or all 
     1340zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as almost all zeros. 
     1341It isn't necessarily enough to specify a data pattern of all zeros (for 
     1342example) on the command line because the pattern that is of interest is 
     1343at the data link level, and the relationship between what you type and 
     1344what the controllers transmit can be complicated.</P 
     1345><P 
     1346>This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably 
     1347have to do a lot of testing to find it. 
     1348If you are lucky, you may manage to find a file that either can't be sent 
     1349across your network or that takes much longer to transfer than other 
     1350similar length files. 
     1351You can then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test 
     1352using the <CODE 
     1353CLASS="OPTION" 
     1354>-p</CODE 
     1355> option of <B 
     1356CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1357>ping</B 
     1358>.</P 
     1359></DIV 
     1360><DIV 
     1361CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1362><A 
     1363NAME="AEN421" 
     1364></A 
     1365><H2 
     1366>TTL DETAILS</H2 
     1367><P 
     1368>The TTL value of an IP packet represents the maximum number of IP routers 
     1369that the packet can go through before being thrown away. 
     1370In current practice you can expect each router in the Internet to decrement 
     1371the TTL field by exactly one.</P 
     1372><P 
     1373>The TCP/IP specification states that the TTL field for TCP 
     1374packets should be set to 60, but many systems use smaller values 
     1375(4.3 BSD uses 30, 4.2 used 15).</P 
     1376><P 
     1377>The maximum possible value of this field is 255, and most Unix systems set 
     1378the TTL field of ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to 255. 
     1379This is why you will find you can ``ping'' some hosts, but not reach them 
     1380with 
     1381<SPAN 
     1382CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     1383><SPAN 
     1384CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     1385>telnet</SPAN 
     1386>(1)</SPAN 
     1387> 
     1388or 
     1389<SPAN 
     1390CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     1391><SPAN 
     1392CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     1393>ftp</SPAN 
     1394>(1)</SPAN 
     1395>.</P 
     1396><P 
     1397>In normal operation ping prints the TTL value from the packet it receives. 
     1398When a remote system receives a ping packet, it can do one of three things 
     1399with the TTL field in its response:</P 
     1400><P 
     1401></P 
     1402><UL 
     1403><LI 
     1404><P 
     1405>Not change it; this is what Berkeley Unix systems did before the 
     14064.3BSD Tahoe release. In this case the TTL value in the received packet 
     1407will be 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path. 
     1408 </P 
     1409></LI 
     1410><LI 
     1411><P 
     1412>Set it to 255; this is what current Berkeley Unix systems do. 
     1413In this case the TTL value in the received packet will be 255 minus the 
     1414number of routers in the path <I 
     1415CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     1416>from</I 
     1417> 
     1418the remote system <I 
     1419CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     1420>to</I 
     1421> the <B 
     1422CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1423>ping</B 
     1424>ing host. 
     1425 </P 
     1426></LI 
     1427><LI 
     1428><P 
     1429>Set it to some other value. Some machines use the same value for 
     1430ICMP packets that they use for TCP packets, for example either 30 or 60. 
     1431Others may use completely wild values. 
     1432 </P 
     1433></LI 
     1434></UL 
     1435></DIV 
     1436><DIV 
     1437CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1438><A 
     1439NAME="AEN443" 
     1440></A 
     1441><H2 
     1442>BUGS</H2 
     1443><P 
     1444></P 
     1445><UL 
     1446><LI 
     1447><P 
     1448>Many Hosts and Gateways ignore the RECORD_ROUTE option. 
     1449 </P 
     1450></LI 
     1451><LI 
     1452><P 
     1453>The maximum IP header length is too small for options like 
     1454RECORD_ROUTE to be completely useful. 
     1455There's not much that can be done about this, however. 
     1456 </P 
     1457></LI 
     1458><LI 
     1459><P 
     1460>Flood pinging is not recommended in general, and flood pinging the 
     1461broadcast address should only be done under very controlled conditions. 
     1462 </P 
     1463></LI 
     1464></UL 
     1465></DIV 
     1466><DIV 
     1467CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1468><A 
     1469NAME="AEN452" 
     1470></A 
     1471><H2 
     1472>SEE ALSO</H2 
     1473><P 
     1474><SPAN 
     1475CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     1476><SPAN 
     1477CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     1478>netstat</SPAN 
     1479>(1)</SPAN 
     1480>, 
     1481<SPAN 
     1482CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     1483><SPAN 
     1484CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     1485>ifconfig</SPAN 
     1486>(8)</SPAN 
     1487>.</P 
     1488></DIV 
     1489><DIV 
     1490CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1491><A 
     1492NAME="AEN461" 
     1493></A 
     1494><H2 
     1495>HISTORY</H2 
     1496><P 
     1497>The <B 
     1498CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1499>ping</B 
     1500> command appeared in 4.3BSD.</P 
     1501><P 
     1502>The version described here is its descendant specific to Linux.</P 
     1503><P 
     1504>As of version s20150815, the <B 
     1505CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1506>ping6</B 
     1507> binary doesn't exist anymore. 
     1508It has been merged into <B 
     1509CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1510>ping</B 
     1511>. Creating a symlink named 
     1512<B 
     1513CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1514>ping6</B 
     1515> pointing to <B 
     1516CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1517>ping</B 
     1518> will result in the same 
     1519funcionality as before.</P 
     1520></DIV 
     1521><DIV 
     1522CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1523><A 
     1524NAME="AEN471" 
     1525></A 
     1526><H2 
     1527>SECURITY</H2 
     1528><P 
     1529><B 
     1530CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1531>ping</B 
     1532> requires <CODE 
     1533CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     1534>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     1535> capability 
     1536to be executed 1) if the program is used for non-echo queries 
     1537(See <CODE 
     1538CLASS="OPTION" 
     1539>-N</CODE 
     1540> option), or 2) if kernel does not 
     1541support non-raw ICMP sockets, or 3) if the user is not allowed 
     1542to create an ICMP echo socket.  The program may be used as 
     1543set-uid root.</P 
     1544></DIV 
     1545><DIV 
     1546CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     1547><A 
     1548NAME="AEN477" 
     1549></A 
     1550><H2 
     1551>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     1552><P 
     1553><B 
     1554CLASS="COMMAND" 
     1555>ping</B 
     1556> is part of <TT 
     1557CLASS="FILENAME" 
     1558>iputils</TT 
     1559> package 
     1560and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     1561<A 
     1562HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     1563TARGET="_top" 
     1564>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     1565>.</P 
     1566></DIV 
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     1594>Home</A 
     1595></TD 
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     1600><A 
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     1606><TR 
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     1611>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TD 
     1612><TD 
     1613WIDTH="34%" 
     1614ALIGN="center" 
     1615VALIGN="top" 
     1616>&nbsp;</TD 
     1617><TD 
     1618WIDTH="33%" 
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     1620VALIGN="top" 
     1621>arping</TD 
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     1627> 
     1628 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r483.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r483.html
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     2<HTML 
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     4><TITLE 
     5>arping</TITLE 
     6><META 
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     65><HR 
     66ALIGN="LEFT" 
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV 
     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="ARPING" 
     71></A 
     72>arping</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN488" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>arping&nbsp;--&nbsp;send ARP REQUEST to a neighbour host</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN491" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>arping</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-AbDfhqUV</CODE 
     95>] [-c <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>count</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [-w <TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>deadline</I 
     104></TT 
     105>] [-s <TT 
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     107><I 
     108>source</I 
     109></TT 
     110>] [-I <TT 
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     112><I 
     113>interface</I 
     114></TT 
     115>] {<TT 
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     117><I 
     118>destination</I 
     119></TT 
     120>}</P 
     121></DIV 
     122><DIV 
     123CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     124><A 
     125NAME="AEN506" 
     126></A 
     127><H2 
     128>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     129><P 
     130>Ping <TT 
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     132><I 
     133>destination</I 
     134></TT 
     135> on device <TT 
     136CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     137><I 
     138>interface</I 
     139></TT 
     140> by ARP packets, 
     141using source address <TT 
     142CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     143><I 
     144>source</I 
     145></TT 
     146>.</P 
     147></DIV 
     148><DIV 
     149CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     150><A 
     151NAME="AEN512" 
     152></A 
     153><H2 
     154>OPTIONS</H2 
     155><P 
     156></P 
     157><DIV 
     158CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     159><DL 
     160><DT 
     161><CODE 
     162CLASS="OPTION" 
     163>-A</CODE 
     164></DT 
     165><DD 
     166><P 
     167>The same as <CODE 
     168CLASS="OPTION" 
     169>-U</CODE 
     170>, but ARP REPLY packets used instead 
     171of ARP REQUEST. 
     172  </P 
     173></DD 
     174><DT 
     175><CODE 
     176CLASS="OPTION" 
     177>-b</CODE 
     178></DT 
     179><DD 
     180><P 
     181>Send only MAC level broadcasts. Normally <B 
     182CLASS="COMMAND" 
     183>arping</B 
     184> starts 
     185from sending broadcast, and switch to unicast after reply received. 
     186  </P 
     187></DD 
     188><DT 
     189><CODE 
     190CLASS="OPTION" 
     191><A 
     192NAME="ARPING.COUNT" 
     193></A 
     194>-c <TT 
     195CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     196><I 
     197>count</I 
     198></TT 
     199></CODE 
     200></DT 
     201><DD 
     202><P 
     203>Stop after sending <TT 
     204CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     205><I 
     206>count</I 
     207></TT 
     208> ARP REQUEST 
     209packets. With  
     210<A 
     211HREF="r483.html#ARPING.DEADLINE" 
     212><TT 
     213CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     214><I 
     215>deadline</I 
     216></TT 
     217></A 
     218> 
     219option, instead wait for 
     220<TT 
     221CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     222><I 
     223>count</I 
     224></TT 
     225> ARP REPLY packets, or until the timeout expires. 
     226  </P 
     227></DD 
     228><DT 
     229><CODE 
     230CLASS="OPTION" 
     231>-D</CODE 
     232></DT 
     233><DD 
     234><P 
     235>Duplicate address detection mode (DAD). See  
     236<A 
     237HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt" 
     238TARGET="_top" 
     239>RFC2131, 4.4.1</A 
     240>. 
     241Returns 0, if DAD succeeded i.e. no replies are received 
     242  </P 
     243></DD 
     244><DT 
     245><CODE 
     246CLASS="OPTION" 
     247>-f</CODE 
     248></DT 
     249><DD 
     250><P 
     251>Finish after the first reply confirming that target is alive. 
     252  </P 
     253></DD 
     254><DT 
     255><CODE 
     256CLASS="OPTION" 
     257><A 
     258NAME="OPT.INTERFACE" 
     259></A 
     260>-I <TT 
     261CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     262><I 
     263>interface</I 
     264></TT 
     265></CODE 
     266></DT 
     267><DD 
     268><P 
     269>Name of network device where to send ARP REQUEST packets. 
     270  </P 
     271></DD 
     272><DT 
     273><CODE 
     274CLASS="OPTION" 
     275>-h</CODE 
     276></DT 
     277><DD 
     278><P 
     279>Print help page and exit. 
     280  </P 
     281></DD 
     282><DT 
     283><CODE 
     284CLASS="OPTION" 
     285>-q</CODE 
     286></DT 
     287><DD 
     288><P 
     289>Quiet output. Nothing is displayed. 
     290  </P 
     291></DD 
     292><DT 
     293><CODE 
     294CLASS="OPTION" 
     295><A 
     296NAME="OPT.SOURCE" 
     297></A 
     298>-s <TT 
     299CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     300><I 
     301>source</I 
     302></TT 
     303></CODE 
     304></DT 
     305><DD 
     306><P 
     307>IP source address to use in ARP packets. 
     308If this option is absent, source address is: 
     309   <P 
     310></P 
     311><UL 
     312><LI 
     313><P 
     314>In DAD mode (with option <CODE 
     315CLASS="OPTION" 
     316>-D</CODE 
     317>) set to 0.0.0.0. 
     318    </P 
     319></LI 
     320><LI 
     321><P 
     322>In Unsolicited ARP mode (with options <CODE 
     323CLASS="OPTION" 
     324>-U</CODE 
     325> or <CODE 
     326CLASS="OPTION" 
     327>-A</CODE 
     328>) 
     329set to <TT 
     330CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     331><I 
     332>destination</I 
     333></TT 
     334>. 
     335    </P 
     336></LI 
     337><LI 
     338><P 
     339>Otherwise, it is calculated from routing tables. 
     340    </P 
     341></LI 
     342></UL 
     343> 
     344  </P 
     345></DD 
     346><DT 
     347><CODE 
     348CLASS="OPTION" 
     349>-U</CODE 
     350></DT 
     351><DD 
     352><P 
     353>Unsolicited ARP mode to update neighbours' ARP caches. 
     354No replies are expected. 
     355  </P 
     356></DD 
     357><DT 
     358><CODE 
     359CLASS="OPTION" 
     360>-V</CODE 
     361></DT 
     362><DD 
     363><P 
     364>Print version of the program and exit. 
     365  </P 
     366></DD 
     367><DT 
     368><CODE 
     369CLASS="OPTION" 
     370><A 
     371NAME="ARPING.DEADLINE" 
     372></A 
     373>-w <TT 
     374CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     375><I 
     376>deadline</I 
     377></TT 
     378></CODE 
     379></DT 
     380><DD 
     381><P 
     382>Specify a timeout, in seconds, before 
     383<B 
     384CLASS="COMMAND" 
     385>arping</B 
     386> 
     387exits regardless of how many 
     388packets have been sent or received. In this case 
     389<B 
     390CLASS="COMMAND" 
     391>arping</B 
     392> 
     393does not stop after 
     394<A 
     395HREF="r483.html#ARPING.COUNT" 
     396><TT 
     397CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     398><I 
     399>count</I 
     400></TT 
     401></A 
     402> 
     403packet are sent, it waits either for 
     404<A 
     405HREF="r483.html#ARPING.DEADLINE" 
     406><TT 
     407CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     408><I 
     409>deadline</I 
     410></TT 
     411></A 
     412> 
     413expire or until 
     414<A 
     415HREF="r483.html#ARPING.COUNT" 
     416><TT 
     417CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     418><I 
     419>count</I 
     420></TT 
     421></A 
     422> 
     423probes are answered. 
     424  </P 
     425></DD 
     426></DL 
     427></DIV 
     428></DIV 
     429><DIV 
     430CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     431><A 
     432NAME="AEN609" 
     433></A 
     434><H2 
     435>SEE ALSO</H2 
     436><P 
     437><A 
     438HREF="r3.html" 
     439><SPAN 
     440CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     441><SPAN 
     442CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     443>ping</SPAN 
     444>(8)</SPAN 
     445></A 
     446>, 
     447<A 
     448HREF="r641.html" 
     449><SPAN 
     450CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     451><SPAN 
     452CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     453>clockdiff</SPAN 
     454>(8)</SPAN 
     455></A 
     456>, 
     457<A 
     458HREF="r835.html" 
     459><SPAN 
     460CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     461><SPAN 
     462CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     463>tracepath</SPAN 
     464>(8)</SPAN 
     465></A 
     466>.</P 
     467></DIV 
     468><DIV 
     469CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     470><A 
     471NAME="AEN624" 
     472></A 
     473><H2 
     474>AUTHOR</H2 
     475><P 
     476><B 
     477CLASS="COMMAND" 
     478>arping</B 
     479> was written by 
     480<A 
     481HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     482TARGET="_top" 
     483>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     484&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     485>. 
     486It is now maintained by 
     487<A 
     488HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net" 
     489TARGET="_top" 
     490>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     491&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A 
     492>.</P 
     493></DIV 
     494><DIV 
     495CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     496><A 
     497NAME="AEN630" 
     498></A 
     499><H2 
     500>SECURITY</H2 
     501><P 
     502><B 
     503CLASS="COMMAND" 
     504>arping</B 
     505> requires <CODE 
     506CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     507>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     508> capability 
     509to be executed. It is not recommended to be used as set-uid root, 
     510because it allows user to modify ARP caches of neighbour hosts.</P 
     511></DIV 
     512><DIV 
     513CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     514><A 
     515NAME="AEN635" 
     516></A 
     517><H2 
     518>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     519><P 
     520><B 
     521CLASS="COMMAND" 
     522>arping</B 
     523> is part of <TT 
     524CLASS="FILENAME" 
     525>iputils</TT 
     526> package 
     527and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     528<A 
     529HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     530TARGET="_top" 
     531>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     532>.</P 
     533></DIV 
     534><DIV 
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     536><HR 
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     560ACCESSKEY="H" 
     561>Home</A 
     562></TD 
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     564WIDTH="33%" 
     565ALIGN="right" 
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     570>Next &#62;&#62;&#62;</A 
     571></TD 
     572></TR 
     573><TR 
     574><TD 
     575WIDTH="33%" 
     576ALIGN="left" 
     577VALIGN="top" 
     578>ping</TD 
     579><TD 
     580WIDTH="34%" 
     581ALIGN="center" 
     582VALIGN="top" 
     583>&nbsp;</TD 
     584><TD 
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     588>clockdiff</TD 
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     592></BODY 
     593></HTML 
     594> 
     595 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r641.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r641.html
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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="CLOCKDIFF" 
     71></A 
     72>clockdiff</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN646" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>clockdiff&nbsp;--&nbsp;measure clock difference between hosts</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN649" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>clockdiff</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-o</CODE 
     95>] [<CODE 
     96CLASS="OPTION" 
     97>-o1</CODE 
     98>] {<TT 
     99CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     100><I 
     101>destination</I 
     102></TT 
     103>}</P 
     104></DIV 
     105><DIV 
     106CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     107><A 
     108NAME="AEN658" 
     109></A 
     110><H2 
     111>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     112><P 
     113><B 
     114CLASS="COMMAND" 
     115>clockdiff</B 
     116> Measures clock difference between us and 
     117<TT 
     118CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     119><I 
     120>destination</I 
     121></TT 
     122> with 1 msec resolution using ICMP TIMESTAMP 
     123<A 
     124HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP" 
     125>[2]</A 
     126> 
     127packets or, optionally, IP TIMESTAMP option 
     128<A 
     129HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP" 
     130>[3]</A 
     131> 
     132option added to ICMP ECHO. 
     133<A 
     134HREF="r641.html#CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO" 
     135>[1]</A 
     136></P 
     137></DIV 
     138><DIV 
     139CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     140><A 
     141NAME="AEN666" 
     142></A 
     143><H2 
     144>OPTIONS</H2 
     145><P 
     146></P 
     147><DIV 
     148CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     149><DL 
     150><DT 
     151><CODE 
     152CLASS="OPTION" 
     153>-o</CODE 
     154></DT 
     155><DD 
     156><P 
     157>Use IP TIMESTAMP with ICMP ECHO instead of ICMP TIMESTAMP 
     158messages. It is useful with some destinations, which do not support 
     159ICMP TIMESTAMP (f.e. Solaris &#60;2.4). 
     160  </P 
     161></DD 
     162><DT 
     163><CODE 
     164CLASS="OPTION" 
     165>-o1</CODE 
     166></DT 
     167><DD 
     168><P 
     169>Slightly different form of <CODE 
     170CLASS="OPTION" 
     171>-o</CODE 
     172>, namely it uses three-term 
     173IP TIMESTAMP with prespecified hop addresses instead of four term one. 
     174What flavor works better depends on target host. Particularly, 
     175<CODE 
     176CLASS="OPTION" 
     177>-o</CODE 
     178> is better for Linux. 
     179  </P 
     180></DD 
     181></DL 
     182></DIV 
     183></DIV 
     184><DIV 
     185CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     186><A 
     187NAME="AEN681" 
     188></A 
     189><H2 
     190>WARNINGS</H2 
     191><P 
     192></P 
     193><UL 
     194><LI 
     195><P 
     196>Some nodes (Cisco) use non-standard timestamps, which is allowed 
     197by RFC, but makes timestamps mostly useless. 
     198 </P 
     199></LI 
     200><LI 
     201><P 
     202>Some nodes generate messed timestamps (Solaris&#62;2.4), when 
     203run <B 
     204CLASS="COMMAND" 
     205>xntpd</B 
     206>. Seems, its IP stack uses a corrupted clock source, 
     207which is synchronized to time-of-day clock periodically and jumps 
     208randomly making timestamps mostly useless. Good news is that you can 
     209use NTP in this case, which is even better. 
     210 </P 
     211></LI 
     212><LI 
     213><P 
     214><B 
     215CLASS="COMMAND" 
     216>clockdiff</B 
     217> shows difference in time modulo 24 days. 
     218 </P 
     219></LI 
     220></UL 
     221></DIV 
     222><DIV 
     223CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     224><A 
     225NAME="AEN692" 
     226></A 
     227><H2 
     228>SEE ALSO</H2 
     229><P 
     230><A 
     231HREF="r3.html" 
     232><SPAN 
     233CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     234><SPAN 
     235CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     236>ping</SPAN 
     237>(8)</SPAN 
     238></A 
     239>, 
     240<A 
     241HREF="r483.html" 
     242><SPAN 
     243CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     244><SPAN 
     245CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     246>arping</SPAN 
     247>(8)</SPAN 
     248></A 
     249>, 
     250<A 
     251HREF="r835.html" 
     252><SPAN 
     253CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     254><SPAN 
     255CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     256>tracepath</SPAN 
     257>(8)</SPAN 
     258></A 
     259>.</P 
     260></DIV 
     261><DIV 
     262CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     263><A 
     264NAME="AEN707" 
     265></A 
     266><H2 
     267>REFERENCES</H2 
     268><P 
     269>[1] <A 
     270NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-ECHO" 
     271></A 
     272>ICMP ECHO, 
     273<A 
     274HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt" 
     275TARGET="_top" 
     276>RFC0792, page 14</A 
     277>.</P 
     278><P 
     279>[2] <A 
     280NAME="CLOCKDIFF.ICMP-TIMESTAMP" 
     281></A 
     282>ICMP TIMESTAMP, 
     283<A 
     284HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc792.txt" 
     285TARGET="_top" 
     286>RFC0792, page 16</A 
     287>.</P 
     288><P 
     289>[3] <A 
     290NAME="CLOCKDIFF.IP-TIMESTAMP" 
     291></A 
     292>IP TIMESTAMP option, 
     293<A 
     294HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791.txt" 
     295TARGET="_top" 
     296>RFC0791, 3.1, page 16</A 
     297>.</P 
     298></DIV 
     299><DIV 
     300CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     301><A 
     302NAME="AEN718" 
     303></A 
     304><H2 
     305>AUTHOR</H2 
     306><P 
     307><B 
     308CLASS="COMMAND" 
     309>clockdiff</B 
     310> was compiled by 
     311<A 
     312HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     313TARGET="_top" 
     314>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     315&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     316>. It was based on code borrowed 
     317from BSD <B 
     318CLASS="COMMAND" 
     319>timed</B 
     320> daemon. 
     321It is now maintained by 
     322<A 
     323HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net" 
     324TARGET="_top" 
     325>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     326&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A 
     327>.</P 
     328></DIV 
     329><DIV 
     330CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     331><A 
     332NAME="AEN725" 
     333></A 
     334><H2 
     335>SECURITY</H2 
     336><P 
     337><B 
     338CLASS="COMMAND" 
     339>clockdiff</B 
     340> requires <CODE 
     341CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     342>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     343> capability 
     344to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P 
     345></DIV 
     346><DIV 
     347CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     348><A 
     349NAME="AEN730" 
     350></A 
     351><H2 
     352>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     353><P 
     354><B 
     355CLASS="COMMAND" 
     356>clockdiff</B 
     357> is part of <TT 
     358CLASS="FILENAME" 
     359>iputils</TT 
     360> package 
     361and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     362<A 
     363HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     364TARGET="_top" 
     365>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     366>.</P 
     367></DIV 
     368><DIV 
     369CLASS="NAVFOOTER" 
     370><HR 
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     395>Home</A 
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     412>arping</TD 
     413><TD 
     414WIDTH="34%" 
     415ALIGN="center" 
     416VALIGN="top" 
     417>&nbsp;</TD 
     418><TD 
     419WIDTH="33%" 
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     422>rarpd</TD 
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     429 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

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     36ALIGN="center" 
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
     38></TR 
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     60ACCESSKEY="N" 
     61>Next &#62;&#62;&#62;</A 
     62></TD 
     63></TR 
     64></TABLE 
     65><HR 
     66ALIGN="LEFT" 
     67WIDTH="100%"></DIV 
     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="RARPD" 
     71></A 
     72>rarpd</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN741" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>rarpd&nbsp;--&nbsp;answer RARP REQUESTs</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN744" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>arping</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-aAvde</CODE 
     95>] [-b <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>bootdir</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [<TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>interface</I 
     104></TT 
     105>]</P 
     106></DIV 
     107><DIV 
     108CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     109><A 
     110NAME="AEN753" 
     111></A 
     112><H2 
     113>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     114><P 
     115>Listens 
     116<A 
     117HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc903.txt" 
     118TARGET="_top" 
     119>RARP</A 
     120> 
     121requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client 
     122is found in <TT 
     123CLASS="FILENAME" 
     124>/etc/ethers</TT 
     125> database and 
     126obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate 
     127for attached network, <B 
     128CLASS="COMMAND" 
     129>rarpd</B 
     130> answers to client with RARPD 
     131reply carrying an IP address.</P 
     132><P 
     133>To allow multiple boot servers on the network <B 
     134CLASS="COMMAND" 
     135>rarpd</B 
     136> 
     137optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory. 
     138It should have form <KBD 
     139CLASS="USERINPUT" 
     140>Hexadecimal_IP.ARCH</KBD 
     141>, f.e. to load 
     142sparc 193.233.7.98 <TT 
     143CLASS="FILENAME" 
     144>C1E90762.SUN4M</TT 
     145> is linked to 
     146an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory <TT 
     147CLASS="FILENAME" 
     148>/etc/tftpboot</TT 
     149>.</P 
     150></DIV 
     151><DIV 
     152CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     153><A 
     154NAME="AEN764" 
     155></A 
     156><H2 
     157>WARNING</H2 
     158><P 
     159>This facility is deeply obsoleted by 
     160<A 
     161HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc951.txt" 
     162TARGET="_top" 
     163>BOOTP</A 
     164> 
     165and later 
     166<A 
     167HREF="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2131.txt" 
     168TARGET="_top" 
     169>DHCP</A 
     170> protocols. 
     171However, some clients really still need this to boot.</P 
     172></DIV 
     173><DIV 
     174CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     175><A 
     176NAME="AEN769" 
     177></A 
     178><H2 
     179>OPTIONS</H2 
     180><P 
     181></P 
     182><DIV 
     183CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     184><DL 
     185><DT 
     186><CODE 
     187CLASS="OPTION" 
     188>-a</CODE 
     189></DT 
     190><DD 
     191><P 
     192>Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal 
     193option, its function is overridden with <TT 
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     195><I 
     196>interface</I 
     197></TT 
     198> 
     199argument. It should not be used. 
     200  </P 
     201></DD 
     202><DT 
     203><CODE 
     204CLASS="OPTION" 
     205>-A</CODE 
     206></DT 
     207><DD 
     208><P 
     209>Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients 
     210use ARP by some unknown reason. 
     211  </P 
     212></DD 
     213><DT 
     214><CODE 
     215CLASS="OPTION" 
     216>-v</CODE 
     217></DT 
     218><DD 
     219><P 
     220>Be verbose. 
     221  </P 
     222></DD 
     223><DT 
     224><CODE 
     225CLASS="OPTION" 
     226>-d</CODE 
     227></DT 
     228><DD 
     229><P 
     230>Debug mode. Do not go to background. 
     231  </P 
     232></DD 
     233><DT 
     234><CODE 
     235CLASS="OPTION" 
     236>-e</CODE 
     237></DT 
     238><DD 
     239><P 
     240>Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address 
     241resolves to a valid IP address using <TT 
     242CLASS="FILENAME" 
     243>/etc/ethers</TT 
     244> 
     245database and DNS.  
     246  </P 
     247></DD 
     248><DT 
     249><CODE 
     250CLASS="OPTION" 
     251>-b <TT 
     252CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     253><I 
     254>bootdir</I 
     255></TT 
     256></CODE 
     257></DT 
     258><DD 
     259><P 
     260>TFTP boot directory. Default is <TT 
     261CLASS="FILENAME" 
     262>/etc/tftpboot</TT 
     263> 
     264  </P 
     265></DD 
     266></DL 
     267></DIV 
     268></DIV 
     269><DIV 
     270CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     271><A 
     272NAME="AEN806" 
     273></A 
     274><H2 
     275>SEE ALSO</H2 
     276><P 
     277><A 
     278HREF="r483.html" 
     279><SPAN 
     280CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     281><SPAN 
     282CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     283>arping</SPAN 
     284>(8)</SPAN 
     285></A 
     286>, 
     287<A 
     288HREF="r1007.html" 
     289><SPAN 
     290CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     291><SPAN 
     292CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     293>tftpd</SPAN 
     294>(8)</SPAN 
     295></A 
     296>.</P 
     297></DIV 
     298><DIV 
     299CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     300><A 
     301NAME="AEN817" 
     302></A 
     303><H2 
     304>AUTHOR</H2 
     305><P 
     306><B 
     307CLASS="COMMAND" 
     308>rarpd</B 
     309> was written by 
     310<A 
     311HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     312TARGET="_top" 
     313>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     314&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     315>. 
     316It is now maintained by 
     317<A 
     318HREF="mailto:yoshfuji@skbuff.net" 
     319TARGET="_top" 
     320>YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     321&#60;yoshfuji@skbuff.net&#62;</A 
     322>.</P 
     323></DIV 
     324><DIV 
     325CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     326><A 
     327NAME="AEN823" 
     328></A 
     329><H2 
     330>SECURITY</H2 
     331><P 
     332><B 
     333CLASS="COMMAND" 
     334>rarpd</B 
     335> requires <CODE 
     336CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     337>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     338> capability 
     339to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs <CODE 
     340CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     341>CAP_NET_ADMIN</CODE 
     342> 
     343to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required, 
     344but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that 
     345are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is 
     346not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002 
     347are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier.</P 
     348></DIV 
     349><DIV 
     350CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     351><A 
     352NAME="AEN829" 
     353></A 
     354><H2 
     355>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     356><P 
     357><B 
     358CLASS="COMMAND" 
     359>rarpd</B 
     360> is part of <TT 
     361CLASS="FILENAME" 
     362>iputils</TT 
     363> package 
     364and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     365<A 
     366HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     367TARGET="_top" 
     368>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     369>.</P 
     370></DIV 
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     408></TD 
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     410><TR 
     411><TD 
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     414VALIGN="top" 
     415>clockdiff</TD 
     416><TD 
     417WIDTH="34%" 
     418ALIGN="center" 
     419VALIGN="top" 
     420>&nbsp;</TD 
     421><TD 
     422WIDTH="33%" 
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     432 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

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     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     65><HR 
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     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="TRACEPATH" 
     71></A 
     72>tracepath</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN840" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>tracepath, tracepath6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN843" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>tracepath</B 
     92> [-n] [-b] [-l <TT 
     93CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     94><I 
     95>pktlen</I 
     96></TT 
     97>] [-m <TT 
     98CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     99><I 
     100>max_hops</I 
     101></TT 
     102>] [-p <TT 
     103CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     104><I 
     105>port</I 
     106></TT 
     107>] {<TT 
     108CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     109><I 
     110>destination</I 
     111></TT 
     112>}</P 
     113></DIV 
     114><DIV 
     115CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     116><A 
     117NAME="AEN856" 
     118></A 
     119><H2 
     120>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     121><P 
     122>It traces path to <TT 
     123CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     124><I 
     125>destination</I 
     126></TT 
     127> discovering MTU along this path. 
     128It uses UDP port <TT 
     129CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     130><I 
     131>port</I 
     132></TT 
     133> or some random port. 
     134It is similar to <B 
     135CLASS="COMMAND" 
     136>traceroute</B 
     137>, only does not require superuser 
     138privileges and has no fancy options.</P 
     139><P 
     140><B 
     141CLASS="COMMAND" 
     142>tracepath6</B 
     143> is good replacement for <B 
     144CLASS="COMMAND" 
     145>traceroute6</B 
     146> 
     147and classic example of application of Linux error queues. 
     148The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial 
     149IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages. 
     150Probably, it will change, when they will be updated. 
     151For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range 
     152of UDP ports to maintain trace history.</P 
     153></DIV 
     154><DIV 
     155CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     156><A 
     157NAME="AEN865" 
     158></A 
     159><H2 
     160>OPTIONS</H2 
     161><P 
     162></P 
     163><DIV 
     164CLASS="VARIABLELIST" 
     165><DL 
     166><DT 
     167><CODE 
     168CLASS="OPTION" 
     169>-n</CODE 
     170></DT 
     171><DD 
     172><P 
     173>Print primarily IP addresses numerically. 
     174  </P 
     175></DD 
     176><DT 
     177><CODE 
     178CLASS="OPTION" 
     179>-b</CODE 
     180></DT 
     181><DD 
     182><P 
     183>Print both of host names and IP addresses. 
     184  </P 
     185></DD 
     186><DT 
     187><CODE 
     188CLASS="OPTION" 
     189>-l</CODE 
     190></DT 
     191><DD 
     192><P 
     193>Sets the initial packet length to <TT 
     194CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     195><I 
     196>pktlen</I 
     197></TT 
     198> instead of 
     19965535 for <B 
     200CLASS="COMMAND" 
     201>tracepath</B 
     202> or 128000 for <B 
     203CLASS="COMMAND" 
     204>tracepath6</B 
     205>. 
     206  </P 
     207></DD 
     208><DT 
     209><CODE 
     210CLASS="OPTION" 
     211>-m</CODE 
     212></DT 
     213><DD 
     214><P 
     215>Set maximum hops (or maximum TTLs) to <TT 
     216CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     217><I 
     218>max_hops</I 
     219></TT 
     220> 
     221instead of 30. 
     222  </P 
     223></DD 
     224><DT 
     225><CODE 
     226CLASS="OPTION" 
     227>-p</CODE 
     228></DT 
     229><DD 
     230><P 
     231>Sets the initial destination port to use. 
     232  </P 
     233></DD 
     234></DL 
     235></DIV 
     236></DIV 
     237><DIV 
     238CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     239><A 
     240NAME="AEN897" 
     241></A 
     242><H2 
     243>OUTPUT</H2 
     244><P 
     245><P 
     246CLASS="LITERALLAYOUT" 
     247>root@mops:~&nbsp;#&nbsp;tracepath6&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2<br> 
     248&nbsp;1?:&nbsp;[LOCALHOST]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1500<br> 
     249&nbsp;1:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.411ms<br> 
     250&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;dust.inr.ac.ru&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;asymm&nbsp;&nbsp;1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;0.390ms&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480<br> 
     251&nbsp;2:&nbsp;&nbsp;3ffe:2400:0:109::2&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;463.514ms&nbsp;reached<br> 
     252&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Resume:&nbsp;pmtu&nbsp;1480&nbsp;hops&nbsp;2&nbsp;back&nbsp;2</P 
     253></P 
     254><P 
     255>The first column shows <TT 
     256CLASS="LITERAL" 
     257>TTL</TT 
     258> of the probe, followed by colon. 
     259Usually value of <TT 
     260CLASS="LITERAL" 
     261>TTL</TT 
     262> is obtained from reply from network, 
     263but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and 
     264we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?.</P 
     265><P 
     266>The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe. 
     267It is either address of router or word <TT 
     268CLASS="LITERAL" 
     269>[LOCALHOST]</TT 
     270>, if 
     271the probe was not sent to the network.</P 
     272><P 
     273>The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to 
     274the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT. 
     275Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes. 
     276If the path is asymmetric 
     277or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference 
     278between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown 
     279following keyword <TT 
     280CLASS="LITERAL" 
     281>async</TT 
     282>. This information is not reliable. 
     283F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe 
     284with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery.</P 
     285><P 
     286>The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination, 
     287it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our 
     288guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be 
     289different when the path is asymmetric.</P 
     290></DIV 
     291><DIV 
     292CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     293><A 
     294NAME="AEN909" 
     295></A 
     296><H2 
     297>SEE ALSO</H2 
     298><P 
     299><SPAN 
     300CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     301><SPAN 
     302CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     303>traceroute</SPAN 
     304>(8)</SPAN 
     305>, 
     306<A 
     307HREF="r942.html" 
     308><SPAN 
     309CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     310><SPAN 
     311CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     312>traceroute6</SPAN 
     313>(8)</SPAN 
     314></A 
     315>, 
     316<A 
     317HREF="r3.html" 
     318><SPAN 
     319CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     320><SPAN 
     321CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     322>ping</SPAN 
     323>(8)</SPAN 
     324></A 
     325>.</P 
     326></DIV 
     327><DIV 
     328CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     329><A 
     330NAME="AEN923" 
     331></A 
     332><H2 
     333>AUTHOR</H2 
     334><P 
     335><B 
     336CLASS="COMMAND" 
     337>tracepath</B 
     338> was written by 
     339<A 
     340HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     341TARGET="_top" 
     342>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     343&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     344>.</P 
     345></DIV 
     346><DIV 
     347CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     348><A 
     349NAME="AEN928" 
     350></A 
     351><H2 
     352>SECURITY</H2 
     353><P 
     354>No security issues.</P 
     355><P 
     356>This lapidary deserves to be elaborated. 
     357<B 
     358CLASS="COMMAND" 
     359>tracepath</B 
     360> is not a privileged program, unlike 
     361<B 
     362CLASS="COMMAND" 
     363>traceroute</B 
     364>, <B 
     365CLASS="COMMAND" 
     366>ping</B 
     367> and other beasts of this kind. 
     368<B 
     369CLASS="COMMAND" 
     370>tracepath</B 
     371> may be executed by everyone who has some access 
     372to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination 
     373using given port.</P 
     374></DIV 
     375><DIV 
     376CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     377><A 
     378NAME="AEN936" 
     379></A 
     380><H2 
     381>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     382><P 
     383><B 
     384CLASS="COMMAND" 
     385>tracepath</B 
     386> is part of <TT 
     387CLASS="FILENAME" 
     388>iputils</TT 
     389> package 
     390and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     391<A 
     392HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     393TARGET="_top" 
     394>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     395>.</P 
     396></DIV 
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     441>rarpd</TD 
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     445VALIGN="top" 
     446>&nbsp;</TD 
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     458 No newline at end of file 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/r942.html iputils-s20161105/doc/r942.html
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     36ALIGN="center" 
     37>System Manager's Manual: iputils</TH 
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     68><H1 
     69><A 
     70NAME="TRACEROUTE6" 
     71></A 
     72>traceroute6</H1 
     73><DIV 
     74CLASS="REFNAMEDIV" 
     75><A 
     76NAME="AEN947" 
     77></A 
     78><H2 
     79>Name</H2 
     80>traceroute6&nbsp;--&nbsp;traces path to a network host</DIV 
     81><DIV 
     82CLASS="REFSYNOPSISDIV" 
     83><A 
     84NAME="AEN950" 
     85></A 
     86><H2 
     87>Synopsis</H2 
     88><P 
     89><B 
     90CLASS="COMMAND" 
     91>traceroute6</B 
     92> [<CODE 
     93CLASS="OPTION" 
     94>-dnrvV</CODE 
     95>] [-i <TT 
     96CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     97><I 
     98>interface</I 
     99></TT 
     100>] [-m <TT 
     101CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     102><I 
     103>max_ttl</I 
     104></TT 
     105>] [-p <TT 
     106CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     107><I 
     108>port</I 
     109></TT 
     110>] [-q <TT 
     111CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     112><I 
     113>max_probes</I 
     114></TT 
     115>] [-s <TT 
     116CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     117><I 
     118>source</I 
     119></TT 
     120>] [-w <TT 
     121CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     122><I 
     123>wait time</I 
     124></TT 
     125>] {<TT 
     126CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     127><I 
     128>destination</I 
     129></TT 
     130>} [<TT 
     131CLASS="REPLACEABLE" 
     132><I 
     133>size</I 
     134></TT 
     135>]</P 
     136></DIV 
     137><DIV 
     138CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     139><A 
     140NAME="AEN971" 
     141></A 
     142><H2 
     143>DESCRIPTION</H2 
     144><P 
     145>Description can be found in  
     146<SPAN 
     147CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     148><SPAN 
     149CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     150>traceroute</SPAN 
     151>(8)</SPAN 
     152>, 
     153all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy 
     154the description from there.</P 
     155></DIV 
     156><DIV 
     157CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     158><A 
     159NAME="AEN977" 
     160></A 
     161><H2 
     162>SEE ALSO</H2 
     163><P 
     164><SPAN 
     165CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     166><SPAN 
     167CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     168>traceroute</SPAN 
     169>(8)</SPAN 
     170>, 
     171<SPAN 
     172CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     173><SPAN 
     174CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     175>tracepath</SPAN 
     176>(8)</SPAN 
     177>, 
     178<SPAN 
     179CLASS="CITEREFENTRY" 
     180><SPAN 
     181CLASS="REFENTRYTITLE" 
     182>ping</SPAN 
     183>(8)</SPAN 
     184>.</P 
     185></DIV 
     186><DIV 
     187CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     188><A 
     189NAME="AEN989" 
     190></A 
     191><H2 
     192>HISTORY</H2 
     193><P 
     194>This program has long history. Author of <B 
     195CLASS="COMMAND" 
     196>traceroute</B 
     197> 
     198is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is 
     199based on a port of <B 
     200CLASS="COMMAND" 
     201>traceroute</B 
     202> to IPv6 published 
     203in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported 
     204to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by     
     205<A 
     206HREF="mailto:kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru" 
     207TARGET="_top" 
     208>Alexey Kuznetsov 
     209&#60;kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru&#62;</A 
     210>. And eventually entered 
     211<B 
     212CLASS="COMMAND" 
     213>iputils</B 
     214> package.</P 
     215></DIV 
     216><DIV 
     217CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     218><A 
     219NAME="AEN996" 
     220></A 
     221><H2 
     222>SECURITY</H2 
     223><P 
     224><B 
     225CLASS="COMMAND" 
     226>tracepath6</B 
     227> requires <CODE 
     228CLASS="CONSTANT" 
     229>CAP_NET_RAW</CODE 
     230> capability 
     231to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root.</P 
     232></DIV 
     233><DIV 
     234CLASS="REFSECT1" 
     235><A 
     236NAME="AEN1001" 
     237></A 
     238><H2 
     239>AVAILABILITY</H2 
     240><P 
     241><B 
     242CLASS="COMMAND" 
     243>traceroute6</B 
     244> is part of <TT 
     245CLASS="FILENAME" 
     246>iputils</TT 
     247> package 
     248and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     249<A 
     250HREF="http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2" 
     251TARGET="_top" 
     252>http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2</A 
     253>.</P 
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  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/rarpd.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/rarpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "RARPD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8rarpd \- answer RARP REQUESTs 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBarping\fR [\fB-aAvde\fR] [\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR] [\fB\fIinterface\fB\fR] 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15Listens 
     16RARP 
     17requests from clients. Provided MAC address of client 
     18is found in \fI/etc/ethers\fR database and 
     19obtained host name is resolvable to an IP address appropriate 
     20for attached network, \fBrarpd\fR answers to client with RARPD 
     21reply carrying an IP address. 
     22.PP 
     23To allow multiple boot servers on the network \fBrarpd\fR 
     24optionally checks for presence Sun-like bootable image in TFTP directory. 
     25It should have form \fBHexadecimal_IP.ARCH\fR, f.e. to load 
     26sparc 193.233.7.98 \fIC1E90762.SUN4M\fR is linked to 
     27an image appropriate for SUM4M in directory \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR. 
     28.SH "WARNING" 
     29.PP 
     30This facility is deeply obsoleted by 
     31BOOTP 
     32and later 
     33DHCP protocols. 
     34However, some clients really still need this to boot. 
     35.SH "OPTIONS" 
     36.TP 
     37\fB-a\fR 
     38Listen on all the interfaces. Currently it is an internal 
     39option, its function is overridden with \fIinterface\fR 
     40argument. It should not be used. 
     41.TP 
     42\fB-A\fR 
     43Listen not only RARP but also ARP messages, some rare clients 
     44use ARP by some unknown reason. 
     45.TP 
     46\fB-v\fR 
     47Be verbose. 
     48.TP 
     49\fB-d\fR 
     50Debug mode. Do not go to background. 
     51.TP 
     52\fB-e\fR 
     53Do not check for presence of a boot image, reply if MAC address 
     54resolves to a valid IP address using \fI/etc/ethers\fR 
     55database and DNS.  
     56.TP 
     57\fB-b \fIbootdir\fB\fR 
     58TFTP boot directory. Default is \fI/etc/tftpboot\fR 
     59.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     60.PP 
     61\fBarping\fR(8), 
     62\fBtftpd\fR(8). 
     63.SH "AUTHOR" 
     64.PP 
     65\fBrarpd\fR was written by 
     66Alexey Kuznetsov 
     67<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. 
     68It is now maintained by 
     69YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     70<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>. 
     71.SH "SECURITY" 
     72.PP 
     73\fBrarpd\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability 
     74to listen and send RARP and ARP packets. It also needs CAP_NET_ADMIN 
     75to give to kernel hint for ARP resolution; this is not strictly required, 
     76but some (most of, to be more exact) clients are so badly broken that 
     77are not able to answer ARP before they are finally booted. This is 
     78not wonderful taking into account that clients using RARPD in 2002 
     79are all unsupported relic creatures of 90's and even earlier. 
     80.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     81.PP 
     82\fBrarpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     83and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     84http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/rdisc.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/rdisc.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "RDISC" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8rdisc \- network router discovery daemon 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBrdisc\fR [\fB-abdfrstvV\fR] [\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR] [\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR] [\fB\fIsend_address\fB\fR] [\fB\fIreceive_address\fB\fR] 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15\fBrdisc\fR implements client side of the ICMP router discover protocol. 
     16\fBrdisc\fR is invoked at boot time to populate the network 
     17routing tables with default routes.  
     18.PP 
     19\fBrdisc\fR listens on the ALL_HOSTS (224.0.0.1) multicast address 
     20(or \fIreceive_address\fR provided it is given)  
     21for ROUTER_ADVERTISE messages from routers. The received 
     22messages are handled by first ignoring those listed router addresses 
     23with which the host does not share a network. Among the remaining addresses 
     24the ones with the highest preference are selected as default routers 
     25and a default route is entered in the kernel routing table 
     26for each one of them. 
     27.PP 
     28Optionally, \fBrdisc\fR can avoid waiting for routers to announce  
     29themselves by sending out a few ROUTER_SOLICITATION messages 
     30to the ALL_ROUTERS (224.0.0.2) multicast address  
     31(or \fIsend_address\fR provided it is given)  
     32when it is started. 
     33.PP 
     34A timer is associated with each router address and the address will 
     35no longer be considered for inclusion in the the routing tables if the  
     36timer expires before a new  
     37\fBadvertise\fR message is received from the router. 
     38The address will also be excluded from consideration if the host receives an  
     39\fBadvertise\fR 
     40message with the preference being maximally negative. 
     41.PP 
     42Server side of router discovery protocol is supported by Cisco IOS 
     43and by any more or less complete UNIX routing daemon, f.e \fBgated\fR. 
     44Or, \fBrdisc\fR can act as responder, if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER. 
     45.SH "OPTIONS" 
     46.TP 
     47\fB-a\fR 
     48Accept all routers independently of the preference they have in their  
     49\fBadvertise\fR messages. 
     50Normally \fBrdisc\fR only accepts (and enters in the kernel routing 
     51tables) the router or routers with the highest preference. 
     52.TP 
     53\fB-b\fR 
     54Opposite to \fB-a\fR, i.e. install only router with the best 
     55preference value. It is default behaviour. 
     56.TP 
     57\fB-d\fR 
     58Send debugging messages to syslog. 
     59.TP 
     60\fB-f\fR 
     61Run \fBrdisc\fR forever even if no routers are found. 
     62Normally \fBrdisc\fR gives up if it has not received any  
     63\fBadvertise\fR message after after soliciting three times, 
     64in which case it exits with a non-zero exit code. 
     65If \fB-f\fR is not specified in the first form then  
     66\fB-s\fR must be specified. 
     67.TP 
     68\fB-r\fR 
     69Responder mode, available only if compiled with -DRDISC_SERVER. 
     70.TP 
     71\fB-s\fR 
     72Send three \fBsolicitation\fR messages initially to quickly discover 
     73the routers when the system is booted. 
     74When \fB-s\fR is specified \fBrdisc\fR 
     75exits with a non-zero exit code if it can not find any routers. 
     76This can be overridden with the \fB-f\fR option. 
     77.TP 
     78\fB-p \fIpreference\fB\fR 
     79Set preference in advertisement. 
     80Available only with -r option. 
     81.TP 
     82\fB-T \fImax_interval\fB\fR 
     83Set maximum advertisement interval in seconds.  Default is 600 secs. 
     84Available only with -r option. 
     85.TP 
     86\fB-t\fR 
     87Test mode. Do not go to background. 
     88.TP 
     89\fB-v\fR 
     90Be verbose i.e. send lots of debugging messages to syslog. 
     91.TP 
     92\fB-V\fR 
     93Print version and exit. 
     94.SH "HISTORY" 
     95.PP 
     96This program was developed by Sun Microsystems (see copyright 
     97notice in source file). It was ported to Linux by 
     98Alexey Kuznetsov 
     99<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. 
     100It is now maintained by 
     101YOSHIFUJI Hideaki 
     102<yoshfuji@skbuff.net>. 
     103.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     104.PP 
     105\fBicmp\fR(7), 
     106\fBinet\fR(7), 
     107\fBping\fR(8). 
     108.SH "REFERENCES" 
     109.PP 
     110Deering, S.E.,ed "ICMP Router Discovery Messages", 
     111RFC1256, Network Information Center, SRI International, 
     112Menlo Park, Calif., September 1991. 
     113.SH "SECURITY" 
     114.PP 
     115\fBrdisc\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW to listen 
     116and send ICMP messages and capability CAP_NET_ADMIN 
     117to update routing tables.  
     118.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     119.PP 
     120\fBrdisc\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     121and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     122http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/t1.html iputils-s20161105/doc/t1.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> 
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     5>iputils: documentation directory</TITLE 
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     34><DIV 
     35CLASS="TOC" 
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     37><DT 
     38><B 
     39>Table of Contents</B 
     40></DT 
     41><DT 
     42><A 
     43HREF="t1.html#AEN4" 
     44>Index</A 
     45></DT 
     46><DT 
     47><A 
     48HREF="x34.html" 
     49>Historical notes</A 
     50></DT 
     51><DT 
     52><A 
     53HREF="x89.html" 
     54>Installation notes</A 
     55></DT 
     56><DT 
     57><A 
     58HREF="x109.html" 
     59>Availability</A 
     60></DT 
     61><DT 
     62><A 
     63HREF="x114.html" 
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     74>Index</A 
     75></H1 
     76><P 
     77></P 
     78><UL 
     79><LI 
     80><P 
     81>  <A 
     82HREF="ping.html" 
     83TARGET="_top" 
     84>ping</A 
     85>. 
     86 </P 
     87></LI 
     88><LI 
     89><P 
     90>  <A 
     91HREF="arping.html" 
     92TARGET="_top" 
     93>arping</A 
     94>. 
     95 </P 
     96></LI 
     97><LI 
     98><P 
     99>  <A 
     100HREF="clockdiff.html" 
     101TARGET="_top" 
     102>clockdiff</A 
     103>. 
     104 </P 
     105></LI 
     106><LI 
     107><P 
     108>  <A 
     109HREF="rarpd.html" 
     110TARGET="_top" 
     111>rarpd</A 
     112>. 
     113 </P 
     114></LI 
     115><LI 
     116><P 
     117>  <A 
     118HREF="tracepath.html" 
     119TARGET="_top" 
     120>tracepath</A 
     121>. 
     122 </P 
     123></LI 
     124><LI 
     125><P 
     126>  <A 
     127HREF="traceroute6.html" 
     128TARGET="_top" 
     129>traceroute6</A 
     130>. 
     131 </P 
     132></LI 
     133><LI 
     134><P 
     135>  <A 
     136HREF="rdisc.html" 
     137TARGET="_top" 
     138>rdisc</A 
     139>. 
     140 </P 
     141></LI 
     142><LI 
     143><P 
     144>  <A 
     145HREF="tftpd.html" 
     146TARGET="_top" 
     147>tftpd</A 
     148>. 
     149 </P 
     150></LI 
     151><LI 
     152><P 
     153>  <A 
     154HREF="pg3.html" 
     155TARGET="_top" 
     156>pg3, ipg, pgset</A 
     157>. 
     158 </P 
     159></LI 
     160></UL 
     161></DIV 
     162></DIV 
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     176ALIGN="left" 
     177VALIGN="top" 
     178>&nbsp;</TD 
     179><TD 
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     182VALIGN="top" 
     183>&nbsp;</TD 
     184><TD 
     185WIDTH="33%" 
     186ALIGN="right" 
     187VALIGN="top" 
     188><A 
     189HREF="x34.html" 
     190ACCESSKEY="N" 
     191>Next &#62;&#62;&#62;</A 
     192></TD 
     193></TR 
     194><TR 
     195><TD 
     196WIDTH="33%" 
     197ALIGN="left" 
     198VALIGN="top" 
     199>&nbsp;</TD 
     200><TD 
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     202ALIGN="center" 
     203VALIGN="top" 
     204>&nbsp;</TD 
     205><TD 
     206WIDTH="33%" 
     207ALIGN="right" 
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  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/tftpd.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/tftpd.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "TFTPD" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8tftpd \- Trivial File Transfer Protocol server 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBtftpd\fR \fB\fIdirectory\fB\fR 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15\fBtftpd\fR is a server which supports the DARPA 
     16Trivial File Transfer Protocol 
     17(RFC1350). 
     18The TFTP server is started 
     19by \fBinetd\fR(8). 
     20.PP 
     21\fIdirectory\fR is required argument; if it is not given 
     22\fBtftpd\fR aborts. This path is prepended to any file name requested 
     23via TFTP protocol, effectively chrooting \fBtftpd\fR to this directory. 
     24File names are validated not to escape out of this directory, however 
     25administrator may configure such escape using symbolic links. 
     26.PP 
     27It is in difference of variants of \fBtftpd\fR usually distributed 
     28with unix-like systems, which take a list of directories and match 
     29file names to start from one of given prefixes or to some random 
     30default, when no arguments were given. There are two reasons not to 
     31behave in this way: first, it is inconvenient, clients are not expected 
     32to know something about layout of filesystem on server host. 
     33And second, TFTP protocol is not a tool for browsing of server's filesystem, 
     34it is just an agent allowing to boot dumb clients.  
     35.PP 
     36In the case when \fBtftpd\fR is used together with 
     37\fBrarpd\fR(8), 
     38tftp directories in these services should coincide and it is expected 
     39that each client booted via TFTP has boot image corresponding 
     40its IP address with an architecture suffix following Sun Microsystems 
     41conventions. See  
     42\fBrarpd\fR(8) 
     43for more details. 
     44.SH "SECURITY" 
     45.PP 
     46TFTP protocol does not provide any authentication. 
     47Due to this capital flaw \fBtftpd\fR is not able to restrict 
     48access to files and will allow only publically readable 
     49files to be accessed. Files may be written only if they already 
     50exist and are publically writable. 
     51.PP 
     52Impact is evident, directory exported via TFTP \fBmust not\fR 
     53contain sensitive information of any kind, everyone is allowed 
     54to read it as soon as a client is allowed. Boot images do not contain 
     55such information as rule, however you should think twice before 
     56publishing f.e. Cisco IOS config files via TFTP, they contain 
     57\fBunencrypted\fR passwords and may contain some information 
     58about the network, which you were not going to make public. 
     59.PP 
     60The \fBtftpd\fR server should be executed by \fBinetd\fR 
     61with dropped root privileges, namely with a user ID giving minimal 
     62access to files published in tftp directory. If it is executed 
     63as superuser occasionally, \fBtftpd\fR drops its UID and GID 
     64to 65534, which is most likely not the thing which you expect. 
     65However, this is not very essential; remember, only files accessible 
     66for everyone can be read or written via TFTP. 
     67.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     68.PP 
     69\fBrarpd\fR(8), 
     70\fBtftp\fR(1), 
     71\fBinetd\fR(8). 
     72.SH "HISTORY" 
     73.PP 
     74The \fBtftpd\fR command appeared in 4.2BSD. The source in iputils 
     75is cleaned up both syntactically (ANSIized) and semantically (UDP socket IO). 
     76.PP 
     77It is distributed with iputils mostly as good demo of an interesting feature 
     78(MSG_CONFIRM) allowing to boot long images by dumb clients 
     79not answering ARP requests until they are finally booted. 
     80However, this is full functional and can be used in production. 
     81.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     82.PP 
     83\fBtftpd\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     84and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     85http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/tracepath.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/tracepath.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "TRACEPATH" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8tracepath, tracepath6 \- traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBtracepath\fR [\fB-n\fR] [\fB-b\fR] [\fB-l \fIpktlen\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_hops\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15It traces path to \fIdestination\fR discovering MTU along this path. 
     16It uses UDP port \fIport\fR or some random port. 
     17It is similar to \fBtraceroute\fR, only does not require superuser 
     18privileges and has no fancy options. 
     19.PP 
     20\fBtracepath6\fR is good replacement for \fBtraceroute6\fR 
     21and classic example of application of Linux error queues. 
     22The situation with IPv4 is worse, because commercial 
     23IP routers do not return enough information in ICMP error messages. 
     24Probably, it will change, when they will be updated. 
     25For now it uses Van Jacobson's trick, sweeping a range 
     26of UDP ports to maintain trace history. 
     27.SH "OPTIONS" 
     28.TP 
     29\fB-n\fR 
     30Print primarily IP addresses numerically. 
     31.TP 
     32\fB-b\fR 
     33Print both of host names and IP addresses. 
     34.TP 
     35\fB-l\fR 
     36Sets the initial packet length to \fIpktlen\fR instead of 
     3765535 for \fBtracepath\fR or 128000 for \fBtracepath6\fR. 
     38.TP 
     39\fB-m\fR 
     40Set maximum hops (or maximum TTLs) to \fImax_hops\fR 
     41instead of 30. 
     42.TP 
     43\fB-p\fR 
     44Sets the initial destination port to use. 
     45.SH "OUTPUT" 
     46.PP 
     47 
     48.nf 
     49root@mops:~ # tracepath6 3ffe:2400:0:109::2 
     50 1?: [LOCALHOST]                              pmtu 1500 
     51 1:  dust.inr.ac.ru                   0.411ms 
     52 2:  dust.inr.ac.ru        asymm  1   0.390ms pmtu 1480 
     53 2:  3ffe:2400:0:109::2               463.514ms reached 
     54     Resume: pmtu 1480 hops 2 back 2 
     55.fi 
     56.PP 
     57The first column shows TTL of the probe, followed by colon. 
     58Usually value of TTL is obtained from reply from network, 
     59but sometimes reply does not contain necessary information and 
     60we have to guess it. In this case the number is followed by ?. 
     61.PP 
     62The second column shows the network hop, which replied to the probe. 
     63It is either address of router or word [LOCALHOST], if 
     64the probe was not sent to the network. 
     65.PP 
     66The rest of line shows miscellaneous information about path to 
     67the correspinding network hop. As rule it contains value of RTT. 
     68Additionally, it can show Path MTU, when it changes. 
     69If the path is asymmetric 
     70or the probe finishes before it reach prescribed hop, difference 
     71between number of hops in forward and backward direction is shown 
     72following keyword async. This information is not reliable. 
     73F.e. the third line shows asymmetry of 1, it is because the first probe 
     74with TTL of 2 was rejected at the first hop due to Path MTU Discovery. 
     75.PP 
     76The last line summarizes information about all the path to the destination, 
     77it shows detected Path MTU, amount of hops to the destination and our 
     78guess about amount of hops from the destination to us, which can be 
     79different when the path is asymmetric. 
     80.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     81.PP 
     82\fBtraceroute\fR(8), 
     83\fBtraceroute6\fR(8), 
     84\fBping\fR(8). 
     85.SH "AUTHOR" 
     86.PP 
     87\fBtracepath\fR was written by 
     88Alexey Kuznetsov 
     89<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. 
     90.SH "SECURITY" 
     91.PP 
     92No security issues. 
     93.PP 
     94This lapidary deserves to be elaborated. 
     95\fBtracepath\fR is not a privileged program, unlike 
     96\fBtraceroute\fR, \fBping\fR and other beasts of this kind. 
     97\fBtracepath\fR may be executed by everyone who has some access 
     98to network, enough to send UDP datagrams to investigated destination 
     99using given port. 
     100.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     101.PP 
     102\fBtracepath\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     103and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     104http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • doc/traceroute6.8

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/traceroute6.8 iputils-s20161105/doc/traceroute6.8
    old new  
     1.\" This manpage has been automatically generated by docbook2man  
     2.\" from a DocBook document.  This tool can be found at: 
     3.\" <http://shell.ipoline.com/~elmert/comp/docbook2X/>  
     4.\" Please send any bug reports, improvements, comments, patches,  
     5.\" etc. to Steve Cheng <steve@ggi-project.org>. 
     6.TH "TRACEROUTE6" "8" "" "iputils-161105" "System Manager's Manual: iputils" 
     7.SH NAME 
     8traceroute6 \- traces path to a network host 
     9.SH SYNOPSIS 
     10 
     11\fBtraceroute6\fR [\fB-dnrvV\fR] [\fB-i \fIinterface\fB\fR] [\fB-m \fImax_ttl\fB\fR] [\fB-p \fIport\fB\fR] [\fB-q \fImax_probes\fB\fR] [\fB-s \fIsource\fB\fR] [\fB-w \fIwait time\fB\fR] \fB\fIdestination\fB\fR [\fB\fIsize\fB\fR] 
     12 
     13.SH "DESCRIPTION" 
     14.PP 
     15Description can be found in  
     16\fBtraceroute\fR(8), 
     17all the references to IP replaced to IPv6. It is needless to copy 
     18the description from there. 
     19.SH "SEE ALSO" 
     20.PP 
     21\fBtraceroute\fR(8), 
     22\fBtracepath\fR(8), 
     23\fBping\fR(8). 
     24.SH "HISTORY" 
     25.PP 
     26This program has long history. Author of \fBtraceroute\fR 
     27is Van Jacobson and it first appeared in 1988. This clone is 
     28based on a port of \fBtraceroute\fR to IPv6 published 
     29in NRL IPv6 distribution in 1996. In turn, it was ported 
     30to Linux by Pedro Roque. After this it was kept in sync by     
     31Alexey Kuznetsov 
     32<kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>. And eventually entered 
     33\fBiputils\fR package. 
     34.SH "SECURITY" 
     35.PP 
     36\fBtracepath6\fR requires CAP_NET_RAW capability 
     37to be executed. It is safe to be used as set-uid root. 
     38.SH "AVAILABILITY" 
     39.PP 
     40\fBtraceroute6\fR is part of \fIiputils\fR package 
     41and the latest versions are  available in source form at 
     42http://www.skbuff.net/iputils/iputils-current.tar.bz2. 
  • iputils-s20161105

    diff -Naur iputils-s20161105.orig/doc/x109.html iputils-s20161105/doc/x109.html
    old new  
     1<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> 
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     73NAME="AEN34" 
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     75></H1 
     76><P 
     77>This package appeared as a desperate attempt to bring some life 
     78to state of basic networking applets: <B 
     79CLASS="COMMAND" 
     80>ping</B 
     81>, <B 
     82CLASS="COMMAND" 
     83>traceroute</B 
     84> 
     85etc. Though it was known that port of BSD <B 
     86CLASS="COMMAND" 
     87>ping</B 
     88> to Linux 
     89was basically broken, neither maintainers of well known (and superb) 
     90Linux net-tools package nor maintainers of Linux distributions 
     91worried about fixing well known bugs, which were reported in linux-kernel 
     92and linux-net mail lists for ages, were identified and nevertheless 
     93not repaired. So, one day 1001th resuming of the subject happened 
     94to be the last straw to break camel's back, I just parsed my hard disks 
     95and collected a set of utilities, which shared the following properties:</P 
     96><P 
     97></P 
     98><UL 
     99><LI 
     100><P 
     101>Small 
     102 </P 
     103></LI 
     104><LI 
     105><P 
     106>Useful despite of this 
     107 </P 
     108></LI 
     109><LI 
     110><P 
     111>I never seen it was made right 
     112 </P 
     113></LI 
     114><LI 
     115><P 
     116>Not quite trivial 
     117 </P 
     118></LI 
     119><LI 
     120><P 
     121>Demonstrating some important feature of Linux  
     122 </P 
     123></LI 
     124><LI 
     125><P 
     126>The last but not the least, I use it more or less regularly 
     127 </P 
     128></LI 
     129></UL 
     130><P 
     131>This utility set was not supposed to be a reference set or something like 
     132that. Most of them were cloned from some originals: 
     133<DIV 
     134CLASS="INFORMALTABLE" 
     135><P 
     136></P 
     137><A 
     138NAME="AEN54" 
     139></A 
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     141BORDER="1" 
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     143CELLSPACING="0" 
     144CELLPADDING="4" 
     145CLASS="CALSTABLE" 
     146><TBODY 
     147><TR 
     148><TD 
     149>ping</TD 
     150><TD 
     151>cloned of an ancient NetTools-B-xx</TD 
     152></TR 
     153><TR 
     154><TD 
     155>ping6</TD 
     156><TD 
     157>cloned of a very old Pedro's utility set</TD 
     158></TR 
     159><TR 
     160><TD 
     161>traceroute6</TD 
     162><TD 
     163>cloned of NRL Sep 96 distribution</TD 
     164></TR 
     165><TR 
     166><TD 
     167>rdisc</TD 
     168><TD 
     169>cloned of SUN in.rdisc</TD 
     170></TR 
     171><TR 
     172><TD 
     173>clockdiff</TD 
     174><TD 
     175>broken out of some BSD timed</TD 
     176></TR 
     177><TR 
     178><TD 
     179>tftpd</TD 
     180><TD 
     181>it is clone of some ancient NetKit package</TD 
     182></TR 
     183></TBODY 
     184></TABLE 
     185><P 
     186></P 
     187></DIV 
     188></P 
     189><P 
     190>Also I added some utilities written from scratch, namely 
     191<B 
     192CLASS="COMMAND" 
     193>tracepath</B 
     194>, <B 
     195CLASS="COMMAND" 
     196>arping</B 
     197> and later <B 
     198CLASS="COMMAND" 
     199>rarpd</B 
     200> 
     201(the last one does not satisfy all the criteria, I used it two or three 
     202times).</P 
     203><P 
     204>Hesitated a bit I overcame temptation to add <B 
     205CLASS="COMMAND" 
     206>traceroute</B 
     207>. 
     208The variant released by LBNL to that time was mostly sane and bugs 
     209in it were mostly not specific to Linux, but main reason was that 
     210the latest version of LBNL <B 
     211CLASS="COMMAND" 
     212>traceroute</B 
     213> was not  
     214<I 
     215CLASS="EMPHASIS" 
     216>small</I 
     217>, it consisted of several files, 
     218used a wicked (and failing with Linux :-)) autoconfiguration etc. 
     219So, instead I assembled to iputils a simplistic <B 
     220CLASS="COMMAND" 
     221>tracepath</B 
     222> utility 
     223and IPv6 version of traceroute, and published my  
     224<A 
     225HREF="ftp://ftp.inr.ac.ru/ip-routing/lbl-tools" 
     226TARGET="_top" 
     227> patches</A 
     228>. 
     229to LBNL <B 
     230CLASS="COMMAND" 
     231>traceroute</B 
     232> separately.<A 
     233NAME="AEN86" 
     234HREF="#FTN.AEN86" 
     235><SPAN 
     236CLASS="footnote" 
     237>[1]</SPAN 
     238></A 
     239></P 
     240></DIV 
     241><H3 
     242CLASS="FOOTNOTES" 
     243>Notes</H3 
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     256><SPAN 
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     259></A 
     260></TD 
     261><TD 
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     264WIDTH="95%" 
     265><P 
     266>This was mistake. 
     267Due to this <B 
     268CLASS="COMMAND" 
     269>traceroute</B 
     270> was in a sad state until recently. 
     271Good news, redhat-7.2 seems to add these patches to their traceroute 
     272rpm eventually. So, I think I will refrain of suicide for awhile.</P 
     273></TD 
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